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The phase evolution of reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coatings has been studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing under air atmosphere and vacuum. The annealing in vacuum shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at ∼750–800 °C, followed by decomposition of the α-Cr2O3 structure in conjunction with bcc-Cr formation, starting at ∼950 °C. The resulting coating after annealing to 1140 °C is a mixture of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and bcc-Cr. The air-annealed sample shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at ∼750 °C. The resulting coating after annealing to 975 °C is a mixture of t-ZrO2 and α-Cr2O3 (with dissolved Zr). The microstructure coarsened slightly during annealing, but the mechanical properties are maintained, with no detectable bcc-Cr formation. A larger t-ZrO2 fraction compared with α-Cr2O3 is observed in the vacuum-annealed coating compared with the air-annealed coating at 975 °C. The results indicate that the studied pseudo-binary oxide is more stable in air atmosphere than in vacuum.
In two previous letters on an SSRI meta-analysis conducted by the Copenhagen Trial Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have commented on a large number of errors, almost all of which have tilted the results in an anti-drug direction, that unfortunately mar this publication. While the authors have acknowledged many of these mishaps, and may now be expected to submit an extensive errata list to the journal where their paper was once published, we regretfully note that also their latest contribution to this exchange is surprisingly inaccurate. However, its many shortcomings notwithstanding, their meta-analysis does add to the current literature by confirming that SSRIs do not seem to enhance the risk for suicide or death, and also that these drugs seem to enhance the risk of side effects categorized as serious only in the elderly.
We provide the first estimates of immigrant residential segregation between 1850 and 1940 that cover the entire United States and are consistent across time and space. To do so, we adapt the Logan–Parman method to immigrants by measuring segregation based on the nativity of the next-door neighbor. In addition to providing a consistent measure of segregation, we also document new patterns such as high levels of segregation in rural areas, in small factory towns and for non-European sources. Early twentieth-century immigrants spatially assimilated at a slow rate, leaving immigrants’ lived experience distinct from natives for decades after arrival.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5–98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57–198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.
This pilot study examines how design students comprehend collaborations with external organizations— the roles and involvement of different actors in a design process. The study looks at two undergraduate courses where a total of 33 design students collaborate with a municipality and governmental agency. Data focuses on the students' terminology in regard to the external organizations and is collected through questionnaires, voice recording, workshops and written assignments. The data analysis is both quantitative and qualitative, focusing on the word frequency and semantics of the terminology. The results show that the students were not used to working closely to external organizations. This is reflected in the prevalent use of the term “client” instead of “collaborative partner”. Not working closely with organizations nor users is reflected in the students’ inabilities to handle the complexities that emerge when working with multiple stakeholder and users. At the end of the paper, suggestions are made of ways to develop students’ comprehension of ways to involve external organizations and users in the design process.
Current understanding of psychosis development is relevant to patients' clinical outcomes in mental health services as a whole, given that psychotic symptoms can be a feature of many different diagnoses at different stages of life. Understanding the risk factors helps clinicians to contemplate primary, secondary and tertiary preventive strategies that it may be possible to implement. In this second article of a three-part series, the psychosis risk timeline is again considered, here focusing on risk factors more likely to be encountered during later childhood, adolescence and adulthood. These include environmental factors, substance misuse, and social and psychopathological aspects.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•understanding the range of risk factors for development of psychotic symptoms in young people and adults
•understand in particular the association between trauma/abuse and subsequent psychosis
•appreciate current evidence for the nature and strength of the link between substance misuse and psychosis.
Psychosis is a complex presentation with a wide range of factors contributing to its development, biological and environmental. Psychosis is a feature present in a variety of psychiatric disorders. It is important for clinicians to keep up to date with evidence regarding current understanding of the reasons psychosis may occur. Furthermore, it is necessary to find clinical utility from this knowledge so that effective primary, secondary and tertiary preventative strategies can be considered. This article is the first of a three-part series that examines contemporary knowledge of risk factors for psychosis and presents an overview of current explanations. The articles focus on the psychosis risk timeline, which gives a structure within which to consider key aspects of risk likely to affect people at different stages of life. In this first article, early life is discussed. It covers elements that contribute in the prenatal and early childhood period and includes genetic, nutritional and infective risk factors.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•give an up-to-date overview of psychosis risk factors that can affect early life
•describe some important genetic risk factors
•understand more about the role of environmental factors such as nutrition and infection.
Psychosis is a recognised feature of several psychiatric disorders and it causes patients significant distress and morbidity. It is therefore important to keep knowledge of possible risk factors for psychosis up to date and to have an overview model on which further learning can be structured. This article concludes a three-part series. It gives a review of evidence regarding common pathways by which many risk factors come together to influence the development of psychosis and finalises our suggested overview model, a psychosis risk timeline. The three primary pathways considered are based on the major themes identified in this narrative review of recent literature and they focus on neurological, neurochemical and inflammatory changes. We link each back to the factors discussed in the first and second parts of this series that alter psychosis risk through different mechanisms and at different stages throughout life. We then consider and summarise key aspects of this complex topic with the aim of providing current and future clinicians with a model on which to build their knowledge and begin to access and understand current psychosis research and implications for future preventive work.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•give an overview of common pathways thought to link identified risk factors with psychosis development
•understand neurochemical, neurostructural and inflammatory changes associated with psychosis
•demonstrate increased knowledge of possible preventive strategies.
