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There is limited information on the presentation and characteristics of psychotic illness experienced by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
To describe autistic and psychotic phenomenology in a group of individuals with comorbid ASD and psychosis (ASD–P) and compare this group with populations affected by either, alone.
We studied 116 individuals with ASD–P. We compared features of their ASD with people with ASD and no comorbid psychosis (ASD–NP), and clinical characteristics of psychosis in ASD–P with people with psychosis only.
Individuals with ASD–P had more diagnoses of atypical psychosis and fewer of schizophrenia compared with individuals with psychosis only. People with ASD–P had fewer stereotyped interests/behaviours compared with those with ASD–NP.
Our data show there may be a specific subtype of ASD linked to comorbid psychosis. The results support findings that psychosis in people with ASD is often atypical, particularly regarding affective disturbance.
The Supercontainer is the reference concept for the post-conditioning of
vitrified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in Belgium. It consists of
a prefabricated concrete buffer that completely surrounds a carbon steel
overpack. In this highly alkaline environment (pH ∼ 13.6) and under
normal conditions (i.e. without the ingress of aggressive species), the carbon
steel overpack will be protected by a passive oxide film, which is believed to
result in very low uniform corrosion rates.
This paper gives an overview of the status of the uniform corrosion, pitting
corrosion and stress corrosion cracking behaviour of carbon steel expected
during the waste disposal period.
Camping as an effective tool for change in the lives of individuals and families is well established. However, models which provide a theoretical base for camping with families are rare. This paper provides one such model. Drawing upon many years of experience of camping with disadvantaged groups, the author develops three broad principles which underlie this family camping model. First is the importance of diversity in defining community, enhancing mutuality and encouraging volunteerism. Second is the unique opportunity which temporary community affords for empowerment – releasing the insidious grip of relational power, structural authority and learned helplessness which can stifle personal change, especially for disadvantaged families. The final key element is the natural world and its therapeutic potential to spawn images and experiences which provide the basis for individual and family change.
This article discusses an under-researched group and provides an analytical overview of the comparative experiences of African, Indian and Coloured doctors at South African universities during the apartheid era. It probes diversity of experience in training and practice as well as gendered differentiation amongst black students before going on to discuss the careers and political activism of black doctors as well as the impact of recent transformational change on their position. It briefly assesses how singular this South African experience was.
Kym Anderson, University of Adelaide,Cheryl McRae, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Canberra, Australia,David Wilson, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Canberra, Australia
The appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, otherwise referred to as the acceptable level of risk, is defined in the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the “level of protection deemed appropriate by the [WTO] Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory.” It is well established that the determination of its appropriate level of protection is a matter in which the national sovereignty of a Member prevails, consistent with Article 2.1 of the Agreement which says that “Members have the right to take sanitary and phytosanitary measures necessary for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health.” However the SPS Agreement requires that “Members should, when determining the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, take into account the objective of minimizing negative trade effects” (Article 5.4).
Members are also obliged, under Article 5.5 of the Agreement, to “avoid arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions in the levels [considered] to be appropriate in different situations, if such distinctions result in discrimination or a disguised restriction as international trade.” No guidance is provided by the Agreement on what might constitute an arbitrary or justifiable distinction or as to what kind of justification might be offered. However the statement in the same paragraph that in developing guidelines to further the practical implementation of this provision, the SPS Committee “shall take into account all relevant factors including the exceptional character of human health risks to which people voluntarily expose themselves” strongly implies that these risks might justifiably be managed in a different way from other sanitary risks.
This chapter analyzes the evolution, features, function, and future of traditional (or customary law) courts in South Africa. It begins by examining, and ultimately discarding, the critique that traditional courts are not “real” courts of law. It then outlines the main features of traditional courts that differentiate them from common and civil law courts. The third section of the chapter acknowledges and responds to some of the major criticisms of the customary legal system in South Africa. The final part of the chapter is devoted to the future of traditional courts.
In the first year of life, typically developing infants make huge strides in motor development. They progress from a limited repertoire of spontaneous and reflex movements to more purposeful, goal-directed movements. Using their arms, they achieve greater balance in more upright positions and progress from sitting and crawling to standing and walking. The rate of motor development is influenced by a number of factors including the maturation of the nervous system, individual/genetic make-up, the ability to process sensory stimulation such as touch, sound, vestibular, muscle and joint sensations, and movement experience within different environmental contexts. While movement experience has always been recognized as important for motor learning, it is only recently that evidence of the central nature of action experience on cognitive development is being explored. As a consequence, there is increased appreciation that infants learn rapidly from active experience and are able to transfer this knowledge to viewing the actions of others (Sommerville et al., 2005).
