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On 17 March 2020, the President of the European Council, Charles Michel, and the President of the European Commission (hereinafter, Commission), Ursula von der Leyen, announced further European Union (EU) actions in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Since the pandemic reached Europe, the EU has adopted a number of trade-related measures, including the issuance of guidelines for national border management, as well as export authorisation requirements. On 14 March 2020, the Commission adopted “Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/402 of 14 March 2020 making the exportation of certain products subject to the production of an export authorisation”, temporarily restricting exports of “personal protective equipment” to destinations outside of the EU. On 14 April 2020, the Commission announced that it would narrow down export authorisation requirements to protective masks only and extend the geographical and humanitarian exemptions. Governments around the world have been implementing trade-related measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, some trade restrictive, but a number of countries have also called for the elimination of export controls and restrictions on essential goods. As the greater implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on trade are still difficult to assess, the emergency measures taken by affected countries already require legal scrutiny. At the same time, it must be noted that, as noted above for the EU measures, measures around the world are subject to change dynamically in view of the evolution of the pandemic.
In recent years, several optimal dynamos have been discovered. They minimize the magnetic energy dissipation or, equivalently, maximize the growth rate at a fixed magnetic Reynolds number. In the optimal dynamo of Willis (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 109, 2012, 251101), we find mean-field dynamo action for planar averages. One component of the magnetic field grows exponentially while the other decays in an oscillatory fashion near onset. This behaviour is different from that of an
dynamo, where the two non-vanishing components of the planar averages are coupled and have the same growth rate. For the Willis dynamo, we find that the mean field is excited by a negative turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which has a non-uniform spatial profile near onset. The temporal oscillations in the decaying component are caused by the corresponding component of the diffusivity tensor being complex when the mean field is decaying and, in this way, time dependent. The growing mean field can be modelled by a negative magnetic diffusivity combined with a positive magnetic hyperdiffusivity. In two other classes of optimal dynamos of Chen et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 783, 2015, pp. 23–45), we find, to some extent, similar mean-field dynamo actions. When the magnetic boundary conditions are mixed, the two components of the planar averaged field grow at different rates when the dynamo is 15 % supercritical. When the mean magnetic field satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions (where the magnetic field is tangential to the boundary), mean-field dynamo action is found for one-dimensional averages, but not for planar averages. Despite having different spatial profiles, both dynamos show negative turbulent magnetic diffusivities. Our finding suggests that negative turbulent magnetic diffusivities may support a broader class of dynamos than previously thought, including these three optimal dynamos.
We develop a mean-field theory of compressibility effects in turbulent magnetohydrodynamics and passive scalar transport using the quasi-linear approximation and the spectral
-approach. We find that compressibility decreases the
effect and the turbulent magnetic diffusivity both at small and large magnetic Reynolds numbers,
. Similarly, compressibility decreases the turbulent diffusivity for passive scalars both at small and large Péclet numbers,
. On the other hand, compressibility does not affect the effective pumping velocity of the magnetic field for large
, but it decreases it for small
. Density stratification causes turbulent pumping of passive scalars, but it is found to become weaker with increasing compressibility. No such pumping effect exists for magnetic fields. However, compressibility results in a new passive scalar pumping effect from regions of low to high turbulent intensity both for small and large Péclet numbers. It can be interpreted as compressible turbophoresis of non-inertial particles and gaseous admixtures, while the classical turbophoresis effect exists only for inertial particles and causes them to be pumped to regions with lower turbulent intensity.
