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This book examines the array of financial crises, slumps, depressions and recessions that happened around the globe during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. It covers events including World War I, hyperinflation and market crashes in the 1920s, the Great Depression of the 1930s, stagflation of the 1970s, the Latin American debt crises of the 1980s, the post-socialist transitions in Central Eastern Europe and Russia in the 1990s, and the great financial crisis of 2008–9. In addition to providing wide geographic and historical coverage of episodes of crisis in North America, Europe, Latin America and Asia, the book clarifies basic concepts in the area of recession economics, analysis of high inflation, debt crises, political cycles and international political economy. An understanding of these concepts is needed to comprehend big recessions and slumps that often lead to both political change and the reassessment of prevailing economic paradigms.
Liver surgery can be remarkably safe: a zero mortality rate has been achieved with liver resections when patients are properly selected and with meticulous perioperative care . In order to maintain liver function in individual patients undergoing anaesthesia and surgery, the single most important factor is maintaining its perfusion. In order to avoid hypoxic liver injury, preserving sinusoidal blood flow is best done by maintaining an adequate perfusion pressure and avoiding a high central venous pressure. Reducing intraoperative blood loss and maintaining systemic haemodynamics likely play major roles in avoiding hypoxic liver injury. It is still unknown which vasoactive drugs are preferred when haemodynamic instability occurs; Noradrenaline seems to be well tolerated as long as hypovolaemia is avoided. Ischaemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning and postconditioning are promising, but their clinical relevance remains to be determined. Finally there are no good markers of hepatocyte damage that could be used intraoperatively to optimize anaesthetic management.
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
Throughout its range in Latin America, the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and by conflict as a result of coexistence with people. This Near Threatened species is a top predator, and is often illegally hunted. Understanding people's attitudes and perceptions and the factors that could influence them is crucial for the conservation of this species. In this study we assess how knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among people in northern Argentina regarding jaguars vary depending on their level of education, age and occupation. We interviewed 810 people living in and around 10 protected areas in northern Argentina. Positive perceptions and attitudes towards the jaguar were associated with economic benefits that people may receive from the species’ presence, such as income from tourism. Unexpectedly, higher levels of formal education were not associated with more positive attitudes and perceptions. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards the species were determined by fear; people see jaguars as a threat to their lives. This study shows that the socio-economic factors that affect the level of tolerance towards jaguars are not related only to economic losses. Our findings provide information for the design, implementation and evaluation of jaguar conservation projects in Argentina.
This article presents three arguments on why businesses have direct obligations under existing international law. Nevertheless, in the present state of international law, the obligations of businesses are limited and wholly dependent on the state’s further action of implementation and enforcement. To reach this conclusion, the article asserts that businesses have partial legal personality in international law; that legal obligations and the enforcement model must be distinguished as two separate issues; and that human rights are requirements of justice that emanate from the dignity of each human person to any social actor, including businesses and other non-state actors. The article attempts to contribute to the debate about a binding instrument on business and human rights and presents an alternative understanding of international law that can assist domestic tribunals in applying international human rights standards to businesses as they carry out activities in their jurisdictions.
Cervids represent a mammal group which plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. Recent studies have highlighted the role of these species as reservoirs for several arthropods-borne pathogens. Globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are emerging or remerging bacteria that attach to red blood cells of several mammals species causing hemolytic anaemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning of Mycoplasma ovis in free-ranging deer from Brazil. Using a polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA region, 18 (40%) out of 45 sampled deer were positive to M. ovis. Among the nine sequences analysed, four distinct genotypes were identified. The sequences detected in the present study were closely related to sequences previously identified in deer from Brazil and the USA. On the other hand, the Neighbour-Net network analysis showed that the human-associated M. ovis genotypes were related to genotypes detected in sheep and goats. The present study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of M. ovis in Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama bororo deer species, expanding the knowledge on the hosts harbouring this haemoplasma species. Once several deer species have your population in decline, additional studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenicity of M. ovis among deer populations around the world and assess its potential as reservoir hosts to human infections.
Mental disorders can have a major impact on brain development. Peripheral blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are lower in adult psychiatric disorders. Serum BDNF concentrations and BDNF genotype have been associated with cortical maturation in children and adolescents. In 2 large independent samples, this study tests associations between serum BDNF concentrations, brain structure, and psychopathology, and the effects of BDNF genotype on BDNF serum concentrations in late childhood and early adolescence.