The onset of locomotion is one of the major transitions in early development and results in changes not only in motor skill but also in perception, spatial cognition, and social and emotional development (Campos et al., 2000). As infants become more mobile and start to explore their environment, they learn not only about their own bodies but also about objects, places, and events that have consequences for mobile exploration. Walking has tremendous implications on all areas of development. The opportunities for exploration, play, and interaction with peers increase significantly.
The corrosion resistance of container materials in underground repositories is an important issue for the safe disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW). The reliable prediction of container degradation rate and engineering barrier integrity over extended periods, up to several thousands years or even several hundreds of thousands of years, represents one of the greatest scientific and technical challenges. The first and the second International Workshops on Prediction of Long Term Corrosion Behaviour in Nuclear Waste Systems, which were held in 2001 (Cadarache) and 2004 (Nice), sought to compare the scientific and experimental approaches that are being developed in various organisations worldwide for predicting long term corrosion phenomena, including corrosion strategies for interim storage and geological disposal. The lessons learned during these Workshops, include the necessity of developing two approaches based on semi-empiricism and determinism in a complementary manner for effective prediction. The use of archaeological artefacts to demonstrate the feasibility of long term storage and to provide a database for testing and validating modelling work was also emphasized.
Dynamics of water in Nafion 117 membranes, in the acid form, at two hydration levels and several temperatures were investigated by means of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in both, low (10−2 to 107 Hz, 25 to −80 °C) and microwave (0.045-26 GHz, 35 °C) frequency regions by employing different experimental setups. Three states of water were identified: a) strongly bound to the sulfonic groups (in agreement with other investigations) forming the first hydration layer; b) loosely bound, surrounding the first layer and c) free water, having similar dynamics as in the bulk state.
Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils.
The growth of the passive film on tungsten in phosphate buffer solution has been described in terms of the Point Defect Model (PDM). The steady-state current and passive film thickness have been measured as a function of voltage, with the film thickness being obtained from an analysis of capacitance and reflectance data. The observed data cannot be accounted for by the High Field Model (HFM) in its classical form, but can be understood in terms of the PDM. Diagnostic criteria that have been derived from the PDM were used to identify the majority charge carriers in the passive film. The Point Defect Model was employed, together with Mott- Schottky analysis to explore the crystallographic defect structures of the passive films, whereas their electronic structures have been studied using photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS). The experimental results demonstrate that these structures are strongly coupled with the vacancies acting as the dopants.
Successful reconstruction or restoration of formerly cleared landscapes depends on land use history and its legacies. Programmes developed without consideration of these legacies may fail to be effective and lack credibility. However, compiling landscape histories is not simple; our participatory workshops with long-term local residents combined spatial data on landscape change with facilitated conversations to compile a history of landscape change. Timing and extent of key environmental and socioeconomic drivers of woody vegetation cover change since European settlement were established. Some drivers of clearing were relatively well-known, such as drought, or clearing for surface mining and pastoralism. However, others, including important interactions like prolonged drought intersecting with declining wool prices, were less known. These workshops verified provisional data, tested focus and methods, and identified critical time periods for further investigation. The workshops were a powerful transdisciplinary research tool that enhanced the understanding of researchers and participants beyond expectations. Other researchers should consider the general approach when assembling landscape history as a basis for documenting the degree and causes of change.
Prenatal growth is sensitive to the direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake; manipulation can lead to behavioural and physiological changes of the offspring later in life. Here, we report on three aspects of how a high-salt diet during pregnancy (conception to parturition) may affect the offspring’s response to high oral salt loads: (i) dietary preferences for salt; (ii) response to salt and water balance and aldosterone and arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations after an oral salt challenge; (iii) concentrations of insulin and leptin after an oral salt challenge. We used two groups of lambs born to ewes fed either a high-salt (13% NaCl) diet during pregnancy (S lambs; n = 12) or control animals born to ewes fed a conventional (0.5% NaCl) diet during pregnancy (C lambs; n = 12). Lambs were subjected to short- (5 min) and long-term (24 h) preference tests for a high-salt (13% NaCl) or control diet, and the response to an oral challenge with either water or 25% NaCl solution were also carried out. Weaned lambs born to ewes fed high salt during pregnancy did not differ in their preference for dietary salt, but they did differ in their physiological responses to an oral salt challenge. Results indicate that these differences reflect an alteration in the regulation of water and salt balance as the metabolic hormones, insulin and leptin, were not affected. During the first 2 h after a single salt dose, S lambs had a 25% lower water intake compared to the C lambs. S lambs had, on average, a 13% lower AVP concentration than the C lambs (P = 0.014). The plasma concentration of aldosterone was higher in the S lambs than in the C lambs (P = 0.013). Results suggest that lambs born to ewes that ingest high amounts of salt during pregnancy are programmed to have an altered thirst threshold, and blunted response in aldosterone to oral salt loads.