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Wake modes of a three-dimensional blunt-based body near a wall are investigated at a Reynolds number
. The targeted modes are the static symmetry-breaking mode and two antisymmetric periodic modes. The static mode orientation is aligned with the horizontal major
-axis of the base and randomly switches between a positive
and a negative
state leading to long-time bistable dynamics of the turbulent wake. The modifications of these modes are studied when continuous blowing is applied at different locations through four slits along the base edges (denoted L for left, R for right, T for top and B for bottom) in either four single asymmetric configurations or two double symmetric configurations (denoted LR and TB). Two regimes, referred to as mass and momentum, are clearly identifiable for all configurations. The mass regime, which is fairly insensitive to blowing momentum and location, is characterized by the growth of the recirculating bubble as the total injected flow rate is increased, and is associated with a base drag reduction and interpreted as resulting from the equilibrium between mass fluxes feeding and emptying the recirculating region. A simple budget model is shown to be in agreement with entrainment velocities measured for isolated turbulent mixing layers. The strength of the static mode is reduced up to 20 % when the bubble length is maximum, whereas no change in the periodic mode frequencies is found. On the other hand, the momentum regime is characterized by the deflating of the recirculating bubble, leading to base drag increase, and it is interpreted by the free shear layer forcing, which increases the entrainment velocity, thus emptying the recirculating bubble. In this regime the static mode orientation is imposed by the blowing symmetry. Lateral L and R (respectively top/bottom T and B) blowing configurations select
states in the horizontal (respectively vertical) direction, while bistable dynamics persists for the symmetric LR and TB configurations. The shape of periodic modes follows the changes in wake static orientation. The transition between the two regimes is governed by both the total injected flow rate and the location of the injection.
Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a condition at the intersection of neurology and psychiatry. Individuals with FND exhibit corticolimbic abnormalities, yet little is known about the role of white matter tracts in the pathophysiology of FND. This study characterized between-group differences in microstructural integrity, and correlated fiber bundle integrity with symptom severity, physical disability, and illness duration.
A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study was performed in 32 patients with mixed FND compared to 36 healthy controls. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected along with patient-reported symptom severity, physical disability (Short Form Health Survey-36), and illness duration data. Weighted-degree and link-level graph theory and probabilistic tractography analyses characterized fractional anisotropy (FA) values across cortico-subcortical connections. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons.
Compared to controls, FND patients showed reduced FA in the stria terminalis/fornix, medial forebrain bundle, extreme capsule, uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle, corpus callosum, and striatal-postcentral gyrus projections. Except for the stria terminalis/fornix, these differences remained significant adjusting for depression and anxiety. In within-group analyses, physical disability inversely correlated with stria terminalis/fornix and medial forebrain bundle FA values; illness duration negatively correlated with stria terminalis/fornix white matter integrity. A FND symptom severity composite score did not correlate with FA in patients.
In this first DTI study of mixed FND, microstructural differences were observed in limbic and associative tracts implicated in salience, defensive behaviors, and emotion regulation. These findings advance our understanding of neurocircuit pathways in the pathophysiology of FND.
Little evidence exists to support pharmacotherapeutic strategies for heart failure management in paediatrics. A recent Europe-wide survey suggests that this translates into substantial variability in clinical practice.
To conduct a formal discussion among an expert group of paediatric cardiology physicians on controversial aspects regarding the pharmacotherapy of children heart failure, facilitate consensus, and highlight areas of agreement and disagreement.
A two-round modified Delphi process was conducted between July and August 2015. Topics addressed were predominantly selected from the results of a previous Europe-wide survey. Fourteen statements were presented for discussion grouped under three categories; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors: Considerations for optimal dosage; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors for the management of CHDs; Neurohumoral antagonists for the management of dilated cardiomyopathy-related heart failure.
