The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small integral membrane proteins 28-35kDa in size, sub classified into 2 groups; those selectively permeated by water (the aquaporins; AQP0, AQP1, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6 and AQP8) or by water and small organic osmolytes such as glycerol and urea (the aquaglyceroporins; AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10). AQPs are expressed in a variety of epithelial tissues where they are responsible for rapid water movement driven by osmotic gradients. The mammary gland produces and secretes milk which consists of water, lipids, electrolytes, vitamins, sugars and specific milk proteins. However, little is known about AQP expression, distribution and function in mammary tissue or about the process of water transport across the mammary epithelium. The only information available relates to the identification of AQP1 and AQP3 in capillary endothelia and epithelial cells of mouse mammary glands respectively (Matsuzaki et al., 2005). Since water delivery to the mammary gland is critical for milk production, which is of major economic importance to the dairy industry, it is necessary to understand the underlying physiology involved. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and distribution of AQPs within the bovine mammary gland.