Evolutionary theory predicts that the sex ratio of Plasmodium gametocytes will be determined by the number of gametes produced per male gametocyte (male fecundity), parasite clonal diversity and any factor that reduces male gametes' ability to find and combine with female gametes. Despite the importance of male gametocyte fecundity for sex ratio theory as applied to malaria parasites, few data are available on gamete production by male gametocytes. In this study, exflagellating gametes, a measure of male fecundity, were counted for 866 gametocytes from 26 natural infections of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. The maximum male fecundity observed was 8, but most gametocytes produced 2–3 gametes, a value consistent with the typical sex ratio observed for P. mexicanum. Male gametocytes in infections with higher gametocytaemia had lower fecundity. Male fecundity was not correlated with gametocyte size, but differed among infections, suggesting genetic variation for fecundity. Fecundity and sex ratio were correlated (more female gametocytes with higher fecundity) as predicted by theory. Results agree with evolutionary theory, but also suggest a possible tradeoff between production time and fecundity, which could explain the low fecundity of this species, the variation among infections, and the correlation with gametocytaemia.