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Unlike the Vienna Circle or the Frankfurt School, the Pittsburgh School was never self-consciously constituted as a coherent or even semi-coherent group by adopting this label. Rather, it seems to have been chosen as a retrospective name that functions to draw our attention to three prominent twentieth- and twenty-first-century philosophers whose work exhibits important commonalities and whose influence has been considerable: Wilfrid Sellars (1912–89), Robert Brandom (1950–), and John McDowell (1942–).
We have developed a novel strategy for elaborating composite plasmonic nanomaterials in a well controlled manner. Combining several techniques commonly used in microelectronic engineering, namely sputtering deposition, thermal oxidation, ultra low energy ion implantation, focused ion beam lithography, thermal or laser annealing, we have obtained 3D patterned optical layers. Their spatial and spectral responses take benefit of optical interference, plasmonic resonance effects and coupling between excitations in both near and far field regime. Moreover these structures show high level of uniformity, reproducibility and stability, and they preserve flat and chemically uniform surfaces.
The Neognathodus Index (NI) is developed as a primary biostratigraphic indicator for the Desmoinesian Series of the Illinois Basin in Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. It is based on the gradual evolutionary morphotypic variations of P1 elements of named species of Neognathodus Dunn, 1970. The NI analyses and zonations presented herein are constructed from 472 productive conodont samples from 105 different localities. NIs for the Illinois Basin show morphologic drift in Indiana from the Perth Limestone Member of the Staunton Formation (NI = 2.03) to the Velpen Limestone and Mecca Quarry Shale members of the Linton Formation (NI = 5.04) followed by stability through the Alum Cave (NI = 4.83). Further morphologic drift then occurred through the Providence Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation (NI = 5.43) and continued through the West Franklin Limestone Member of the Shelburn Formation (NI = 6.32) until the extinction of Neognathodus at the end of Desmoinesian. The patterns of drift and stability translate to Neognathodus biozones and are supported by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of standardized Neognathodus morphotype distributions. Localized NI variations are due to morphologic shifts and differential evolution in response to localized environmental conditions. Examination of the NI differences in the states of Illinois, Kentucky, and Indiana reflect similar morphologic simplification of the P1 element from Perth to Velpen and Mecca Quarry in Indiana (NI = 2.03–5.04) and from Seville to Brereton in Illinois and Kentucky (NI = 2.80–5.00). Post-Brereton in Illinois and Kentucky (NI = 5.00–5.65) and post-Providence in Indiana (NI = 5.43–6.32) saw progressive P1 simplification, but it was much more pronounced in Indiana.
We use a matched filter to detect compact groups of old, metal-poor stars that we term FOSSILs (Fragments of Old Stellar Systems in Limbo). With size scales on the order of 10 arcminutes, distances ranging from 2 to 200 kpc, and memberships ranging from a handful to several dozen stars, these FOSSILs stand out from the surrounding field and are presumably signatures of, or debris from, ancient star clusters and dwarf galaxies. They may be localized concentrations of stars within more extensive tidal streams, and in some cases may be the signatures of extant but heretofore undetected ultrafaint galaxies. Using magnitudes and colors from the Pan-STARRs survey, we detect ∼ 70 such FOSSILs at 5 σ or greater in a 2200 square degree region in the vicinity of the north Galactic pole. A subsample of more populous FOSSILs that could be candidate ultrafaint dwarf galaxies suggests a total population of 200 such objects within 200 kpc of the Galactic center. Spectroscopic and astrometric follow-up of these FOSSILs will be required to determine the nature of these structures, deepen our understanding of the make-up and accretion history of the Galactic halo, and perhaps alleviate the missing satellites problem.
At the heart of surgical care needs to be the education and training of staff, particularly in the low-income and/or resource-poor setting. This is the primary means by which self-sufficiency and sustainability will ultimately be achieved. As such, training and education should be integrated into any surgical programme that is undertaken. Numerous resources are available to help provide such a goal, and an open approach to novel, inexpensive training methods is likely to be helpful in this type of setting.
The need for appropriately trained audiologists in low-income countries is well recognised and clearly goes beyond providing support for ear surgery. However, where ear surgery is being undertaken, it is vital to have audiology services established in order to correctly assess patients requiring surgery, and to be able to assess and manage outcomes of surgery. The training requirements of the two specialties are therefore intimately linked.
This article highlights various methods, resources and considerations, for both otolaryngology and audiology training, which should prove a useful resource to those undertaking and organising such education, and to those staff members receiving it.
Predictive analytics in health is a complex, transdisciplinary field requiring collaboration across diverse scientific and stakeholder groups. Pilot implementation of participatory research to foster team science in predictive analytics through a partnered-symposium and funding competition. In total, 85 stakeholders were engaged across diverse translational domains, with a significant increase in perceived importance of early inclusion of patients and communities in research. Participatory research approaches may be an effective model for engaging broad stakeholders in predictive analytics.
