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The geomorphology and stratigraphy of the South Fork Hoh River (SF Hoh), Olympic Mountains, Washington, allow for greater understanding of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2) ice fluctuations, glacial dynamics, and sedimentation. Age control from optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon dating constrains deposited sediments associated with four Late Pleistocene ice-marginal positions that formed under reduced ice volume conditions compared with MIS 3–5 glaciers in the same drainage. The earliest MIS 2 ice margin extended into the main Hoh River valley (pre–SF 1, 28 ka to >23.0 ka). After retreat, the ice occupied three closely spaced ice-marginal positions (SF 1–3) that range in age from 22.0 ka to shortly after 18.7 ka. While the SF 1 and SF 3 positions were previously identified as the Twin Creeks I and II positions, the intermediate SF 2 position had not been recognized. Moraines are composed of poorly sorted, but stratified, sediment and few tills. Diamicton units show evidence of water reworking. This research documents a detailed record of MIS 2 glaciation in a maritime setting in western North America and provides evidence of rapid MIS 2 ice-marginal fluctuations that likely reflect responses to millennial-scale climatic fluctuations and may be relevant to understanding other complex MIS 2 moraine sequences.
An assemblage of Cambrian Series 2, Stages 3–4, conchiferan mollusks from the Shackleton Limestone, Transantarctic Mountains, East Antarctica, is formally described and illustrated. The fauna includes one bivalve, one macromollusk, and 10 micromollusks, including the first description of the species Xinjispira simplex Zhou and Xiao, 1984 outside North China. The new fauna shows some similarity to previously described micromollusks from lower Cambrian glacial erratics from the Antarctic Peninsula. The fauna, mainly composed of steinkerns, is relatively low diversity, but the presence of diagnostic taxa, including helcionelloid Davidonia rostrata (Zhou and Xiao, 1984), bivalve Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980, cambroclavid Cambroclavus absonus Conway Morris in Bengtson et al., 1990, and bradoriid Spinospitella coronata Skovsted et al., 2006, as well as the botsfordiid brachiopod Schizopholis yorkensis (Ushatinskaya and Holmer in Gravestock et al., 2001), in the overlying Holyoake Formation correlates the succession to the Dailyatia odyssei Zone (Cambrian Stages 3–4) in South Australia.
Obesity is a major challenge for people with schizophrenia.
We assessed whether STEPWISE, a theory-based, group structured lifestyle education programme could support weight reduction in people with schizophrenia.
In this randomised controlled trial (study registration: ISRCTN19447796), we recruited adults with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or first-episode psychosis from ten mental health organisations in England. Participants were randomly allocated to the STEPWISE intervention or treatment as usual. The 12-month intervention comprised four 2.5 h weekly group sessions, followed by 2-weekly maintenance contact and group sessions at 4, 7 and 10 months. The primary outcome was weight change after 12 months. Key secondary outcomes included diet, physical activity, biomedical measures and patient-related outcome measures. Cost-effectiveness was assessed and a mixed-methods process evaluation was included.
Between 10 March 2015 and 31 March 2016, we recruited 414 people (intervention 208, usual care 206) with 341 (84.4%) participants completing the trial. At 12 months, weight reduction did not differ between groups (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI −1.6 to 1.7, P = 0.963); physical activity, dietary intake and biochemical measures were unchanged. STEPWISE was well-received by participants and facilitators. The healthcare perspective incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £246 921 per quality-adjusted life-year gained.
Participants were successfully recruited and retained, indicating a strong interest in weight interventions; however, the STEPWISE intervention was neither clinically nor cost-effective. Further research is needed to determine how to manage overweight and obesity in people with schizophrenia.
Declaration of interest
R.I.G.H. received fees for lecturing, consultancy work and attendance at conferences from the following: Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Lundbeck, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, Otsuka, Sanofi, Sunovion, Takeda, MSD. M.J.D. reports personal fees from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Servier, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Inc.; and, grants from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen. K.K. has received fees for consultancy and speaker for Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Servier and Merck Sharp & Dohme. He has received grants in support of investigator and investigator-initiated trials from Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Merck Sharp & Dohme. K.K. has received funds for research, honoraria for speaking at meetings and has served on advisory boards for Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, Merck Sharp & Dohme and Novo Nordisk. D.Sh. is expert advisor to the NICE Centre for guidelines; board member of the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH); clinical advisor (paid consultancy basis) to National Clinical Audit of Psychosis (NCAP); views are personal and not those of NICE, NCCMH or NCAP. J.P. received personal fees for involvement in the study from a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) grant. M.E.C. and Y.D. report grants from NIHR Health Technology Assessment, during the conduct of the study; and The Leicester Diabetes Centre, an organisation (employer) jointly hosted by an NHS Hospital Trust and the University of Leicester and who is holder (through the University of Leicester) of the copyright of the STEPWISE programme and of the DESMOND suite of programmes, training and intervention fidelity framework that were used in this study. S.R. has received honorarium from Lundbeck for lecturing. F.G. reports personal fees from Otsuka and Lundbeck, personal fees and non-financial support from Sunovion, outside the submitted work; and has a family member with professional links to Lilly and GSK, including shares. F.G. is in part funded by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care Funding scheme, by the Maudsley Charity and by the Stanley Medical Research Institute and is supported by the by the Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London.
