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The years between the 1920s and 1970s are key for the development of Caribbean literature, producing the founding canonical literary texts of the Anglophone Caribbean. This volume features essays by major scholars as well as emerging voices revisiting important moments from that era to open up new perspectives. Caribbean contributions to the Harlem Renaissance, to the Windrush generation publishing in England after World War II, and to the regional reverberations of the Cuban Revolution all feature prominently in this story. At the same time, we uncover lesser known stories of writers publishing in regional newspapers and journals, of pioneering women writers, and of exchanges with Canada and the African continent. From major writers like Derek Walcott, V.S. Naipaul, George Lamming, and Jean Rhys to recently recuperated figures like Eric Walrond, Una Marson, Sylvia Wynter, and Ismith Khan, this volume sets a course for the future study of Caribbean literature.
The major complication of end jejunostomy is excessive fluid and electrolyte loss through the stoma, leading to hypovolaemia and dyselectrolytaemia within days and malnutrition within weeks. The aim was to compare the results of two nutritional approaches: unrestricted and restricted oral intake in patients with end jejunostomy commencing home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in terms of liver and renal biochemical markers and time to reconstructive bowel surgery with correlation to stoma output. Twenty patients with stabilised high output end-jejunostomy were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of ten patients with oral intake restricted to keep stomal output under 1000 ml. Group B consisted of ten patients with unrestricted oral intake. The following parameters were evaluated over 6 months: stomal output, self-estimation of general condition, body weight gain, plasma bilirubin and creatinine, number of hospitalisations prior to reconstructive surgery, the frequency of ostomy bag emptying, feelings of hunger and thirst in the daytime, and the time to reconstructive surgery. Stoma losses were compensated by parenteral supply. In group B, lower quality of life was observed, reflected by weakness, permanent feelings of hunger and thirst and the need for night-time emptying of the stoma bag. Patients in group B developed more complications and required more time to prepare for surgery. One death occurred in group B due to renal insufficiency followed by septic complications. Restricted oral intake seems to be more effective for prevention of HPN-related complications and shortening of time to surgery. Unrestricted oral intake appears to provoke uncontrolled losses of energy and protein, inhibiting weight gain.
This article presents evidence of the value of collaborative learning for students working in small heterogeneous groups within first year music practice courses in an Australian university popular music program. Wenger, Trayner, and de Laat’s framework for promoting and assessing value creation in communities and networks was used to gather and analyse data from students throughout one academic year. Collaborative learning created value for students through peer-to-peer learning which cultivated new skills and improved performance, causing students to reframe their criteria for musical and personal success. The value of collaborative learning promotes its use both within and beyond popular music degree programs.
Aneurysm formation around the site of coarctation of aortic arch is a well-recognised complication of untreated coarctation and is associated with an increased risk of aortic rupture and mortality. We present a rare case in a teenage girl with the combination of significant aortic arch coarctation, a “cauliflower-like” saccular aneurysm, and stenosis at the origin of the left subclavian artery. She was successfully managed with a hybrid approach, which is a combination of an endovascular surgical repair (a bypass graft placement from left carotid artery to subclavian artery by a vascular surgeon) and a transcatheter covered stent placement across the stenosis and aneurysm. This case highlights the successful role of a hybrid approach in patient’s who present with a combination of coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch aneurysms. This approach avoids the conventional surgical aortoplasty, which carries a higher mortality and morbidity risk in teenage patients.
THE development of significant cultural infrastructure such as symphony orchestras, and the strategies adopted to underpin musical growth and sustainability represent a complex network of influences and influencers. This chapter considers the case of the Glasgow Choral Union Orchestra, which was founded in the 1870s, forging a more independent identity and national remit as the Scottish Orchestra before the turn of the twentieth century, to reveal the strategies that were employed by conductors and boards of management to attract, educate and retain audiences for orchestral music. Repertoire choice is examined in detail to determine the role of programme music in that agenda, particularly under the three longest serving conductors of the orchestra before World War I: August Manns (1825–1907), Frederic Cowen (1852– 1935) and Emil Młynarski (1870–1935), whose other conducting appointments provided a direct connection to trends in London and Europe and contributed to the lines of influence that brought new repertoire to Glasgow audiences. The period from the appointment of Manns in 1879 to the departure of Młynarski in 1916 also saw a transition from programmatic ‘concert overtures’ and similar works to the establishment of the symphonic poem in Glasgow, and this research aims to reveal key factors that shaped music-making in this formative period.
