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Zinc oxide is a versatile II-VI naturally n-type semiconductor that exhibits piezoelectric properties. By controlling the growth kinetics during a simple carbothermal reduction process a wide range of 1D nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts, and nanotetrapods have been synthesized. The driving force for the nanostructure growth is the Zn vapour supersaturation and supply rate which, if known, can be used to predict and explain the type of crystal structure that results. A model which attempts to determine the Zn vapour concentration as a function of position in the growth furnace is described. A numerical simulation package, COMSOL, was used to simultaneously model the effects of fluid flow, diffusion and heat transfer in a tube furnace made specifically for ZnO nanostructure growth. Parameters such as the temperature, pressure, and flow rate are used as inputs to the model to show the effect that each one has on the Zn concentration profile. An experimental parametric study of ZnO nanostructure growth was also conducted and compared to the model predictions for the Zn concentration in the tube.
Changes of the electron properties of surface atoms of silicon dioxide film caused by the adsorption of donor-type gas-phase molecules (H2O, O2, NH3, HF) were modeled with the help of semiempirical methods and molecular mechanics. It was shown that the adsorption capacity and reactivity of the layers depend on the Si-O-Si bond angle. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data and confirm our hypothesis concerning the rearrangement of the surface layer stimulated by the adsorbed molecule.
This investigation focused on the study of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin films with 5 atomic percent Ru-doping (LSMRO). Specifically, we fabricated epitaxial LSMO and LSMRO thin films on LaAlO3 (LAO) (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Resistance- temperature measurement results showed that the Curie temperature (Tc) of LSMRO thin film deposited under an oxygen ambient pressure of 150 mTorr at 830 °C was above room temperature. Hysteresis measurements and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) results confirmed that coercivity of the optimized LSMRO films, as compared with that of LSMO films, can be greatly increased at low temperatures. The study successfully demonstrated the coercivity enhancement effect of Ru-doping on LSMO thin films deposited on LAO substrates.
This paper reports structural, morphological, optical and humidity sensing characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO film. The XRD pattern reveals amorphous structure of the film. Scanning electron micrograph indicates formation of ZnO rods in micron size. Transmission increases gradually in the UV-VIS region. For studying the humidity sensing characteristics of the film, base of a right angled isosceles glass prism has been coated. Chopped light from a polarized He-Ne laser incident on the entry face of the prism gets reflected from the base – film – humid air interfaces and then emergent light is collected by the detector placed in front of the exit face of the prism. The least change in relative humidity which could be measured using the present configuration is 1.06RH%. Further the film is annealed at 400°C for four hours and its humidity sensing behavior is investigated in the similar manner which now shows a reversed trend. The sensitivity to humidity has decreased and the least change which could be detected now is 1.16RH%.
Ion implantation doping of Si through an SiO2 overlayer is of interest for fabrication of a range of devices on the pathway to development of a solid–state quantum computer (SSQC). The fabrication requirements of devices based on the Kane architecture typically involve implantation through a pre-existing thin device–quality thermal oxide at low fluences ∼1011 cm−2 and ion energies in the range 10 – 20 keV. Here we present results from a deep level transient spectroscopy studies of ion–implanted MOS capacitors in which interface–trap densities have been measured in as–grown and H–passivated thermal oxides and in ion implanted and rapid–thermally processed devices. For thin oxides of 5nm or less and low ion fluences we find that implantation does not significantly increase interface trap densities and somewhat surprisingly that it can even be beneficial when the interface trap density is abnormally high, (∼ 1 × 1011cm−2.eV−1) in the as-grown oxide.
Studies on Mn, Ni and Co doped ZnO systems have revealed that the RTFM present in these systems can be both intrinsic and extrinsic depending on the choice of TM ion incorporated, technique of preparation and post-synthesis processing. Choice of such a technique that ensures better homogeneity and incorporation of TM ions in the ZnO host, leads to the occurrence of intrinsic, stable and robust RTFM. The air ambient processing eliminates the chances of any metallic cluster inclusions, and instead such TM oxide phases are formed that are non-ferromagnetic. However, post synthesis processing like vacuum annealing of ZnO:Co samples under some situations can give rise to occurrence of extrinsic RTFM. But, this can be overcome by certain additional processing step. ZnO:Co samples with intrinsic RTFM, stable upto 900°C annealing with Curie temperatures in excess of 450°C have successfully been prepared.
Metal oxide nanoparticles are increasingly being used to prepare new nanocrystaline materials. By controlling formulations of multicomponent metal oxides; crystal shape, structure and surface properties important in the design of new materials are gaining acceptance for many applications. Metal oxide composites are being used to design new electronic, magnetic and optical properties into material structures. Often these are formulated and processed in slurries or aqueous suspensions. A key parameter of controlling the design of such colloidal nanoparticle systems is their particle size. There are different methods by which a particle size can be obtained. Comparing stated dimensions from one method with those from another must be approached with caution: distributions in terms of volume, number or scattering intensity usually produce vastly differing results – despite expressing the exact same physical situation. Another fundamental colloidal characteristic is the zeta potential. This parameter effectively quantifies electrostatic stabilization, and can be used in formulation development to avoid instability as a result of particle-particle attraction.