Children and adolescents (7-14 years old) from 2 cities (n = 267 in Porto Alegre; n = 273 in São Paulo) were evaluated as part of the Brazilian high-risk cohort (HRC) study. Serum BDNF concentrations were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Genotyping was conducted from blood or saliva samples using the SNParray Infinium HumanCore Array BeadChip. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were quantified using FreeSurfer. The Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment was used to identify the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Serum BDNF concentrations were not associated with subcortical volumes or with cortical thickness. Serum BDNF concentration did not differ between participants with and without mental disorders, or between Val homozygotes and Met carriers.
No evidence was found to support serum BDNF concentrations as a useful marker of developmental differences in brain and behavior in early life. Negative findings were replicated in 2 of the largest independent samples investigated to date.
The maternal brain undergoes adaptations to sensitive caregiving that are critical for infant well-being. We investigated structural alterations associated with neglectful caregiving and their effects on mother–child interactive behavior. High-resolution 3D volumetric images were obtained on 25 neglectful (NM) and 23 non-neglectful control (CM) mothers. Using voxel-based morphometry, we compared differences in gray and white matter (GM and WM, respectively) volume. Mothers completed an empathy scale and participated with their children in a play task (Emotional Availability Scale, EA). Neglectful mothers showed smaller GM volume in the right insula, anterior/middle cingulate (ACC/MCC), and right inferior frontal gyrus and less WM volume in bilateral frontal regions than did CM. A greater GM volume was observed in the right fusiform and cerebellum in NM than in CM. Regression analyses showed a negative effect of greater fusiform GM volume and a positive effect of greater right frontal WM volume on EA. Mediation analyses showed the role of emotional empathy in the positive effect of the insula and right inferior frontal gyrus and in the negative effect of the cerebellum on EA. Neglectful mothering involves alterations in emotional empathy-related areas and in frontal areas associated with poor mother–child interactive bonding, indicating how critical these areas are for sensitive caregiving.
Essential oils (EOs) are considered a new class of ecological products aimed at the control of insects for industrial and domestic use; however, there still is a lack of studies involving the control of fleas. Ctenocephalides felis felis, the most observed parasite in dogs and cats, is associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity, the establishment of LC50 and toxicity of EOs from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm, Cinnamomum spp., Laurus nobilis L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle against immature stages and adults of C. felis felis. Bioassay results suggest that the method of evaluation was able to perform a pre-screening of the activity of several EOs, including the discriminatory evaluation of flea stages by their LC50. Ocimum gratissimum EO was the most effective in the in vitro assays against all flea stages, presenting adulticide (LC50 = 5.85 μg cm−2), ovicidal (LC50 = 1.79 μg cm−2) and larvicidal (LC50 = 1.21 μg cm−2) mortality at low doses. It also presented an excellent profile in a toxicological eukaryotic model. These findings may support studies involving the development of non-toxic products for the control of fleas in dogs and cats.
This study explores magnetization exhibited by nanoscale platinum-based structures embedded in pure silica plates. A superposition of laser pulses in the samples produced periodic linear arrangements of micro-sized structures. The samples were integrated by PtO2 microstructures (PtOΣs) with dispersed Pt oxide nanoparticles in their surroundings. The characterization of the materials was performed by high transmission electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, topographical and magnetic effects on the sample surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy, respectively. The magnetic measurements indicated an enhancement in the gradient phase shift and in the gradient force related to the magnetic PtOΣs. The possibility of tuning the magnetic characteristics of the samples through contact with a Nd2Fe14B magnet was demonstrated. This process corresponds to an innovative method for obtaining magnetic PtOΣs induced by laser pulses. Moreover, an increase in the compactness of the silica with platinum-based structures was confirmed by an evaluation of the effective elastic modulus with reference to pure silica. The multimodal magnetic structures studied in this work seem to be candidates for developing high-density magnetic storage media.
Predicting the impact of SDG 6 on forests and forest people requires a balanced understanding of the relationship between forests and water. Notable aspects are that forest cover reduces annual runoff but correlates well with water quality, and that recycling of evapotranspiration from forests is important for downwind precipitation. Within this context a target-by-target review of SDG 6, informed by South American examples, suggests that the Goal is unlikely to exert a major influence on forest cover. Targets 6.1 and 6.2 concerning water and sanitation provision will have relatively little impact on forests except through a demand for hydrological ecosystem services and the use of wastewater in forestry. Within the four water resources targets (6.3–6.6) significant impacts may be limited to water efficiency considerations (Target 6.4) restricting plantations in water-stressed areas and Integrated Water Resources Management (Target 6.5) driving a more integrated view of catchments and their management. The eventual SDG 6 impact will depend on the context of water–forest relationships (illustrated using the Hindu Kush Himalayas as an example), the extent to which SDG 6 will in fact be implemented and alignment of the Goal with forest policies, based on a landscape approach.
