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This paper investigates artificial neural network (ANN)-based simulators as an alternative to physics-based approaches for evolving controllers in simulation for a complex snake-like robot. Prior research has been limited to robots or controllers that are relatively simple. Benchmarks are performed in order to identify effective simulator topologies. Additionally, various controller evolution strategies are proposed, investigated and compared. Using ANN-based simulators for controller fitness estimation during controller evolution is demonstrated to be a viable approach for the high-dimensional problem specified in this work.
Urban-type rough-wall boundary layers developing over staggered cube arrays with plan area packing density,
, of 6.25 %, 25 % or 44.4 % have been studied at two Reynolds numbers within a wind tunnel using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). A fixed HWA probe is used to capture the outer-layer flow while a second moving probe is used to capture the inner-layer flow at 13 wall-normal positions between
is the height of the roughness elements. The synchronized two-point HWA measurements are used to extract the near-canopy large-scale signal using spectral linear stochastic estimation and a predictive model is calibrated in each of the six measurement configurations. Analysis of the predictive model coefficients demonstrates that the canopy geometry has a significant influence on both the superposition and amplitude modulation. The universal signal, the signal that exists in the absence of any large-scale influence, is also modified as a result of local canopy geometry suggesting that although the nonlinear interactions within urban-type rough-wall boundary layers can be modelled using the predictive model as proposed by Mathis et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 681, 2011, pp. 537–566), the model must be however calibrated for each type of canopy flow regime. The Reynolds number does not significantly affect any of the model coefficients, at least over the limited range of Reynolds numbers studied here. Finally, the predictive model is validated using a prediction of the near-canopy signal at a higher Reynolds number and a prediction using reference signals measured in different canopy geometries to run the model. Statistics up to the fourth order and spectra are accurately reproduced demonstrating the capability of the predictive model in an urban-type rough-wall boundary layer.
Natural scientists start from the assumption that people and their economies exist physically. Therefore, without resource security – without continued access to the materials needed to feed and power human economies, these economies lose their ability to operate. Opportunities erode (Rockström et al., 2009; Steffen et al., 2015). Financial resources can be employed to compensate for local lack of resources, as these financial resources can access physical resources elsewhere, as long as those ‘elsewheres’ have extra resource capacity. However, global overuse adds pressure to resource competition, as made apparent in the prominent example of climate change which is driven by emissions from fossil fuel use and from land use change.
The influence of a cube-based canopy on coherent structures of the flow was investigated in a high Reynolds number boundary layer (thickness
wall units). Wind tunnel experiments were conducted considering wall configurations that represent three idealised urban terrains. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was employed using a large field of view in a streamwise–spanwise plane (
) combined to two-point hot-wire measurements. The analysis of the flow within the inertial layer highlights the independence of its characteristics from the wall configuration. The population of coherent structures is in agreement with that of smooth-wall boundary layers, i.e. consisting of large- and very-large-scale motions, sweeps and ejections, as well as smaller-scale vortical structures. The characteristics of vortices appear to be independent of the roughness configuration while their spatial distribution is closely linked to large meandering motions of the boundary layer. The canopy geometry only significantly impacts the wall-normal exchanges within the roughness sublayer. Bi-dimensional spectral analysis demonstrates that wall-normal velocity fluctuations are constrained by the presence of the canopy for the densest investigated configurations. This threshold in plan area density above which large scales from the overlying boundary layer can penetrate the roughness sublayer is consistent with the change of the flow regime reported in the literature and constitutes a major difference with flows over vegetation canopies.
X-ray stress analyses were performed on seven (7) nickel-plated camshafts from helicopter transmissions. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if this residual stress technique was useful in determining the state of stress in load-bearing plated surfaces of critical reworked aircraft components. Specifically, it was desired to characterize six different stages of nickel plating processing. These were: as-plated, plated and baked, machined, machined and baked, ground, and ground and baked. Three different radiation wavelengths with different penetrations were used In this investigation. CrKα , CoKα , and CuKα, radiations were each used on all of the camshafts. These wavelengths were selected to determine if there were stress gradients in the plated layers. This paper presents and discusses the results of these studies.
X-ray residual stress analysis was performed on four space shuttle hydrogen pump impellers made from Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy. Five locations on the outer rim, near the vanes, were measured on each impeller, identified as #1, #2,#3, and #4. Impellers #1 and #4 were test-fired impellers, impeller #2 was a new impeller that had been spin tested, and impeller #3 was a new impeller that had not teen spin tested. The measurement locations on these impellers corresponded to areas of critical stress importance. The purpose of the measurements was to compare the stresses at these locations as a function of impeller processing variables. A description of the Impellers, the test parameters and procedures, stress analysis results, and a technical discussion of these results are presented in this report.