Both size and zeta potential are easily measured by light scattering. Small amounts of aggregates are quickly detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The zeta potential is rapidly measured by electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). As an example of a typical metal oxide, data for TiO2 nanoparticles are presented.
Light scattering is a versatile measurement technique and ideally suited as a metrology of choice for size and stability quantification of nano-sized materials.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize the reactivities of clean, stoichiometric NiSi and Ni(Pt)Si films on n-doped Si(100) substrates in O2, and in O+O2 environments. In the presence of O+O2, NiSi and Ni(Pt)Si form Ni silicate and Pt silicate overlayers, respectively, with oxide/silicate overlayer thicknesses of 41(4) Å (NiSi) and 28(3) Å (Ni(Pt)Si) after 4.5x104 L exposure. Exposure to O2 yields, for each material, a ∼7(1) Å thick SiO2 overlayer without transition metal oxidation. O+O2 induces rapid Si oxidation, formation of metal-rich silicides, and then the kinetically-driven oxidation of Ni or Pt to form a silicate. This may pose significant processing problems in silicate removal and unwanted Ni diffusion into other areas of the device.
We have grown 100 periodic SiO2/SiO2+Ag multi-nano-layered systems where the SiO2+Ag layers were 7.26 nm and SiO2 buffer layer were 4 nm, total thickness is 563 nm. Using interferometer as well as in-situ thickness monitoring, we measured the thickness of the layers; using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measured the concentration and distribution of Ag in SiO2. The electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the layered structure were measured at room temperature before and after bombardment by 5 MeV Si ions. The energy of the Si ions were chosen such that the ions are stopped in the silicon substrate and only electronic energy due to ionization is deposited in the layered structure. The electrical conductivity measured using Van der Pauw method. Thermal conductivity of the thin films was measured using an in-house built 3ω thermal conductivity measurement system. Using the measured Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity we calculated the figure of merit (ZT). We will report our findings of change in the figure of merit as a function of the bombardment fluence.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) by rf sputtering using different rf powers (60 and 120 W) and at different substrate temperatures (room temperature and 100 °C). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the oxygen content in the films. Hall effect measurements were used to evaluate the electrical properties. In this paper the influence of defect structure, sputtering conditions, and the effect of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO on PEN have been investigated. Electrical properties such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the ITO films varied with rf power and substrate temperature. The electricalproperties of the films changed after annealing in air. This study also describes how the as-deposited amorphous ITO changes from amorphous to crystalline as a result of heat treatment, and investigates the effects of Sn defect clustering on electrical and optical properties of the ITO films.
The composite powder of Al(OH)3 and Sr(OH)2, was obtained by means of the hydrolysis of the activated Al-Sr alloy powder in pure water. As a precursor, it could be used to prepare long after phosphor Eu, Dy co-doped SrAl2O4 by the modified solid state reaction at 1300°C. The components and microstructure of the composite powder were investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS techniques, and the luminescent characteristics and the afterglow properties of the long afterglow material were also measured at the same time. The experimental results showed that, the distribution of the two elements Al and Sr was uniform in the microstructure of the composite powder, and the contacting surfaces between the solid reactants were increased effectively at high temperature, and the diffusive paths were abbreviated. Therefore, the reaction velocity was increased, the sinter temperature descended and the luminescent properties enhanced.
Photoluminescence (PL) intensity and wavelength control of Si-rich SiOx film and Si-rich SiOx based MOSLED achieved by detuning plasma power (RF power) during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) growth is investigated. The peak of PL spectrum blue-shifts from 780 to 400 nm by modifying the RF power form 20 to 70 W during PECVD growth. The average sizes of Si nanocluster under RF power of 60 and 70W are 2.61 and 1.83 nm, respectively. The EL color of Si nanocrystal (nc-Si) based MOSLEDs can be tunable among orange-red, green and blue colors by growing the SiOx films with PECVD under different RF power. Under RF power from 50 to 70W, the turn-on voltage of nc-Si based MOSLEDs increases from 26 to 60 V, the optical power also increases from 1.6 W/cm2 to 9.7 W/cm2 and the power-current slope are 0.51, 3.24 and 62.92 mW/A, respectively.
CuxO/CeO2 nanocomposite powders were prepared by wet impregnation of nanosized ceria powder (Cu/Ce nominal atomic ratio from 0.05 to 0.5). XP analysis reveals the presence of Cu2O in the samples with lower Cu/Ce atomic ratio whereas CuO is prevalent in the samples richer in copper. The surface Cu/Ce atomic ratio obtained from XPS data is always higher than the nominal one suggesting the surface segregation of copper. A plateau value (0.9-1.0) is reached for the samples with a nominal Cu/Ce atomic ratio of 0.2 suggesting an island growing mechanism.