Recent advances in mean-field theory are reviewed and applications to the Sun, late-type stars, accretion disks, galaxies and the early Universe are discussed. We focus particularly on aspects of spatio-temporal non-locality, which provided some of the main new qualitative and quantitative insights that emerged from applying the test-field method to magnetic fields of different length and time scales. We also review the status of nonlinear quenching and the relation to magnetic helicity, which is an important observational diagnostic of modern solar dynamo theory. Both solar and some stellar dynamos seem to operate in an intermediate regime that has not yet been possible to model successfully. This regime is bracketed by antisolar-like differential rotation on one end and stellar activity cycles belonging to the superactive stars on the other. The difficulty in modelling this regime may be related to shortcomings in simulating solar/stellar convection. On galactic and extragalactic length scales, the observational constraints on dynamo theory are still less stringent and more uncertain, but recent advances both in theory and observations suggest that more conclusive comparisons may soon be possible also here. The possibility of inversely cascading magnetic helicity in the early Universe is particularly exciting in explaining the recently observed lower limits of magnetic fields on cosmological length scales. Such magnetic fields may be helical with the same sign of magnetic helicity throughout the entire Universe. This would be a manifestation of parity breaking.
Blazar observations point toward the possible presence of magnetic fields over intergalactic scales of the order of up to ∼1 Mpc, with strengths of at least ∼10−16 G. Understanding the origin of these large-scale magnetic fields is a challenge for modern astrophysics. Here we discuss the cosmological scenario, focussing on the following questions: (i) How and when was this magnetic field generated? (ii) How does it evolve during the expansion of the universe? (iii) Are the amplitude and statistical properties of this field such that they can explain the strengths and correlation lengths of observed magnetic fields? We also discuss the possibility of observing primordial turbulence through direct detection of stochastic gravitational waves in the mHz range accessible to LISA.
Sunspots are of basic interest in the study of the Sun. Their relevance ranges from them being an activity indicator of magnetic fields to being the place where coronal mass ejections and flares erupt. They are therefore also an important ingredient of space weather. Their formation, however, is still an unresolved problem in solar physics. Observations utilize just 2D surface information near the spot, but it is debatable how to infer deep structures and properties from local helioseismology. For a long time, it was believed that flux tubes rising from the bottom of the convection zone are the origin of the bipolar sunspot structure seen on the solar surface. However, this theory has been challenged, in particular recently by new surface observation, helioseismic inversions, and numerical models of convective dynamos. In this article we discuss another theoretical approach to the formation of sunspots: the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This is a large-scale instability, in which the total (kinetic plus magnetic) turbulent pressure can be suppressed in the presence of a weak large-scale magnetic field, leading to a converging downflow, which eventually concentrates the magnetic field within it. Numerical simulations of forced stratified turbulence have been able to produce strong super-equipartition flux concentrations, similar to sunspots at the solar surface. In this framework, sunspots would only form close to the surface due to the instability constraints on stratification and rotation. Additionally, we present some ideas from local helioseismology, where we plan to use the Hankel analysis to study the pre-emergence phase of a sunspot and to constrain its deep structure and formation mechanism.
Abstract. With a view to quantum foundations, we define the concepts of an empirical model (a probabilistic model describing measurements and outcomes), a hidden-variable model (an empirical model augmented by unobserved variables), and various properties of hidden-variable models, for the case of infinite measurement spaces and finite outcome spaces. Thus, our framework is general enough to include, for example, quantum experiments that involve spin measurements at arbitrary relative angles. Within this framework, we use the concept of the fiber product of measures to prove general versions of two determinization results about hidden-variable models. Specifically, we prove that: (i) every empirical model can be realized by a deterministic hidden-variable model; (ii) for every hidden-variable model satisfying locality and λ-independence, there is a realizationequivalent hidden-variable model satisfying determinism and λ-independence.
Introduction. Hidden variables are extra variables added to the model of an experiment to explain correlations in the outcomes. Here is a simple example. Alice's and Bob's computers have been prepared with the same password. We know that the password is either p2s4w6r8 or 1a3s5o7d, but we do not know which it is. If Alice now types in p2s4w6r8 and this unlocks her computer, we immediately know what will happen when Bob types in one or other of the two passwords. The two outcomes—when Alice types a password and Bob types a password—are perfectly correlated. Clearly, it would be wrong to conclude that, when Alice types a password on her machine, this somehow causes Bob's machine to acquire the same password. The correlation is purely informational: It is our state of knowledge that changes, not Bob's computer. Formally, we can consider an r.v. (random variable) X for Alice's password, an r.v. Y for Bob's password, and an extra r.v. Z. The r.v. Z takes the value z1 or z2 according as the two machines were prepared with the first or the second password. Then, even though X and Y will be perfectly correlated, they will also be independent (trivially so), conditional on the value of Z. In this sense, the extra r.v. Z explains the correlation.
Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 300 scientists worldwide.
Media coverage of elections in Europe and North America has increasingly focused on the campaign as a game rather than a policy debate. This is often explained by the changes in media pressures. It may also reflect the narrowing of policy space between left and right and the comparative prosperity enjoyed in Europe and North America. But the relevance of policy varies. The global economic crisis might have led to an increased interest in policy among voters and focus on it by media. Ireland experienced both extremes of boom and crisis between the late 1990s and 2011. The Irish case allows us to test the impact of the crisis on media framing of elections. This article uses original data from the three most recent national elections in Ireland, with a research design that holds other pertinent variables constant. We find empirical support for the theoretical expectation that the context of the election affects the relative focus on campaign or horserace vs. substantive policy issues.
We report on turbulent dynamo simulations in a spherical wedge with an outer coronal layer. We apply a two-layer model where the lower layer represents the convection zone and the upper layer the solar corona. This setup is used to study the coronal influence on the dynamo action beneath the surface. Increasing the radial coronal extent gradually to three times the solar radius and changing the magnetic Reynolds number, we find that dynamo action benefits from the additional coronal extent in terms of higher magnetic energy in the saturated stage. The flux of magnetic helicity can play an important role in this context.
The President of C12, Alexander Kosovichev, presented the status of the Commission and its working Group(s). Primary activities included organization of international meetings (IAU Symposia, Special Sessions and Joint Discussion); review and support of proposals for IAU sponsored meetings; organization of working groups on the Commission topics to promote the international cooperation; preparation of triennial report on the organizational and science activities of Commission members. Commission 12 broadly encompasses topics of solar research which include studies of the Sun's internal structure, composition, dynamics and magnetism (through helioseismology and other techniques), studies of the quiet photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and also research of the mechanisms of solar radiation, and its variability on various time scales. Some overlap with topics covered by Commission 10 Solar Activity is unavoidable, and many activities are sponsored jointly by these two commissions. The Commission website can be found at http://sun.stanford.edu/IAU-Com12/, with information about related IAU Symposiums and activities, and links to appropriate web sites.
Eulerian and Lagrangian tools are used to detect coherent structures in the velocity and magnetic fields of a mean-field dynamo, produced by direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with an isotropic helical forcing and moderate Reynolds number. Two distinct stages of the dynamo are studied: the kinematic stage, where a seed magnetic field undergoes exponential growth; and the saturated regime. It is shown that the Lagrangian analysis detects structures with greater detail, in addition to providing information on the chaotic mixing properties of the flow and the magnetic fields. The traditional way of detecting Lagrangian coherent structures using finite-time Lyapunov exponents is compared with a recently developed method called function
. The latter is shown to produce clearer pictures which readily permit the identification of hyperbolic regions in the magnetic field, where chaotic transport/dispersion of magnetic field lines is highly enhanced.
An update is given on the current status of solar and stellar dynamos. At present, it is still unclear why stellar cycle frequencies increase with rotation frequency in such a way that their ratio increases with stellar activity. The small-scale dynamo is expected to operate in spite of a small value of the magnetic Prandtl number in stars. Whether or not the global magnetic activity in stars is a shallow or deeply rooted phenomenon is another open question. Progress in demonstrating the presence and importance of magnetic helicity fluxes in dynamos is briefly reviewed, and finally the role of nonlocality is emphasized in modeling stellar dynamos using the mean-field approach. On the other hand, direct numerical simulations have now come to the point where the models show solar-like equatorward migration that can be compared with observations and that need to be understood theoretically.
We present preliminary results from high resolution magneto-convection simulations where we find the formation of flux concentrations from an initially uniform magnetic field. The structures appear in roughly ten convective turnover times and live close to a turbulent diffusion time. The time scales are compatible with the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI), although structure formation is not restricted to regions where the effective magnetic pressure is negative.