The polls of the 2018 Quebec election forecast a close race between the two leading parties. The result, a clear victory of the Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ) over the Parti libéral du Québec (PLQ), was clearly at odds with the polls. We argue that when the polls get it wrong, it is important to determine whether there was a polling miss, in which the discrepancy is due to changing voter behaviour, or a poll failure, in which the problem stems from polling methodology. Our post-election poll shows that changing voter behaviour—last-minute shifts and the vote of non-disclosers—explains most of the discrepancy. These movements varied by region. We conclude that the Quebec 2018 election was among the worst polling misses in history but not necessarily a major poll failure.
To investigate changes in socio-economic inequalities in growth in height, weight, BMI and grip strength in children born during 1955–1993 in Guatemala, a period of marked socio-economic-political change.
We modelled longitudinal data on height, weight, BMI and hand grip strength using Super-Imposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR). Internal Z-scores summarising growth size, timing and intensity (peak growth velocity, e.g. cm/year) were created to investigate inequalities by socio-economic position (SEP; measured by school attended). Interactions of SEP with date of birth were investigated to capture secular changes in inequalities.
Urban and peri-urban schools in the region of Guatemala City, Guatemala.
Participants were 40 484 children and adolescents aged 3–19 years of Ladino and Maya ancestry (nobservations 157 067).
The difference in height (SITAR size) between lowest and highest SEP decreased from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·2, −1·9) sd to −1·4 (95 % CI −1·5, −1·3) sd in males, and from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·1, −1·9) sd to −1·2 (95 % CI −1·3, −1·2) sd in females over the study period. Inequalities also reduced for weight, BMI and grip strength, due to greater secular increases in lowest-SEP groups. The puberty period was earlier and shorter in higher-SEP individuals (earlier SITAR timing and higher SITAR intensity). All SEP groups showed increases in BMI intensity over time.
Inequality narrowed between the 1960s and 1990s. The lowest-SEP groups were still >1 sd shorter than the highest. Risks remain for reduced human capital and poorer population health for urban Guatemalans.
This work deals with the closed-loop control of streaky structures induced by free-stream turbulence (FST), at the levels of 3.0 % and 3.5 %, in a zero-pressure-gradient transitional boundary layer, by means of localized sensors and actuators. A linear quadratic Gaussian regulator is considered along with a system identification technique to build reduced-order models for control. Three actuators are developed with different spatial supports, corresponding to a baseline shape with only vertical forcing, and to two other shapes obtained by different optimization procedures. A computationally efficient method is derived to obtain an actuator that aims to induce the exact structures that are inside the boundary layer, given in terms of their first spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) mode, and an actuator that maximizes the energy of induced downstream structures. All three actuators lead to significant delays in the transition to turbulence and were shown to be robust to mild variations in the FST levels. Integrated total drag reductions observed were up to 21 % and 19 % for turbulence intensity levels of 3.0 % and 3.5 %, respectively, depending on the considered actuator. Differences are understood in terms of the SPOD of actuation and FST-induced fields along with the causality of the control scheme when a cancellation of disturbances is considered along the wall-normal direction. The actuator optimized to generate the leading downstream SPOD mode, representing the streaks in the open-loop flow, leads to the highest transition delay, which can be understood due to its capability of closely cancelling structures in the boundary layer.