A total of 13 paediatricians dedicated to cardiology from across Europe and the United States of America completed the study; of them, 92% had a working experience in the field of more than 10 years and were working in a specific paediatric cardiology unit. Agreement on the acceptance/rejection of 11 statements was achieved. Results show agreement on the importance of a set of topics relevant to the standardisation of the therapy as well as consensus upon specific therapeutic attitudes.
We have found areas of common thinking and motivation, which can provide a means of triggering scientific collaboration. Our results might also contribute to disseminate available paediatric evidence and promote reducing unjustified variability in everyday practice. Until solid evidence is available, other research methods can contribute to advancing the goal of safe and effective paediatric heart failure pharmacotherapy.
To properly assess to what extent a national crime control system overuses the punitive means at its disposal, it has to be established first what the legitimate goals are that the system must pursue through those means. Therefore, we need to adopt a precise analytical approach before being able to evaluate the abuses into which crime control actors could be falling. We deal with this topic in the following two sections.
PUNITIVE MODERATION AS AN OBJECTIVE
Current criminal policy has a strong tendency to compare different national crime control systems from the single perspective of their punitiveness. Punitive rigorousness or moderation has become the point of reference for most comparative analyses of ongoing criminal policy in different countries. Moreover, this approach has gradually gained significance as an evaluation criteria of national crime policies.
This framework assumes that national crime control systems, as they develop the necessary social interventions to obtain their preventive aims, should make sure that crime control does not inflict more social suffering than strictly necessary. It means that criminalization should not go beyond what might be considered vital for protecting essential public interests, and that those, either suspects or offenders, subjected to criminal law enforcement bodies will experience moderate and proportional distress as a result of their behaviour. This objective is so relevant that it justifies that comparative criminal policy evaluations are guided in accordance of the degree to which different national systems come closer to an optimum of punitive moderation, notwithstanding the achievement of preventive goals.
It is important to question why, despite the strong moral and cultural dependence to which the ideas of criminal restraint or rigor are subjected to, this approach has got itself into such a big predicament. Some reasons are worth mentioning. The hypothesis that most Western countries are moving towards a progressive harshening of the penal system has been very suggestive, and has permeated the criminal justice policy discussion. In turn, a program aimed at reducing the punitive pressure commonly has support amongst the field of criminal policy reflection. In addition, it has influenced the conceptual clarity and strength of this view, suggesting that a few indicators can explain it. Indeed, we should not forget that from the outset it has used easily accessible indicators of punitiveness, which has certainly increased its appeal.
We compared elastic moduli in polar firn derived from diving wave refraction seismic velocity analysis, firn-core density measurements and microstructure modelling based on firn-core data. The seismic data were obtained with a small electrodynamic vibrator source near Kohnen Station, East Antarctica. The analysis of diving waves resulted in velocity–depth profiles for different wave types (P-, SH- and SV-waves). Dynamic elastic moduli of firn were derived by combining P- and S-wave velocities and densities obtained from firn-core measurements. The structural finite-element method (FEM) was used to calculate the components of the elastic tensor from firn microstructure derived from X-ray tomography of firn-core samples at depths of 10, 42, 71 and 99 m, providing static elastic moduli. Shear and bulk moduli range from 0.39 to 2.42 GPa and 0.68 to 2.42 GPa, respectively. The elastic moduli from seismic observations and the structural FEM agree within 8.5% for the deepest achieved values at a depth of 71 m, and are within the uncertainty range. Our observations demonstrate that the elastic moduli of the firn can be consistently obtained from two independent methods which are based on dynamic (seismic) and static (tomography and FEM) observations, respectively, for deeper layers in the firn below ~10 m depth.
Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has increased in parallel with childhood obesity. Dietary habits, particularly products rich in sugars, may influence both hepatic fat and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). The aim of the study was to examine the association of the consumption of foods and food components, dairy desserts and substitutes (DDS), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), as well as total and added sugars, with hepatic fat and HOMA-IR. Dietary intake (two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls), hepatic fat (MRI) and HOMA-IR were assessed in 110 overweight/obese children (10·6 (sd 1·1) years old). Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of dietary intake with hepatic fat and HOMA-IR adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, energy intake, maternal educational level, total and abdominal adiposity and sugar intake). The results showed that there was a negative association between cereal intake and hepatic fat (β=–0·197, P<0·05). In contrast, both SSB consumption (β=0·217; P=0·028) and sugar in SSB (β=0·210, P=0·035), but not DDS or sugar in DDS or other dietary components, were positively associated with hepatic fat regardless of potential confounders including total sugar intake. In conclusion, cereal intake might decrease hepatic fat, whereas SSB consumption and its sugar content may increase the likelihood of having hepatic steatosis. Although these observations need to be confirmed using experimental evidence, these results suggest that healthy lifestyle intervention programs are needed to improve dietary habits as well as to increase the awareness of the detrimental effects of SSB consumption early in life.
Parallel manipulators, especially those with outputs as one translation and two rotations (1T2R), are being increasingly studied. The kinematic chains of parallel manipulators share the loads and make the stiffness higher than the stiffness of serial manipulators with equivalent limbs. This high stiffness ensures a minimal deformation of the limbs, allowing a high positioning accuracy of the endeffector. Thus, it is very important to be able to measure the stiffness in parallel manipulators. In this work, we present a novel 1T2R multi-axial shaking table (MAST) for automobile pieces testing purposes—the 2PRU–1PRS parallel manipulator—and focus on the analysis of its stiffness all over the useful workspace. Analysis methods based on matrix structural method need to be validated for every parallel manipulator, and we present these steps along with a comparison between experimental and analytical methods.
Evidence of herbivory on Laurasian Nymphaeaceae leaves from Lower Cretaceous (Upper Albian) deposits is presented for the first time. The types of damage on leaves consist of both hole feeding and margin feeding, which were found on foliar remains of the taxa Ploufolia cerciforme and Aquatifolia cf. fluitans. Within the first category of damage, the Damage Type 78 (DT78) type on Ploufolia leaves and type DT02 on Aquatifolia foliar lamina were recorded. The second category of damage has only been identified in Ploufolia leaves, and it corresponds to type DT12. The subsequent palaeoichnologic interpretation made it possible to compare these records with damage caused by the extant water lily pest to make a possible palaeoecological interpretation.
Familiarity, emotionality, motor activity, memorability, and vividness of visual imagery ratings, on 7-point scales, were collected for 536 Spanish action-related sentences, including a corpus of 439 phrases originally normed in Swedish, German, and Croatian (Arar & Molander, 1996; Molander & Arar, 1998; Molander, Arar, Mavrinac, & Janig, 1999) and 97 new sentences describing actions usually performed using different body postures and face or hand movements. These norms constitute the only available set of ratings for action sentences in Spanish including those dimensions to date, and they allow for the design of studies aimed at empirically exploring the relationship between action, language, and cognition with well-controlled materials in Spanish-speaking samples of participants.
New evidence of the extinct tree fern of the genus Tempskya Corda from Albian deposits in western Eurasia (northeastern Spain) is presented. These plant fossil remains consist of several silicified false trunks measuring up to 1.20m long, some of which still preserve the apex. Rhizomes and petioles are more abundant in the apical zone of the false trunk. Some false trunks preserve charcoalified tissues that can be interpreted as evidence that palaeo-wildfires affected the false trunks several times from mostly the same direction. Sedimentological evidence suggests that the fern habitat was close to coastal, tidally influenced environments. These new fossils from the Albian of Spain fill the chronological and distributional gap of Tempskya that existed in Eurasia during the Early Cretaceous. Temporal and spatial changes in Tempskya distributions are proposed on several palaeogeographical maps.
Why is the fight against financial crimes such a central task for the EU?
