In the examination of a psychiatric patient it is usual to distinguish between objective and subjective symptoms. Objective symptoms in clude all concrete events that can be perceived by the senses, e.g. reflexes, registrable move ments, an individual's physiognomy, his motor activity, verbal expression, written productions, actions and general conduct, etc.; all measur able performances, such as the patient's capacity to work, his ability to learn, the extent of his memory, and so forth, also belong here. It is also usual to include under objective symp toms such features as delusional ideas, falsifica tions of memory, etc., in other words the rational contents of what the patient tells us. These, it is true, are not perceived by the senses, but only understood; nevertheless, this “under standing“ is achieved through rational thought, without the help of any empathy into the patient's psyche.