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The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of the line manager in implementing to plan, implement and evaluate successful organizational interventions using our experiences from the ARK-program. Earlier literature has shown that line managers have a major influence on an intervention’s outcomes (Nielsen, 2017; Saksvik, Nytrø, Dahl-Jørgensen, & Mikkelsen, 2002), however, there is a lack of knowledge about the managements’ role throughout the entire intervention process and how line managers are influenced by the context at different levels. We therefore discuss the line managers’ role within the five phase cycle of an organizational intervention, including preparation, screening, action planning, implementation and evaluation. We also introduce a more in-depth understanding of the context by using of the IGLO-model (Individual, Group, Leadership and Organizational level). Based on our knowledge and experience from the ARK-program we make some recommendations for (a) what the line managers need throughout the five phases in order to contribute to a successful intervention, and (b) on what the line manager has to provide in order to develop and implement a successful intervention process.
Our study explores the validity of a game-based assessment method assessing candidates’ soft skills. Using self-reported measures of performance, (job performance, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and Great Point Average (GPA), we examined the criterion-related and incremental validity of a game-based assessment, above and beyond the effect of cognitive ability and personality. Our findings indicate that a game-based assessment measuring soft skills (adaptability, flexibility, resilience and decision making) can predict self-reported job and academic performance. Moreover, a game-based assessment can predict academic performance above and beyond personality and cognitive ability tests. The effectiveness of gamification in personnel selection is discussed along with research and practical implications introducing recruiters and HR professionals to an innovative selection technique.
Identifying patients at increased risk of suicide remains a challenge today. It has been reported that 10% of patients committing a suicide attempt end up dying and that both the risk and the severity of clinical symptomatology increase with the number of attempts. Within the framework of selective and indicated prevention, it is essential to identify the group of patients with an increased risk of recurrence. The objective of this study is to identify factors predicting suicide attempt relapse to improve the decision making process in the therapeutic approach to suicidal behavior. The methodology employed was a longitudinal design aimed at identifying factors, in a binary logistic regression model (stepwise), predicting the repetition of suicidal behavior among a sample of 417 participants aged between 8 and 17 years old, at the six months follow-up. A statistically significant model χ2(3, N = 417) = 18.610; p < .001; Nagelkerke R2 = .096 including the following factors was obtained: current diagnosis of personality disorder/maladaptive personality OR = .806, p = .028, 95% CI [1.091, 4.595], personal history of self-injury OR = .728, p = .043, 95% CI [1.023, 4.192], and family history of psychopathological diagnosis OR = .925, p = .021, 95% CI [1.151, 5.530]. Considering these results, having a diagnosis of personality disorder or maladaptive personality traits, presence or history of self-harm and family history of psychopathology draws a predictive profile of autolytic attempt recurrence during the six months after the initial intervention at the emergency room.
Developmental, Differential and Personality Psychology
Framed in cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions (Lazarus, 1999), this study aimed to test how coping mediated the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment in a sample of adolescent athletes. Five-hundred adolescents (M = 16.42; SD = 1.54) participated in our study. Participants completed competitive anxiety, coping, and sport commitment measures. We defined the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling; and compared two different models of mediation (i.e., total and partial mediation) using structural equation modeling. Results favored partial mediation model where cognitive anxiety factors predicted sport commitment. Results from this model suggest direct and mediated structural relations between concepts. Somatic anxiety had a weak influence on sport commitment (total effects = 0.090 [–.131, .311]). Worry showed a positive influence on sport commitment (total effects = .375 [.262, .486]) through direct and mediated effects. Concentration disruption showed a negative impact on sport commitment (total effects = –.544 [–.724, –.363]) trough mediated effects only, showing a negative path on task-oriented coping and a positive path on disengagement-oriented coping. As a whole, our findings identify task coping efforts undertaken by adolescent athletes as a key element in the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the design of coping interventions in adolescents.
This study among 80 dual-earner couples examines the ripple effects of emotional labour – on a daily basis. Specifically, we propose that employees who engage in surface acting at work drain their energetic resources, and undermine their own relationship satisfaction. Drawing upon conservation of resources (COR) theory, we predicted that work-related exhaustion would mediate the relationship between surface acting at work and at home. In addition, we hypothesized that employees’ emotional energy in the evening would mediate the relationship between surface acting at home and (actor and partner) satisfaction with the relationship. Participants filled in a survey and a diary booklet during five consecutive working days (N = 80 couples, N = 160 participants x 5 days, N = 800 occasions). The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor–partner interdependence model. Results showed that daily work-related exhaustion partially mediated the relationship between daily surface acting at work and at home. As hypothesized, daily surface acting at home influenced own and partner’s daily relationship satisfaction through reduced daily emotional energy. These findings offer support for COR theory, and have important implications for organizations that encourage emotion regulation.