The EU has a strong interest to counter financial crimes and fraud against
the EU budget as those crimes—so the EU legislator's claim is—hamper the
trust in the market and undermine consumer confidence to engage in internal
market transactions. In this Article, we aim to discuss the establishment of
the European Public Prosecutor Office as a federal agent and the effects of
this agent for establishing a robust EU financial crimes regime. Comparisons
with the US system of US Attorneys—federal prosecutors—will be drawn to show
that this institution has been quite effective at enhancing the protection
of US financial market. The Article will then discuss to what extent the EU
can, and should, learn from the American experience. We are particularly
interested in the strong security focus in the EU and its consequences when
it ventures into the area of financial crimes.
An individual’s sense of the extent to which her or his body physically interacts with objects in the environment (body–object interaction; BOI) has been empirically shown to modulate lexical and semantic processing of object names. To allow for further exploration of the nature of those effects, BOI ratings for 750 Spanish nouns were obtained from 178 young adult participants. Statistical analyses showed moderate correlations between BOI indicators and some psycholinguistic indexes, such as word imageability and age of acquisition. In addition, an exploration of lexical associative relationships revealed that high-BOI words have a consistent tendency to be associated with words naming parts of the body. The ratings could be useful to researchers who are interested in manipulating or controlling for the effects of BOI in their language-processing studies. The complete norms are available for free downloading at Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/kd5vf/).
There is increasing evidence for shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although genetic variants only convey subtle increases in risk individually, their combination into a polygenic risk score constitutes a strong disease predictor.
To investigate whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores can distinguish people with broadly defined psychosis and their unaffected relatives from controls.
Using the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data, we calculated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores for 1168 people with psychosis, 552 unaffected relatives and 1472 controls.
Patients with broadly defined psychosis had dramatic increases in schizophrenia and bipolar polygenic risk scores, as did their relatives, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the accuracy of predictive models was modest.
Although polygenic risk scores are not ready for clinical use, it is hoped that as they are refined they could help towards risk reduction advice and early interventions for psychosis.
Declaration of interest
R.M.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Janssen, Lundbeck, Lilly, Otsuka and Sunovian.
The timing and nature of the emergence of art in human evolution has been one of the more debated subjects in palaeoanthropology in the last few years, and one of the areas where archaeology has made impressive advances. Here, we discuss the first evidence of figurative art on portable materials in the north of Spain. After analysis of the stratigraphic contexts of all examples potentially of this age, which eliminated those of uncertain provenance, only three examples can be said to be Gravettian with a degree of confidence. We examine their stratigraphic provenance, the integrity of their archaeological contexts, and the absolute dates available for them. We then discuss their thematic and stylistic traits, comparing them to the wider database of material in the adjacent regions of the French Pyrenees and Mediterranean Iberia. We conclude that figurative depictions were scarce in the Gravettian of south-western Europe, in contrast to the relatively abundant examples of cave art assigned to this period in the region. If this is correct, we should nuance our discussions of ‘Palaeolithic art’ by considering that parietal and portable art had their own trajectories and functions, at least in the Early to mid-Upper Palaeolithic.
Plant–animal mutualistic interactions through ecological network systems and the environmental conditions in which they occur, allow us to understand patterns of species composition and the structure and dynamics of communities. We evaluated whether flower morphologies with different pollination syndromes (ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous) are used by hummingbirds and whether these characteristics affect the structure (core-peripheral species) of hummingbird networks. Observations were made in flowering patches, where plant–hummingbird interactions were recorded at three altitudes (300–2500 m) during three seasons (dry, rainy and post-rainy) from 2015 to 2016 at El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 15 hummingbird species interacting with 58 plant species, and the greatest number of interacting hummingbird species (11; 14) and plant species (28; 40) were found at middle altitudes and during the dry season, respectively. In all study sites, most of the plant species visited by hummingbirds had an ornithophilous syndrome (67%) at high altitudes (22 plant species) and during the dry season (26 plant species), but more individual hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous plant species. The hummingbird species at high altitudes exhibited the greatest level of specialization towards plants (H2′ = 0.74), but the networks of plant-hummingbird interactions were generalist (H2′ = 0.25); i.e. visiting plants with both syndromes, at low altitudes. The core generalist hummingbird species remained constant with altitude and season, but the core generalist plant species varied between different altitudes and seasons according to the phenology of the species.
