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Relative validity of a diet quality index for children in Scotland

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 November 2016

L.C.A. Craig
Affiliation:
Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
G. McNeill
Affiliation:
Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
L.F. Masson
Affiliation:
The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7GJ, UK.
J.I. Macdiarmid
Affiliation:
Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
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Abstract

Type
Abstract
Copyright
Copyright © The Authors 2016 

Diet Quality Indices (DQIs) are useful tools to assess the extent to which individuals’ overall diet meets dietary guidelines. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative validity of a diet quality index (DQI) based on the Scottish Diet Goals( 1 ) in children aged 3–16 years, derived from semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) (Scottish Collaborative Group (SCG) version C2 and C3) compared with 4-day non-weighed-diet diaries. Participants were a sub-sample of 158 children from the 2006 nation-wide survey of sugar intake among children in Scotland( Reference Sheehy, McNeill and Masson 2 ) who completed both an FFQ and a 4-day diary. Nutrient intakes were calculated using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey databank. FFQs with energy intakes below the 2·5 and above the 97·5 centiles were excluded from the analysis to remove outliers (n = 6). A DQI (scoring intakes of fruit and vegetables, oily fish, red and processed meat, total fat, saturated fat, NMES, NSP and energy density) adapted from one used previously for Expenditure and Food Survey data( Reference Armstrong, Sherriff and Wrieden 3 ) was calculated for FFQ and diet diary data. A score was assigned to each of the 8 components (maximum score 10 for each) then summed and adjusted to a percentage score. Relative agreement was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and cross-classification of the percentage of subjects in the same and opposite thirds of intake.

IQR, interquartile range.

The DQI percentage score for both methods was low with no children achieving 100 % by either method (ranging from 11 % in both methods to 86 % and 68 % for the FFQ and the diary respectively). Although the ranking agreement was better in younger children, absolute DQI scores agreed better between the two methods for older children. These results are similar to those found for nutrients( Reference Craig, McNeill and Masson 4 ) and suggest that the FFQ has acceptable validity for measuring this DQI in children.

References

1. The Scottish Government (2013) Revised Dietary Goals for Scotland. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0042/00421385.pdf (accessed March 2013).Google Scholar
2. Sheehy, C, McNeill, G, Masson, L et al. (2008) Survey of sugar intake among children in Scotland. Food Standards Agency Scotland. http://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/survey-measure-intake-non-milk-extrinsic-sugar-scottish-children (accessed March 2013).Google Scholar
3. Armstrong, J, Sherriff, A, Wrieden, WL, et al. (2009) Deriving and Interpreting Dietary Patterns in the Scottish Diet: Further Analysis of the Scottish Health Survey and the Expenditure and Food Survey. Food Standards Agency Scotland. http://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/deriving-and-interpreting-dietary-patterns-scottish-diet-further-analysis-scottish-health-survey-and (accessed March 2013).Google Scholar
4. Craig, LCA, McNeill, G, Masson, LF, et al. (2010). Proc Nutr Soc 69, , E428.Google Scholar
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