Magnetic field relaxation is determined by both the field's geometry and its topology. For relaxation processes, however, it turns out that its topology is a much more stringent constraint. As quantifier for the topology we use magnetic helicity and test whether it is a stronger condition than the linking of field lines. Further, we search for evidence of other topological invariants, which give rise to further restrictions in the field's relaxation. We find that magnetic helicity is the sole determinant in most cases. Nevertheless, we see evidence for restrictions not captured through magnetic helicity.
We present results of convective turbulent dynamo simulations including a coronal layer in a spherical wedge. We find an equatorward migration of the radial and azimuthal fields similar to the behavior of sunspots during the solar cycle. The migration of the field coexist with a spoke-like differential rotation and anti-solar (clockwise) meridional circulation. Even though the migration extends over the whole convection zone, the mechanism causing this is not yet fully understood.
Fertility transmission (FT) is a phenomenon with a cultural and/or genetic basis, whereby a positive correlation exists between the number of offspring of an individual and that of his/her parents. Theoretical studies using a haploid individual-based model have shown that FT increases the variance and intergenerational correlation in reproductive success and results in an imbalance in the coalescent tree of sampled genes. This phenomenon has been documented in several demographic studies conducted on the correlation in fertility between generations, or through the reconstruction of the genealogical trees of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, as mtDNA is a single locus, potentially subject to other forces (e.g. natural selection), it is of interest to extend the theory of FT to nuclear loci. We show that because random mating between individuals leads to a mixing of their fertility profiles, FT in these cases will have less influence on the variance and intergenerational correlation of reproductive success. This, in turn, results in less impact on the shape of the coalescent trees. Nevertheless, in the presence of FT, high heterogeneity in reproductive success and homogamy for family size will increase the imbalance in the coalescent tree. Thus, FT should be easier to detect when occurring in conjunction with these other factors. We also show the utility of analysing different kinds of loci (X-linked, Y-linked, mitochondrial and autosomal) to assess whether FT is matrilineal, patrilineal or biparental. Finally, we demonstrate that the shape of the coalescent tree depends upon population size, in contrast to the classical Kingman's model.
This study reassesses the ability of the mass media to influence voter opinions directly. Combining data on media content with individuals’ assessments of British political parties during the 2005 general election campaign allows a test of newspapers’ persuasive influence in a way previously considered a ‘virtual impossibility’. Utilizing repeated measures from the 2005 BES campaign panel, multilevel regression analysis reveals significant impact of partisan slant not just on the evaluation of the party mentioned but also on evaluations of its competitor(s). The strongest evidence of direct media persuasion is provided by the finding that variation in slant over the campaign drives how undecided voters evaluate the incumbent government party, even when controlling for a newspaper's average partisan slant.
Experiments were conducted in North Carolina during 2005, 2006, and 2007 to determine peanut and weed response when peanut was planted in strip tillage after desiccation of cereal rye, Italian ryegrass, oats, triticale, wheat, and native vegetation by glyphosate and paraquat before planting with three in-season herbicide programs. Control of common ragweed and yellow nutsedge did not differ among cover crop treatments when compared within a specific herbicide program. Applying dimethenamid or S-metolachlor plus diclosulam PRE followed by imazapic POST was more effective than a chloroacetamide herbicide PRE followed by acifluorfen, bentazon, and paraquat POST. Incidence of spotted wilt in peanut (caused by a Tospovirus) did not differ when comparing cover crop treatments, regardless of herbicide program. Peanut yield increased in all 3 yr when herbicides were applied POST, compared with clethodim only. Peanut yield was not affected by cover crop treatment. Response to cover crop treatments was comparable, suggesting that growers can select cereal rye, Italian ryegrass, oats, or triticale as an alternative to wheat as a cover crop in peanut systems without experiencing differences associated with in-season weed management.
Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, mostly accessible through the techniques of local and global helioseismology, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 350 scientists worldwide.