A description of the Impellers, the test parameters and procedures, stress analysis results, and a technical discussion of these results are presented in this report.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe mental illness including treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Increases in volume of the hippocampus and amygdala following ECT have consistently been reported.
To investigate neuroplastic changes after ECT in specific hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov – NCT02379767).
MRI scans were carried out in 14 patients (11 women, 46.9 years (s.d. = 8.1)) with unipolar TRD twice before and once after a series of right unilateral ECT in a pre–post study design. Volumes of subcortical structures, including subfields of the hippocampus and amygdala, and cortical thickness were extracted using FreeSurfer. The effect of ECT was tested using repeated-measures ANOVA. Correlations of imaging and clinical parameters were explored.
Increases in volume of the right hippocampus by 139.4 mm3 (s.d. = 34.9), right amygdala by 82.3 mm3 (s.d. = 43.9) and right putamen by 73.9 mm3 (s.d. = 77.0) were observed. These changes were localised in the basal and lateral nuclei, and the corticoamygdaloid transition area of the amygdala, the hippocampal–amygdaloid transition area and the granule cell and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Cortical thickness increased in the temporal, parietal and insular cortices of the right hemisphere.
Following ECT structural changes were observed in hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei that are specifically implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and stress-related disorders and retain a high potential for neuroplasticity in adulthood.
Declaration of interest
S.K. has received grants/research support, consulting fees and/or honoraria within the past 3 years from Angelini, AOP Orphan Pharmaceuticals AG, AstraZeneca, Celegne GmbH, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag Pharma GmbH, KRKA-Pharma, Lundbeck A/S, Neuraxpharm, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre, Schwabe and Servier. R.L. received travel grants and/or conference speaker honoraria from Shire, AstraZeneca, Lundbeck A/S, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH, Orphan Pharmaceuticals AG, Janssen-Cilag Pharma GmbH, and Roche Austria GmbH.
Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC,Jennifer T. Rubis, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France
High-Reynolds-number experiments are conducted in the roughness sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer developing over a cubical canopy. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is performed in a wall-parallel plane to evidence a high degree of spatial modulation of the small-scale turbulence around the footprint of large-scale motions, despite the suppression of the inner layer by the high roughness elements. Both Fourier and wavelets analyses show that the near-wall cycle observed in smooth-wall-bounded flows is severely disrupted by the canopy, whose wake in the roughness sublayer generates a new range of scales, closer to that of the outer-layer large-scale motions. This restricts significantly scale separation, hence a diagnostic method is developed to divide carefully and rationally the fluctuating velocity fields into large- and small-scale components. Our analysis across all turbulent kinetic energy terms sheds light on the spatial imprint of the modulation mechanism, revealing a very different signature on each velocity component. The roughness sublayer shows a preferential arrangement of the modulated scales similar to what is observed in the outer layer of smooth-wall-bounded flows – small-scale turbulence is enhanced near the front of high momentum regions and damped at the front of low momentum regions. More importantly, accessing spanwise correlations reveals that modulation intensifies the most along the flanks of the large-scale motions.
Magnetic field appears to play a major role in the pulsations of rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. Understanding of the behaviour of these objects thus requires knowledge of their magnetic field. Such knowledge is in particular essential to interpret the modulation of the amplitude of the photometric variations (with a frequency very close to the rotation frequency of the star) and to understand the driving mechanism of the pulsation. Therefore, a systematic programme of study of the magnetic field of roAp stars has been started, of which preliminary (and still very partial) results are presented here.
Magnetic fields of Ap stars can be diagnosed from the Zeeman effect that they induced in spectral lines either from the observation of line-splitting in high-resolution unpolarized spectra (which only occurs in favourable circumstances) or from the observation of circular polarization of the lines in medium- to high-resolution spectra.
Graphene based devices have already proven to be extremely sensitive and very useful in a wide spectrum of bioelectronics research. In the manuscript we describe a method to fabricate arrays of graphene-based probes, requiring minimal number of fabrication steps, while maintaining overall device functionality. These polyimide-based probes are approximately 6 µm thick, therefore ultraflexible, yet robust and stable. Devices, such as graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) and graphene multielectrode arrays (GMEAs) have been designed, fabricated and tested for their performance. The flexible GFETs exhibit sensitivity, i.e. transconductance up to 700 µS/V, which an order of magnitude larger compared to typical silicon transistors. Multiple probe per wafer design allows us to fabricate different kinds of devices on one 4-inch wafer, consequently increasing a possible range of applications from e.g. retinal to cortical neuroprosthetics.
As photometric standards, A-Type stars have proved to be extremely useful; this is particularly true of Vega, the fundamental photometric standard. However, the identification of at least some main-sequence A-type stars as small-amplitude variables, while of interest as an issue of fundamental astrophysics, needs to be understood if they are to continue to be used as photometric standards. Flaring and Rossby waves are proposed in the literature as possible explanations, as was discussed during a well-attended Workshop debate. This report summarises the discussion, and suggests future investigations.