Schmidite, Zn(Fe3+0.5Mn2+0.5)2ZnFe3+(PO4)3(OH)3(H2O)8 and wildenauerite, Zn(Fe3+0.5Mn2+0.5)2Mn2+Fe3+(PO4)3(OH)3(H2O)8 are two new oxidised schoonerite-group minerals from the Hagendorf-Süd pegmatite, Hagendorf, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, Germany. Schmidite occurs as radiating sprays of orange–brown to copper-red laths on and near to altered phosphophyllite in a corroded triphylite nodule, whereas wildenauerite forms dense compacts of red laths, terminating Zn-bearing rockbridgeite. The minerals are biaxial (+) with α = 1.642(2), β = 1.680(1), γ = 1.735(2) and 2Vmeas = 81.4(8)° for schmidite, and with α = 1.659(3), β = 1.687(3), γ = 1.742(3) and 2Vmeas = 73(1)° for wildenauerite. Electron microprobe analyses, with H2O from thermal analysis and FeO/Fe2O3 from Mössbauer spectroscopy, gave FeO 0.4, MgO 0.3, Fe2O3 23.5, MnO 9.0, ZnO 15.5, P2O5 27.6, H2O 23.3, total 99.6 wt.% for schmidite, and FeO 0.7, MgO 0.3, Fe2O3 25.2, MnO 10.7, ZnO 11.5, P2O5 27.2, H2O 24.5, total 100.1 wt.% for wildenauerite. The empirical formulae, scaled to 3 P and with OH– adjusted for charge balance are Zn1.47Mn2+0.98Mg0.05Fe2+0.04Fe3+2.27(PO4)3(OH)2.89(H2O)8.54 for schmidite and Zn1.11Mn2+1.18Mg0.05Fe2+0.08Fe3+2.47(PO4)3(OH)3.25(H2O)9.03 for wildenauerite. The two minerals have orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pmab and Z = 4. The unit-cell parameters from refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 11.059(1), b = 25.452(1) and c = 6.427(1) Å for schmidite, and a = 11.082(1), b = 25.498(2) and c = 6.436(1) Å for wildenauerite. The crystal structures of schmidite and wildenauerite differ from that of schoonerite in having minor partitioning of Zn from the Zn site to an adjacent vacant tetrahedral site Zn, separated by ~1.0 Å from Zn. The two minerals are distinguished by the cation occupancies in the octahedral M1 to M3 sites. Schmidite has M1 = M2 = (Fe3+0.5Mn2+0.5) and M3 = Zn and wildenauerite has M1 = M2 = (Fe3+0.5Mn2+0.5) and M3 = Mn2+.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
Children with chronic illness often experience difficulties at school, yet little is known about the impact of the child's illness on siblings’ school experiences. This study investigated parents’ perceptions of siblings’ school experiences and school support. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 27 parents of children with a chronic illness who had a sibling or siblings (4–25 years), representing the experiences of 31 siblings. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using content analysis. Parents believed that 14 of 31 (45.2%) siblings had school difficulties related to the ill child, such as increased anxiety or stress at school, lack of attention from teachers, and changes in behaviour as a result of increased carer responsibilities. Parents identified increased absenteeism due to the ill child's hospitalisation and the impact of parent absences on sibling school functioning. Parents described general and psychological support from the school, and the importance of monitoring the sibling at school and focusing on their unique needs. Overall, our findings suggest the need for a school-based sibling support model that combines psycho-education for siblings and school personnel, individualised sibling psychological support, and shared school and parent responsibility in normalising the sibling experience and providing consistent support.