The current work presents a realizable method to control streaky disturbances in boundary layer flows and delay transition to turbulence by means of active flow control. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear transitional regime in a Blasius boundary layer are performed where streaks are excited in the boundary layer by means of a high level of free-stream turbulence. The occurring disturbances are measured by means of localized wall-shear-stress sensors and damped out using near-wall actuators, which resemble ring plasma actuators. Each actuator is powered by a time-varying signal whose amplitude is computed by processing signals from the sensors. The processed signal is the result of two control laws: the linear quadratic Gaussian regulator (LQG) and the inverse feed-forward control technique (IFFC). The use of the first control method, LQG, requires a state-space representation of the system dynamics, so the flow is described by means of a linear time-invariant operator that captures only the most relevant information of the dynamics and results in a reduced-order model (ROM). The ROM is computed by means of the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), which is based on the impulse responses of the real system. Collecting such impulse responses may be unfeasible when considering free-stream turbulence because of the high dimensionality of the input forcing needed for a precise description of such a phenomenon. Here, a new method to identify the relevant system dynamics and generate the needed impulse responses is proposed, based on additional shear-stress measurements in an upstream location. Transfer functions between such measurements and other downstream sensors are obtained and allow the derivation of the ERA system, in a data-driven approach that would be realizable in experiments. Finally, in order to discuss the advantages of the LQG based on the ROM and analyse its performance, the implemented LQG is compared to the IFFC, which consists of wave cancellation. The work (i) presents a systematic and straightforward way to deal with high-dimensional disturbances in order to build ROMs for a feasible control technique, and (ii) shows that even when considering practical constraints, such as the type and size of actuators and sensors, it is possible to achieve at least as large delay of bypass transition as that obtained in more idealized cases found in the literature.
Morally progressive social changes seem to have taken place with the onset of democratic governance, the abolition of slavery, the rise of gender equality, and other developments. This essay attempts to demonstrate that natural and objective moral facts are a plausible cause of some morally progressive social changes. Since this hypothesis is a version of naturalistic moral realism, I call it the Naturalist-Realist Hypothesis (NRH). To support the NRH, I argue that objective moral facts are natural facts pertaining to the impartial promotion of well-being within a population of agents facing a social dilemma. I then describe a mechanism to explain how natural and objective moral facts so construed may cause some morally progressive social changes. I suggest that the NRH is a credible hypothesis because it is compatible with empirical findings from research on the evolution of moral cognition and on the sociology of mass political movements.
Birthweight (BW) has been associated with anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness during growth and development of children. However, less is known about the mediation effect of those variables on the relationship between BW and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children.
To analyse the mediation effect of anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness on the association between BW and BMR in children.
In total, 499 children (254 boys, 245 girls) aged 7–10 years were included. Anthropometry (weight, height, head, waist and hip circumferences), body composition (skinfolds thickness, body fat percentage), physical fitness (handgrip strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular explosive power, agility, running speed) and BMR were evaluated. The analyses were conducted by: single-mediator analysis (SMA) and multi-mediator analysis (MMA).
The SMA indicates height, head, waist and hip circumferences and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for boys and height, hip circumference and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for girls. In MMA for girls, there were significant indirect effects for height, hip circumference and handgrip strength, with 79.08% of percent mediation. For boys, the head and waist circumferences mediation had a significant indirect effect, with 83.37% of percent mediation.
The anthropometric variables associated with BW were body height, head, hip and waist circumferences for boys and body height and hip circumference for girls. The current study provides new evidence that height and handgrip strength during childhood mediated the relationship between BW and BMR.
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, though it is highly prevalent in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While Schistosoma haematobium-bovis hybrids have been reported in West Africa, no data about Schistosoma hybrids in humans are available from Côte d'Ivoire. This study aimed to identify and quantify S. haematobium-bovis hybrids among schoolchildren in four localities of Côte d'Ivoire. Urine samples were collected and examined by filtration to detect Schistosoma eggs. Eggs were hatched and 503 miracidia were individually collected and stored on Whatman® FTA cards for molecular analysis. Individual miracidia were molecularly characterized by analysis of mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) DNA regions. A mitochondrial cox1-based diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was performed on 459 miracidia, with 239 (52.1%) exhibiting the typical band for S. haematobium and 220 (47.9%) the S. bovis band. The cox1 and ITS 2 amplicons were Sanger sequenced from 40 randomly selected miracidia to confirm species and hybrids status. Among the 33 cox1 sequences analysed, we identified 15 S. haematobium sequences (45.5%) belonging to seven haplotypes and 18 S. bovis sequences (54.5%) belonging to 12 haplotypes. Of 40 ITS 2 sequences analysed, 31 (77.5%) were assigned to pure S. haematobium, four (10.0%) to pure S. bovis and five (12.5%) to S. haematobium-bovis hybrids. Our findings suggest that S. haematobium-bovis hybrids are common in Côte d'Ivoire. Hence, intense prospection of domestic and wild animals is warranted to determine whether zoonotic transmission occurs.