New technological methods, such as rapidly developing molecular approaches, often provide new tools for scientific advances. However, these new tools are often not utilized equally across different research areas, possibly leading to disparities in progress between these areas. Here, we use empirical evidence from the scientific literature to test for potential discrepancies in the use of genetic tools to study parasitic vs non-parasitic organisms across three distinguishable molecular periods, the allozyme, nucleotide and genomics periods. Publications on parasites constitute only a fraction (<5%) of the total research output across all molecular periods and are dominated by medically relevant parasites (especially protists), particularly during the early phase of each period. Our analysis suggests an increasing complexity of topics and research questions being addressed with the development of more sophisticated molecular tools, with the research focus between the periods shifting from predominantly species discovery to broader theory-focused questions. We conclude that both new and older molecular methods offer powerful tools for research on parasites, including their diverse roles in ecosystems and their relevance as human pathogens. While older methods, such as barcoding approaches, will continue to feature in the molecular toolbox of parasitologists for years to come, we encourage parasitologists to be more responsive to new approaches that provide the tools to address broader questions.
For parasites in natural systems, the most common pattern of spatial distribution is aggregation among hosts. The main causes of such aggregation are variable exposure of hosts to parasites and heterogeneity in host susceptibility. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in the aggregation pattern of two species of ectoparasitic flies between the Pantanal and Cerrado regions of Brazil on the bat Artibeus planirostris. We collected the ectoparasites from bats captured between 2002 and 2017 with mist nets in 21 sites in the Pantanal and 15 sites in the surrounding plateaus. The results showed that the aggregation of ectoparasitic flies in Pantanal was more pronounced than in Cerrado. The discrepancy aggregation index (D) of the bat fly Megistopoda aranea was 0.877 in Pantanal and 0.724 in Cerrado. The D values of Aspidoptera phyllostomatis was even higher, with 0.916 and 0.848 in the Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively. Differences in the shelters used may be the main factor shaping variation in aggregation, since the Pantanal does not have rock formations, with only foliage, crowns and hollow tree trunks. These differences likely affect host exposure to the parasites, leading to an increase in parasite aggregation.
The need to use evidence in humanitarian settings is recognized, yet utilizing that evidence to make decisions about humanitarian response remains a challenge.
To identify how, when, and why decision makers in humanitarian response use scientific, peer-reviewed evidence to make decisions.
An online cross-sectional survey of fifteen open- and closed-ended questions on demographics, experience, and role in humanitarian response was developed by Evidence Aid (EA) and Karolinska Institutet (KI). The online survey was available on the EA website from August 2015 to October 2018. Participants were self-selected, recruited through social media channels and mailing lists of EA and KI. All respondents and responses were anonymized. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics and content analysis.
47 people responded, primarily working in Europe or North America with roles of humanitarian response director/manager, independent consultant, or policymaker. Personal assessment of the quality of information, trust in the source, and information that was contextually relevant or based on field experience were factors for deciding whether information should be considered evidence. Reasons for using evidence when making decisions included adhering to good practice to maximize impact and effectiveness of aid, reassurance that the right decisions were being made, personal or organizational values, and using evidence as a tool to protect beneficiaries and organizations from poor quality decisions and program content.
Using evidence for decision making was common practice during the process of designing implementing and evaluating humanitarian response content, yet reasons for use varied. The importance of evidence developed and validated from field experience and trust in the source reported by this sample suggests that strengthening collaborative efforts between decisionmakers and evidence generators could be one approach to improve evidence and evidence use in humanitarian response.
The following bibliography continues, in an expanded and updated version, the one with the same title published earlier in these pages. The purpose remains the same: to give the non-Scandinavian language speaker an opportunity to follow the legal developments within the last decade in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The work primarily includes books, essays, reports and articles published between 1989 and 1998, but it also wants to point the reader to general works such as comparative treatises, encyclopedias and looseleaf works, where legal information about the Nordic countries also can be found. The bibliography reflects what has been received at the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law during this period, and makes no claim to be comprehensive.
Fifty years ago, in the aftermath of the Second World War, Europe lay in ruins. What could be done to put an end to its belligerent past? Robert Schuman, then French Foreign Minister, envisioned that the European nations pool their resources together and unite their sovereign states, creating a unique form of political and economic union to be governed by supranational institutions. In the words of Jean Monnet: “Nothing can be achieved without institutions.” These ideas were the origins of the European Union.
The purpose of this bibliography is to give the non-Scandinavian language speaker an opportunity to follow the legal developments within the last decade in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The bibliography does not claim to be comprehensive, but it reflects what has been received at the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law during the last ten years or thereabouts.
The compilation includes books, essays, reports and articles published between 1982 and 1992. Excluded are chapters in basic comparative legal treatises, encyclopedias and looseleaf works.