An instrument is described that automatically records ice ablation while eliminating the need for ablation stakes. A pressure transducer placed at the bottom of a hole drilled into the ice is connected by a hose to a bladder lying on the surface. Ice ablation is detected as a reduction in the hydrostatic pressure measured by the transducer.
Two models simulating snow avalanches impacting retaining dams at oblique angles of incidence are presented.
First, a lumped-mass model applying the Voellmy-Perla equation is used to calculate the path of the centre-of-mass along the side of a retaining dam.
Secondly, a one-dimensional continuum model, applying depth-integrated equations of balance of mass and linear momentum, is expanded to take into account that real avalanche flows are three-dimensional. The centre-line of the avalanche path is determined by the flowing material as it progresses down the channelized avalanche path. The nonlinear constitutive equations comprise viscosity, visco-elasticity and plasticity.
Both models are calibrated by simulations of a registered avalanche following a strongly curved channel. The path and the run-up height of the avalanche on the natural deflecting dam with oblique angle of incidence as calculated by the two models, are compared with the observations made.
Obesity is undoubtedly caused by a chronic positive energy balance. However, the early metabolic and hormonal responses to overeating are poorly described. This study determined glycaemic control and selected gut hormone responses to nutrient intake before and after 7 d of high-fat overfeeding. Nine healthy individuals (five males, four females) performed a mixed meal tolerance test (MTT) before and after consuming a high-fat (65 %), high-energy (+50 %) diet for 7 d. Measurements of plasma glucose, NEFA, acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and serum insulin were taken before (fasting) and at 30-min intervals throughout the 180-min MTT (postprandial). Body mass increased by 0·79 (sem 0·14) kg after high-fat overfeeding (P<0·0001), and BMI increased by 0·27 (sem 0·05) kg/m2 (P=0·002). High-fat overfeeding also resulted in an 11·6 % increase in postprandial glucose AUC (P=0·007) and a 25·9 % increase in postprandial insulin AUC (P=0·005). Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1 and GIP responses to the MTT were all unaffected by the high-fat, high-energy diet. These findings demonstrate that even brief periods of overeating are sufficient to disrupt glycaemic control. However, as the postprandial orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic/insulintropic (GLP-1 and GIP) hormone responses were unaffected by the diet intervention, it appears that these hormones are resistant to short-term changes in energy balance, and that they do not play a role in the rapid reduction in glycaemic control.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
A description is given of an accelerator-based radioisotope measuring system, being supplied to the Universities of Arizona and Toronto and in part to the University of Oxford. This system will be capable of measuring 14C/12C and 13C/12C ratios in milligram samples of cracked acetylene. At present 200µg of carbon obtained from cracked acetylene appears to be adequate for an isotopic ratio determination. Previous performance and new calculations indicate that a precision better than 1 percent will be achieved in a half-hour period only limited by counting statistics. A precision of 0.2 percent will be obtained in a ten-hour period. Using a carbon sample with an age greater than 60,000 years, the measured background 14C/12C ratio will be less than 0.07 percent of modern.
Main sequence stars hosting extreme quantities of inner planetary system debris are likely experiencing transient dust production events. The nature of these events, if they can be unambiguously attributed to a single process, can potentially inform us on the formation and/or early evolution of rocky Earth-like planets. In this contribution I examine some of the dustiest main sequence stars known and three processes that may be capable of reproducing their observed properties. Through this activity I also make an estimate for the likelihood of an A-type star to have an asteroid belt-like planetesimal population.
The limb-darkening laws predicted for several models of the atmosphere and clouds of Venus are compared with limb-darkening observations in the 8–13μ interval made from the ground and from Mariner II. Model A attributes the limb-darkening to pure molecular absorption by the atmosphere above the Gytherean cloud layer; Model B, to multiple scattering by cloud particles of arbitrary albedo and altitude distribution. In each model, the temperature regime is considered specified, alternatively by convective and by radiative equilibrium. In Model A, limb-darkening arises from the increase of temperature with atmospheric depth. In Model B, both the T — τ relation and the dependence of emissivity on the angle of emergence contribute to the limb-darkening. Each model can be made to agree with observation, with an appropriate specification of atmospheric and cloud parameters. With the angular resolution available from the vicinity of the Earth, a discrimination among these models is difficult to achieve. But a Venus flyby or orbiter which performs only somewhat better than Mariner II can potentially determine uniquely the cause of the limb-darkening, and provide significant new information on the structure and composition of the atmosphere and clouds of Venus.