To examine the associations of individual and food environmental factors with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a city in a low-to-middle-income country (LMIC).
Representative sample of the Brazilian Primary Care service known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, a Brazilian city.
Using a conceptual model as a guide, individual and food environment data were obtained through: (i) face-to-face interviews with participants aged 20 years or older; and (ii) F&V food store audits. A broad set of individual, household, and community and consumer nutrition environment variables was investigated. Multilevel linear regression was used to quantify area-level variations in F&V intake and to estimate associations with the factors.
Eighteen HAP centres were selected and 2944 participants and 336 food stores were included. F&V intake varied between contexts, being higher in areas with better socio-economic conditions and food store quality, such as specialised F&V markets. Individual-level factors, including age, income, food insecurity, stage of change, self-efficacy and decisional balance, were significantly associated with F&V intake. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, greater F&V intake was also associated with higher quality of food stores.
In one of the first studies to comprehensively assess the food environment in an LMIC, individual-level factors accounted for the largest variation in F&V intake; however, the food environment was also important, because area-level variables explained 10·5 % of the F&V intake variation. The consumer nutrition environment was more predictive of healthy eating than was the community nutrition environment. The findings suggest new possibilities for interventions.
The timing of the late Middle Paleolithic and late disappearance of Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula are hotly debated subjects in Paleolithic archeology. Several studies suggested a late survival in South and Central Iberia until about 32 ka, but were probably subject to significant age underestimation due to contamination of dating samples, undiagnostic lithic assemblages, and/or lack of stratigraphic integrity. We conducted a radiocarbon and luminescence-dating study backed by detailed sedimentological and micromorphological investigations at the newly discovered rock shelter sequence of Abrigo del Molino (Central Spain). Accumulation of the sediment sequence was rapid. It started with deposition of paleoflood slack-water deposits at around 48 ka and continued until about 41 ka with deposition of colluvial and detrital sediments. These contain two Mousterian levels, which place the latest Neanderthal occupation at around 45 to 41 ka, i.e., between Heinrich Stadials 5 and 4, and probably during a time of climate amelioration. Abrigo del Molino thus provides a detailed and chronologically well-constrained record of Late Neanderthal presence and morphodynamic change in Central Iberia during times of millennial-scale climate changes. The site gives further evidence for an early disappearance of Neanderthals in Central Iberia.
Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic and acute diseases, often associated with a poor prognosis, including worsening of clinical outcome, owing, among other factors, to dysfunction of the most internal organs and systems affecting the absorption, metabolism and elimination of drugs and nutrients. Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes and is required in increased amounts in response to pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the behaviour of taurine in well-nourished (WN) rats and to analyse the influence of protein–energy undernutrition on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of taurine, using a PK model. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups, WN and undernourished (UN), and taurine was administered intravenously or orally at different doses: 1, 10 and 100 mg. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of plasma levels was performed using the NONMEM 7.2 program. Several distribution and absorption models were explored in combination with dose and/or time covariate effects. Covariates such as nutritional status, serum albumin, body weight and score of undernutrition were used. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model with zero-order endogenous formation, passive absorption, first-order kinetics distribution and non-linear elimination with parallel Michaelis–Menten excretion and reabsorption processes best described taurine pharmacokinetics. Undernutrition acted as a covariate reducing the Vmax of the active elimination process. Data analysis showed linear absorption and distribution, and non-linear elimination processes for taurine. Elimination of taurine was reduced in UN animals, suggesting that the reabsorption process via the secretion transporter was modified in that group.