Stratigraphic evidence and extensive optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology from an 18-km-long reach of the middle Rangitata Valley, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for at least six distinct glacial advances during the last glacial cycle. These include four well-constrained Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and 2 advances at ca. 38 ka, ca. 27 ka, ca. 21 ka and at 18 ka, as well as less well-constrained advances in MIS 4 and/or early MIS 3. Ice occupied a farther downvalley reach of the Rangitata from 38 ka to after 18 ka, indicating that near-full glacial conditions persisted for most of the last 20 ka of the last glaciation, though the glacier still fluctuated significantly, as reflected by the numerous distinguishable advances. Global or regional cooling alone cannot explain the persistence of near-maximum glacial conditions for this extended period, nor can it explain the occurrence of the largest advances ca. 32 ka. Instead, we invoke the northward expansion of the westerlies during MIS 3 as the cause for the early widespread glaciation, wherein enhanced westerly flow under moderate cooling maximised glacial extents. Local insolation favoured extended MIS 3 glaciation until ca. 32 ka. Increasing summer insolation gradually reduced glacial extents after ca. 28 ka.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
The kutorginates are commonly the most abundant rhynchonelliform brachiopod found in the early Cambrian; they are also some of the oldest known rhynchonelliforms, first appearing in the Unnamed Series 2 (Atdabanian equivalent) and becoming extinct sometime in Cambrian Series 3 (Amgaian equivalent). Moreover, kutorginates are the first known member of the rhynchonelliforms for which we have a detailed knowledge of their soft-part anatomy, including the lophophore, digestive tract, and pedicle—all exceptionally preserved in Kutorgina chengjiangensis Zhang et al., 2007 from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte of southern China. The stout and annulated pedicle in the original report was described as protruding between the valves; however, newly collected better-preserved material now clearly shows that the pedicle actually protrudes from the apical perforation of Kutorgina chengjiangensis. This type of apical pedicle has also been described from other early Cambrian rhynchonelliforms, including the problematic chileate Longtancunella chengjiangensis (Zhang et al., 2011a). Exceptionally preserved similar pedicles are also known to emerge apically from the Silurian chileate dictyonellid Eichwaldia subtrigonalis Billings, 1858, as well as from the recently described Silurian chileate Trifissura rigida Holmer, Popov, and Bassett, 2014. However, it is clear that the only other exceptionally preserved kutorginate—a silicified Nisusia—was provided with an adult pedicle emerging between the valves from a posterior gap; thus, Nisusia has two pedicle openings. However, the apical foramen may represent the earliest attachment of the larvae, which subsequently became nonfunctional through ontogeny. It is suggested that both types of attachment strategies may have appeared early in the stem lineage of the Rhynchonelliformea.
A comparative study is presented of the chemistry and crystallography of zinc-bearing strunzites from Hagendorf Süd, Bavaria, Germany and the Sitio do Castelo mine, Folgosinho, Portugal. Electron microprobe analyses of samples from the two localities show quite different cation substitutions. The Hagendorf Süd mineral is a Zn-bearing ferristrunzite, with compositional zoning due to Zn2+ replacing predominantly Fe3+ as well as minor Mn2+, whereas the Portugese mineral is a Zn-bearing strunzite, in which Zn2+ replaces Mn2+, with minor replacement of Fe3+ by Mn3+. Zincostrunzite, with dominant Zn in the interlayer octahedrally coordinated site, is a new strunzite-group mineral that has been characterized at both locations. Analysis of single-crystal synchrotron data for zinc-bearing ferristrunzite and zincostrunzite crystals from Hagendorf Süd show that the structures of both minerals contain zeolitic water in the interlayer region. The formula for strunzite-group minerals containing the zeolitic water is MFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2·6.5H2O, M=Fe, Mn, Zn. This formulation agrees with that found for zincostrunzite from the Sitio do Castelo mine, but differs from that reported previously for strunzite, MFe2+(PO4)2(OH)2·6H2O, which has no interlayer water. Interestingly, the zincostrunzites from the two localities differ in the location of the interlayer water molecule, with a corresponding difference in the H bonding.
The results of a submillimetre wavelength spectral line survey between 455.1 – 507.4 GHz of the Orion-KL hot cloud core are reported. 254 lines were detected, and are associated with 30 different molecular species or their isotopomeric variants. Apart from the abundant diatomic rotors such as CO and CS, the spectrum is dominated by SO, SO2 and CH3OH and large organic molecules such as (CH3)2O, CH3CN, C2H3CN, C2H5CN and HCOOCH3 which make up ∼ 72% of the total number of lines; unidentified lines ∼ 13%; and other lines the remaining ∼ 15% of the total. Rotational temperatures and column densities derived using standard rotation diagram analysis techniques were found to range from 70 – 600 K, and 1014 – 1017cm2 respectively.
Excavations at the 109 hectare site of Kurd Qaburstan on the Erbil plain in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were conducted by the Johns Hopkins University in 2013 and 2014. The Middle Bronze Age (Old Babylonian period) is the main period of occupation evident on the site, and the project therefore aims to study the character of a north Mesopotamian urban centre of the early second millennium b.c. On the high mound, excavations revealed three phases of Mittani (Late Bronze) period occupation, including evidence of elite residential architecture. On the low mound and the south slope of the high mound, Middle Bronze evidence included domestic remains with numerous ceramic vessels left in situ. Also dating to the Middle Bronze period is evidence of a city wall on the site edges. Later occupations include a cemetery, perhaps of Achaemenid date, on the south slope of the high mound and a Middle Islamic settlement on the southern lower town. Faunal and archaeobotanical analysis provide information on the plant and animal economy of the second millennium b.c. occupations, and geophysical results have documented a thirty-one hectare expanse of dense Middle Bronze Age architecture in the northern lower town.
This pilot study adopts a computer-assisted synoptic typing methodology to evaluate the totality of climatic influences on snow- and ice-melt dynamics within a small cirque basin in the French Pyrénées. The synoptic categories identified possess contrasting large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and surface energy budgets which generate differential ablation responses. Continental air masses yield consistently high melt. Advection of moist maritime air also produces elevated but more variable ablation due to air-mass transitions. The two observed local valley circulation types show melt to be higher under nocturnal katabatic drainage than for anabatic wind flows associated with development of daytime ridge-top cumulus.