The substantial collection of documents pertaining to the Glasgow Choral Union held in the Scottish Archives contains invaluable material for mapping programming trends and includes the extraordinarily comprehensive documentation and interpretation by Robert Craig of musical undertakings and committee deliberations of the Choral Union in twenty-four handwritten volumes compiled from committee records, printed programmes and newspaper accounts. This work provided the background for his Short History of the Glasgow Choral Union that was published in 1944 for the centenary of the Choral Union. Where original printed programmes were missing and could not be located through other archival collections, Craig's faithful transcriptions of programmes and indexes of repertoire proved an invaluable resource for this research. Programmes were correlated against concert reviews published in The Glasgow Herald, allowing the verification of details of performances, providing valuable insights into attitudinal shifts in audience and critical reception and identifying strategies employed to appeal to the social aspirations and national identity of Glasgow audiences.
This chapter examines the narratives (media, policy and statistical) around the notion of the ‘linguistic other’ in England and elsewhere in Europe. We argue that these narratives are closely bound up with the way nation states define their policies for social integration of migrant communities and, in particular, migrant children in schools. At the heart of the debates around conflicting narratives about the role of schools in this context is the question of linguistic diversity and second (or host) language development. Also in this chapter we review, from a sociological perspective, how researchers and policy-makers have endeavoured to understand the concept and practice of social integration in this context. In particular, we highlight the tensions between the focus on micro-level experience and on the macro-level socio-political implications. We provide a review of recent empirical studies on EAL internationally and reflect on current issues in light of recent policy developments. We discuss the variations that can be found across Europe in terms of mainstreaming and inclusion.
This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.
This introductory chapter sets out the rationale for the book and in particular for its focus on the relationship between social integration and language development in the experiences of newcomer school students with English as an additional language. It also provides a critical examination and definitional review of key terms and concepts at the heart of the discussion: EAL, newly arrived, mainstreaming, language development and social integration.
The final chapter summarises the main findings discussed in the book and looks ahead at future challenges and possibilities, drawing out implications from the research described in the earlier chapters with the aim of informing an improved understanding of the interdependence between social integration and language development in the schooling of newcomer EAL students. We conclude by identifying three key dimensions of a framework for optimal analysis and enhancement of the socio-educational experience of newcomer EAL students. These dimensions require further attention from researchers and practitioners: interdependence of second language development and social integration; inclusive pedagogy; and transactional home–school–home communication.
This chapter discusses salient methodological considerations and challenges in undertaking empirical research with young, newly arrived migrant students. This includes questions relating to negotiating access, sampling of core participants, the role of language and use of interpreters, and the importance of giving migrant students a voice as part of an overall holistic approach which focuses on the student perspective and the relationship of this to school and parental perspectives. Approaches to assessing language development and social integration are explored. Such considerations raise questions about the relevance of conducting research with newcomer migrant students in a range of different countries and contexts. This chapter also provides an overview of the research design adopted in the studies funded by the Bell Foundation and explores how such methodological considerations were taken into account throughout the study.
This chapter challenges the concept of school–home communication by offering a transactional notion of the home–school–home communication model (drawn from communication theory). We review the classic and more recent international literature on school–home communication in relation to newly arrived migrant children and the need to consider whether the presence of such children challenges the ‘one size fits all’ model. We use the dynamic notion of transactional communication to consider the empirical findings of the three-year research programme, covering secondary and primary schooling, and recommend alternative and more empowering constructions of school communication systems (its modes, processes, content and operationalisation). Our conclusions are of direct relevance to education practitioners, school community liaison officers and migrant communities themselves.
This chapter provides a longitudinal analysis of progression in a sample of EAL students newly arrived in the United Kingdom, highlighting the development of competence in different features of English language use in speaking and writing. In addition, we discuss evidence of change in the students’ experience of social integration as revealed in two sets of interviews with EAL students of different ages and national backgrounds and we consider how the students’ reported experience of social integration impacted on their linguistic and academic performance in the school over the two-year period following arrival. The chapter closes with an examination of the use of direct speech in English as a discursive framework in which they were able to dramatise their social experiences and to self-identify in the new environment.