This article analyses third-party mediation of identity-based conflicts, which are notoriously difficult to resolve. It seeks to reconcile the contradiction in the mediation literature between the need for less coercive strategies to ensure ownership of a peace agreement and the need for more coercive strategies to reach a final agreement. Through an analysis of mediation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the article makes four contributions to existing literature. First, the article develops a theoretical ‘best fit’ model that proposes a u-shaped relationship between intensity of mediator coercion and transition through phases of negotiation. Second, it challenges the prevailing notion that pre-negotiation does not involve coercion. Third, it suggests that epistemological and ontological understandings of a conflict and the role of a mediator by both the mediator and the parties mean that mediators enjoy limited capacity to effectively shift from high- to low-coercive strategies. Multi-party mediation can provide the flexibility needed to execute the coercion u-curve effectively. Fourth, it challenges existing understandings of the US-mediated negotiations during the Annapolis process, 2007–08.
This paper addresses the process towards the integration of subsurface knowledge into urban planning for three cities – Rotterdam, Glasgow and Oslo – participating in the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 Sub-Urban. These cities each have unique challenges in managing conflicts and opportunities in the subsurface in the planning process. The COST Sub-Urban Action has enabled a unique interaction between subsurface specialists and urban planners across over 20 European cities, and has laid the foundations for a new understanding between experts who develop subsurface knowledge and those who can benefit most from it – urban planners and decision makers. Common challenges identified include: improving planning policies, enhancing the level of awareness of the subsurface in city development and the modification of legislation to include the subsurface. The paper provides a review of the current status of subsurface planning in the three cities, each of whom are aiming to adapt their urban planning practice and legislation in light of emerging subsurface knowledge, and the current major knowledge gaps. In our opinion, there are two main routes to raise awareness that lead to improved understanding and the use of subsurface information in urban planning processes: (1) the development of a subsurface policy and (2) providing subsurface information. These measures should enable subsurface knowledge to be widely disseminated in order to manage risks and opportunities, and maximise the economic, social and environmental benefits of the urban subsurface and its services on which cities depend.
Whereas long-term administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is effective for the treatment of anxiety disorders, acute administration of these drugs may exert a paradoxical anxiogenic effect. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible effect of an SSRI in situations of unconditioned or limited conditioned fear.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of an SSRI, escitalopram, before acquisition or expression of context conditioned fear, where noise bursts were used as the unconditioned stimulus. Freezing was assessed as a measure of unconditioned fear (=the acute response to noise bursts) or conditioned fear (=the response to the context), respectively.
Noise bursts elicited an acute increase in freezing but no robust conditioned response 7 days after exposure. Administration of escitalopram before testing exacerbated the freezing response during presentation of the unconditioned stimulus and also unmasked a conditioned response; in contrast, administration of escitalopram prior to acquisition did not influence the conditioned response.
The data suggest that freezing in rats exposed to a stimulus inducing relatively mild fear may be enhanced by acute pretreatment with an SSRI regardless of whether the freezing displayed by the animals is an acute unconditioned response to the stimulus in question or a conditioned response to the same stimulus.
The importance of overall diet in modifying circulating lipoprotein particles and fatty acids during pregnancy is unclear. We examined the relationships of diet quality as assessed by the validated Healthy Food Intake Index (HFII) with serum HDL, LDL and VLDL particle concentrations and sizes and proportions of serum fatty acids in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 161 women with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 and/or a history of GDM were drawn from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study, which is a dietary and exercise intervention trial to prevent GDM. At baseline, the HFII score was inversely related to concentrations of HDL particles (P=0·010) and MUFA (P=0·010) and positively related to concentrations of n-3 (P<0·001) and n-6 (P=0·003) PUFA. The significance for MUFA disappeared after adjustments. An increase in the HFII score from the first to second trimester of pregnancy correlated with reduced VLDL particle size (r −0·16, 95 % CI −0·31, −0·01), decreased MUFA concentrations (r −0·17, 95 % CI −0·31, −0·01) and elevated n-6 PUFA concentrations (r 0·16, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·31). In the maximum-adjusted model, the results remained significant except for VLDL particle size. These findings suggest that higher diet quality as defined by the HFII is related to a more favourable serum fatty acid profile, whereas the relationship with serum lipoprotein profile is limited in pregnant women at increased GDM risk.
Human burials from the cemetery at the Rounala church, northern Sweden, were radiocarbon (14C) dated to shed light on the use of the cemetery. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotope analysis of bone collagen from 19 distinct individuals indicated that these individuals had a mixed diet consisting of freshwater, marine and terrestrial resources. Dietary modeling using FRUITS was employed to calculate the contributions of the different resources for each individual. These data were then used to calculate individual ΔR values, taking into account freshwater and multiple marine reservoir effects, the latter caused by Baltic and Atlantic marine dietary inputs, respectively. 14C dating of tissues from modern freshwater fish species demonstrate a lack of a freshwater reservoir effect in the area. Two OxCal models were used to provide endpoint age estimates. The calibrated data suggest that the site’s cemetery was most likely in use already from the 14th century, and perhaps until at least the late 18th century.