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Recent decades have seen gender and feminist research emerge as major fields of enquiry in musicology and to a far lesser extent, music education. While these fields have increased awareness of the issues confronting women and other marginalised groups, the pedagogical practices and curricular design that might support aspiring women composers are in urgent need of attention. This article reports from an international survey of women composers (n=225), who in western art music continue to experience a masculine bias that has its roots in the past. The findings in the survey were focused on income, work and learning, relationships and networks, and gender. Numerous composers surveyed noted the under-representation of music composed by women in their higher education curricula. They also described their unpreparedness for a career in music. The article explores the issue of gender in music composition and makes practical recommendations for a more gender balanced music curriculum in higher education.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To develop a KL2 curriculum on the science and art of drug formulation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Develop training materials for KL2 scholars that outline the art of formulation development. Materials will include syllabi, reading materials, and course work. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This will enhance the training of KL2 scholars by incorporating formulation development concepts into their human health enhancing research projects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: For new chemical entities, formulation goals must be realistic and move along in a step-wise manner from the laboratory bench, through toxicology studies, and on to Phase 1 studies. By training scholars in phase-specific formulation goals, their interactions with funding agencies, formulation scientists, and regulators will be more efficient, productive, and successful. For those scholars who are working to improve existing treatments, introducing the concept of formulation improvements that can create new indications, or improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance will open up more possibilities for creative product development.
First promulgated in 1959, the 3Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement have evolved as fundamental principles underlying the use of animals and alternatives in science throughout the modern world. This review describes a contemporary approach to delivering the 3Rs through acknowledging the contribution of new technologies and emphasising that applying the 3Rs can be beneficial to good science as well as to animal welfare. This science-led approach moves the concept of the 3Rs out of an ethical silo where they were often considered by scientists to be an inconvenient obligation. On the contrary, relevant examples demonstrate the opportunity to practise better science using 3Rs technologies which deliver faster, more reproducible and more cost-effective results. Indeed, methods harnessing Replacement approaches may permit discoveries which are simply not feasible using animals and frequently are more flexible and agile since compliance with regulatory oversight requirements is simplified. Although the necessity for rigorous oversight is well recognised, it is important that the associated bureaucracy is not allowed to become prohibitive, causing scientists to avoid pursuing justifiable and important research involving animals. Public support for research is conditional – animals should not suffer unnecessarily and sufficient potential benefit should accrue from the research. However, society also actively seeks pioneering medical and scientific advances which can only be achieved through research. Therefore, a balance must be struck between safeguarding animal welfare whilst enabling high-quality science. It is this balance which promotes and sustains public confidence that animal based research is acceptable and being appropriately managed.
The new generation of energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) detectors with higher count rates than ever before, paves the way for a new approach to quantitative elemental analysis in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Here we demonstrate a method of calculating partial cross sections for use in quantifying EDX data, beneficial especially because of the simplicity of its implementation. Applying this approach to acid-leached PtCo catalyst nanoparticles leads to quantitative determination of the Pt surface enrichment.
Questions about the development of multiple birth infants have accompanied an increase in their rate. Multiple birth has been associated with preterm birth and a higher incidence of disability than for singletons. The possible influence of birth order (first vs. second born), gender, and birthweight were considered at 4 years in 56 twins (28 pairs) who weighed less than 1500 grams at birth. Gender and birth order differences did not produce significont results in the cognitive, language, behaviour, and motor areas assessed. However, some significant findings in these areas were revealed when children < 1000 and ≥ 1000 grams were compared. The lighter weight group performed less well than the heavier group on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, in Abstract/Visual Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Test Composite. Furthermore, results were significantly lower for Fine Motor and Motor Standard Score (Motor Skills Domain of the Vineland Behavior Scales) and for Quality of Language and Intelligibility of Speech. Twins < 1000 grams birthweight need close educational surveillance prior to school entry.