Recent studies have revealed the existence of a significant population of Ap stars with extremely long rotation periods, and the frequent occurrence of Ap stars in wide binaries. Those results represent new constraints on the understanding of the origin and evolution of Ap stars, and (by extension) of all upper-main-sequence stars. Current knowledge of Ap stars with the longest rotation and orbital periods remains incomplete, on the one hand because in many cases the periods of interest are longer than the time-spans over which relevant observations have been obtained, and on the other hand because some important subsets of Ap stars have been omitted from the studies that have been carried out until now. Additional observations over time-scales of decades to centuries are needed to complement the current incomplete picture. Securing them with the required accuracy and time coverage, and ensuring that their full exploitation will ultimately be possible, represents a unique challenge in time-domain astronomy.
This article argues that on the borderland between eastern DRC and Rwanda, the past and its representations have been constantly manipulated. The cataclysmic events in both Rwanda and Congo since the 1990s have widened the gap between partial and politicized historical discourse and careful historical analysis. The failure to pay attention to the multiple layers in the production of historical narratives risks reproducing a politicized social present that ‘naturalizes’ differences and antagonisms between different groups by giving them more time-depth. This is a danger both for insiders and outsiders looking in. The answer is to focus on the historical trajectories that shape historical narratives, and to ‘bring history back in’.
Plastic deformation of micron-scale crystalline materials differs considerably from bulk samples as it is characterized by stochastic strain bursts. To obtain a detailed picture of the intermittent deformation phenomena, numerous micron-sized specimens must be fabricated and tested. An improved focused ion beam fabrication method is proposed to prepare non-tapered micropillars with excellent control over their shape. Moreover, the fabrication time is less compared with other methods. The in situ compression device developed in our laboratory allows high-accuracy sample positioning and force/displacement measurements with high data sampling rates. The collective avalanche-like motion of the dislocations is observed as stress decreases on the stress–strain curves. An acoustic emission (AE) technique was employed for the first time to study the deformation behavior of micropillars. The AE technique provides important additional in situ information about the underlying processes during plastic deformation and is especially sensitive to the collective avalanche-like motion of the dislocations observed as the stress decreases on the deformation curves.
The spectacular ring nebula RCW58 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR40 (HD 96548, WN8) has been observed by the IRAS-Survey instrument and by the IRAS Chopped Photometric Channel (CPC) to study its IR flux and morphology. The survey data were examined with the Groningen Exportable Infra-red High-resolution Analysis system (GEISHA) software, and analysed in terms of line and dust contributions.
We study the effect of political uncertainty on economic outcomes using the case of Huey Long's tenure as governor and senator of Louisiana during the Great Depression. Based on primary sources, we construct two well-established measures of uncertainty specifically for Louisiana: stock price volatility and newspaper mentions of terms related to “uncertainty” and the economy. Combining these uncertainty measures with employment data from the Census of Manufactures, we attempt to identify the effects of political uncertainty using the state of Mississippi as a control group. We find little support for a negative effect from political uncertainty in Huey Long's Louisiana.
Rapidly oscillating Ap stars generally pulsate in multiple modes, characterized by different frequencies. The amplitudes of these modes may furthermore be modulated with the rotation frequency of the star. For the two roAp stars whose magnetic fields have been sufficiently studied, the maximum pulsation amplitude coincides in phase with one of the extrema of the mean longitudinal magnetic field. Two interpretations of this property have been proposed: the oblique pulsator model, according to which the pulsation modes are aligned with the magnetic axis of the star, and the spotted pulsator model, which assumes that the pulsation modes are symmetric about the rotation axis of the star, and that pulsation amplitude modulation is due to the inhomogeneity of the stellar surface (which, itself, is related to the magnetic field geometry). At present, no definite choice between these two models can be made, though the oblique pulsator model is often preferred.
Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are cool magnetic Ap SrCrEu stars which pulsate in high-overtone (n ≫ l), low-degree (ℓ ≤ 3) p-modes, with periods from 6 to 15 minutes and typical amplitudes of a few millimagnitudes. 28 such stars are currently known. The roAp phenomenon is confined to a well-defined region of the Strömgren photometry parameter space. However, this region also contains other Ap stars, in which no pulsation could be detected, despite sometimes thorough searches. These apparently constant Ap stars (non-oscillating Ap stars, or noAp stars) appear remarkably similar to the roAp stars in many respects (e.g. colour indices, abundances, magnetic fields). Here we present recently found indications for differences between both groups.
Turbulent transport and mixing generated by hydrodynamic instabilities triggered by rotation gradients are key mechanisms in the evolution of massive stars. We present here a summary of the progresses on shear-induced mixing obtained with numerical simulations, along with a new prescription for horizontal turbulence.