Grounded in self-determination theory, the aim of this study was to develop a scale with adequate psychometric properties to assess motivation for teaching and to explain some outcomes of secondary education teachers at work. The sample comprised 584 secondary education teachers. Analyses supported the five-factor model (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and amotivation) and indicated the presence of a continuum of self-determination. Evidence of reliability was provided by Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability and average variance extracted. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the partial invariance (configural and metric) of the scale in different sub-samples, in terms of gender and type of school. Concurrent validity was analyzed by a structural equation modeling that explained 71% of the work dedication variance and 69% of the boredom at work variance. Work dedication was positively predicted by intrinsic motivation (ß = .56, p < .001) and external regulation (ß = .29, p < .001) and negatively predicted by introjected regulation (ß = –.22, p < .001) and amotivation (ß = –.49, p < .001). Boredom at work was negatively predicted by intrinsic motivation (ß = –.28, p < .005) and positively predicted by amotivation (ß = .68, p < .001). The Motivation for Teaching Scale in Secondary Education (Spanish acronym EME-ES, Escala de Motivación por la Enseñanza en Educación Secundaria) is discussed as a valid and reliable instrument. This is the first specific scale in the work context of secondary teachers that has integrated the five-factor structure together with their dedication and boredom at work.
Numerical skills are essential to make informed decisions in our daily life. Unfortunately, many people lack basic numeracy, which limits their ability to accurately interpret risks (i.e., risk literacy). In this paper, we provide an overview of research investigating the role of numeracy in two prominent domains, where most research was concentrated, health and finance. We summarize what has been learned so far in these domains and suggest promising venues for future research. We conclude that it is important to conduct interventions to improve numeracy in less numerate individuals and to help them make informed decisions and achieve better life outcomes.
Developmental, Differential and Personality Psychology
People diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties on Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks involving social situations, such as ‘faux pas’. The objective of this study was to find the modality of presentation (visual, verbal, or mixed) that yields the best understanding of a ‘faux pas’, and the possible influence of other variables, including intelligence (IQ), age, and working memory. Thirty autistic children and 30 neurotypical children, all aged 7 to 12 years old and comparable in age and IQ, participated in this study. They were asked to resolve nine ‘faux pas’ stories (three per modality). Significant between-groups differences were found in the visual (t = 2.99, p = .004) and verbal modalities (t = 2.64, p = .011), such that the neurotypical (NT) group had higher scores than the ASD group. The ASD group’s comprehension was better via the mixed modality than the verbal modality (t = 2.48, p = .019). In addition, working memory had a bigger impact on Faux Pas understanding in cases of autism than in typical development (R2 explained between .19 and .28 of variance in Faux Pas test outcomes), and could therefore explain some of the difficulties previously reported in this area. Future research should include a measure of working memory and a control among the stimuli presented to test for group differences in faux pas understanding.
The Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) is an ultra-brief measure of well-being designed to track outcome in psychotherapy. This research studied the psychometric properties of the ORS in a Spanish clinical sample. One-hundred and sixty-five adult participants from different primary care centers of the city of Barcelona were recruited. The psychometric properties of the ORS in the sample were explored and described, comparing them to the properties of other instruments already validated in Spain. Our results showed good reliability (α = .91 [.88, .93]; α = .96; test re-test correlations from .61 to .84), good validity (convergent validity correlations with distress and symptoms measures from –.32 to –.76), and good sensitivity to change (pre-post comparison through Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mdnpre = 31.0, Mdnpost = 19.6, z = –7.38, p < .05, r = .42). These results are consistent with previous findings in other countries. We conclude suggesting that the instrument can be applied to monitor outcome in psychotherapy and to test the effectiveness of treatments imparted with Spanish speaking clients. However, further research with the ORS in Spanish could provide more evidence of its psychometric properties.
Bullying and cyberbullying pose a serious problem in our schools. Despite this research area’s increasing relevance, most research into cyberbullying in the present day has focused only on adolescents. However, given the long-lasting effects of victimization, it is necessary to understand its prevalence throughout the different educational stages of students. This study aims to clarify the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying among students in the 5th and 6th grades. A sample of 1,993 (Mage = 10.68, SD = 0.71; range 9–13) students completed the “Cyberbullying: Screening of Peer-Harassment” test. The results reveal that 20.3% (n = 404) were pure victims, 6.1% (n = 121) pure bullies, 23.9% (n = 476) bully-victims, and 28.9% (n = 575) pure bystanders of bullying. With respect to cyberbullying, 13.4% (n = 267) were pure cybervictims, 0.7% (n = 13) pure cyberbullies, 3.1% cyberbully-victims (n = 62), and 25.6% (n = 510) pure cyberbystanders. In addition, the results reveal that verbal aggression and offensive or insulting messages were the most prevalent forms of aggression in bullying and cyberbullying, respectively. 36.6% of the sample had suffered verbal aggression and 8.4% had received offending or insulting messages. These data show that bullying and cyberbullying are considerably prevalent in this educational stage.