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A practical model for identification of children at risk of excess energy intake in the developing world

  • Pamela S Gaskin (a1), Peter Chami (a2) (a3), Justin Ward (a3), Gabriela Goodman (a4), Bernd Sing (a3), Maria D Jackson (a5) and Hedy Broome (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.



We describe diet quality by demographic factors and weight status among Barbadian children and examine associations with excess energy intake (EI). A screening tool for the identification of children at risk of excess EI was developed.


In a cross-sectional survey, the Diet Quality Index–International (DQI-I) was used to assess dietary intakes from repeat 24h recalls among 362 children aged 9–10 years. Participants were selected by probability proportional to size. A model to identify excess energy intake from easily measured components of the DQI-I was developed.




Primary-school children in Barbados.


Over one-third of children were overweight/obese, and mean EI for boys (8644 (se 174·5) kJ/d (2066 (se 41·7) kcal/d)) and girls (8912 (se 169·9) kJ/d (2130 (se 40·6) kcal/d)) exceeded the RDA. Children consuming a variety of food groups, more vegetables and fruits, and lower percentage energy contribution from empty-calorie foods showed reduced likelihood of excess EI. Intake of more than 2400 mg Na/d and higher macronutrient and fatty acid ratios were positively related to the consumption of excess energy. A model using five DQI-I components (overall food group variety, variety for protein source, vegetables, fruits and empty calorie intake) had high sensitivity for identification of children at risk of excess EI.


Children’s diet quality, despite low intakes of fruit and vegetables, was within acceptable ranges as assessed by the DQI-I and RDA; however, portion size was large and EI high. A practical model for identification of children at risk of excess EI has been developed.


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A practical model for identification of children at risk of excess energy intake in the developing world

  • Pamela S Gaskin (a1), Peter Chami (a2) (a3), Justin Ward (a3), Gabriela Goodman (a4), Bernd Sing (a3), Maria D Jackson (a5) and Hedy Broome (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.


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