The nanocomposite samples and the supporting ceria were exposed to a NO+CO mixture (2% CO, 2% NO, 96% He) and the reactivity was investigated by means of DRIFT spectroscopy and QMS. At 523 K (i.e. the temperature at which the nanocatalysts activity is higher) the capability for NO reduction increases with increasing the Cu/Ce atomic ratio.
The thermal oxidation kinetics of Si(110) surface up to oxide layer thickness of 1 ML has been investigated by real-time monitoring of chemical shifted in the Si 2p core-level photoemission using synchrotron radiation. The uptake profiles of every Si oxidation states (Sin+: n = 1 − 4) indicate that the top surface Si(110) oxidation proceeds through a two-step oxidation pathway via Si2+ state, just like the Si(001) surface. In contrast to the Si(001) oxidation, however, Si3+ state is always more abundant than Si4+ state during oxidation. This is related to occurrence of imperfect oxidation of this surface, most probably due to accumulation of compressive strain during oxidation.
In this work we studied metaloxide films such as ZnO, In2O3-ZnO, In2O3-ZnO-ZrO2 and Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO deposited by pulsed laser deposition on fused silica substrates at room temperature. Optical transmission measurements in the ultra violet – visible region showed that oxygen-rich atmospheres during deposition help to obtain more transparent films in the optical region while improving overall UV absorption transition related to the band gap. Less resistive films are produced in oxygen-rich atmospheres but an increase of oxygen pressure leads to higher resistivity films.
Core–shell microspheres of monodispersed SiO2 coated with rare-earth ion doped CeO2 (Eu3+ Sm3+ Dy3+) were prepared through a sol-gel method and followed by heat treatment at 800 °C for 4 h. XRD patterns revealed the crystal structures of the doped CeO2 coated on amorphous SiO2 sphere as a shell subsequent to heat treatment at 800 °C. SEM and TEM analysis indicated the microstructures of the coating and uniform size distributions of microspheres. Photoluminescence studies showed that the luminescent property had significant influence depending on different dopant ions and the thickness of the shell coated on SiO2 spheres.
A variety of oxide semiconductors such as ZnO, SnO2, In2O3 and other multi-component oxide compounds have been successfully used as channel materials in thin-film transistors (TFTs). Compared with amorphous silicon and organic semiconductor counterparts, the unique features of these materials include good performance, stability, low temperature processing, and transparency. In this work, we report on room-temperature deposition of indium oxide thin films by reactive ion beam assisted evaporation (IBAE) and their application to TFTs. By modifying the deposition parameters, nanocrystalline indium oxide (nc-In2O3) with an average grain size of 12 nm was achieved. TFTs with IBAE nc-In2O3 channel and silicon nitride gate dielectric deposited by conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), were fabricated. The n-channel TFT has a threshold voltage of ∼2.5 V, a field-effect mobility of ∼32 cm2/Vs, along with an ON/OFF current ratio of ∼108, and a sub-threshold slope of 2.5 V/decade. The TFT reported here has one of the best performance characteristics in terms of device mobility, ON/OFF current ratio, and OFF current, using conventional, and large area foundry-compatible PECVD gate dielectrics. The device performance coupled with its low-temperature processing makes IBAE-derived nc-In2O3 TFT a promising candidate for active matrix flat panel displays.
Scandia-doped zirconia is a very promising material for solid oxide fuel cells due to its high oxygen conductivity in the 700-850°C temperature range. 10 mol% Sc2O3 - 1 mol% CeO2 - ZrO2 ceramics were sintered at temperatures 1100-1600°C using different heating rates and dwell times. Ceramics sintered at temperatures higher 1300°C were found to exist in cubic phase at room temperature and exhibit slow phase transformation from cubic (c) to rhombohedral (beta) phase between 330 and 400°C. Analysis of c-β phase transition efficiency in the ceramics shows a strong correlation between the transition rate and sintering temperature. Kinetics of phase transitions were studied by high temperature X-ray diffractometry (HTXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry methods. The reversible c-β phase transition was found to have very wide hysteresis (45-70°C), which depends on sintering temperature and density. Coefficients of thermal expansion of c- and β-phases were calculated from temperature dependence of lattice parameters obtained by HTXRD in the temperature range of 25-800°C. Microstructural changes on the surface of the cubic phase due to c-β phase transition studied by SEM and AFM.
The present work addresses the synthesis and characterization of red emitting Gd2-xEuxO3 nanocrystalline phosphors by a modified sol-gel based method. The effects of the annealing temperature and atomic fraction of Eu3+ ions, ‘x’, on the structural and luminescence properties of the produced oxides have been systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that crystalline cubic-Gd2O3 host structure was obtained when the intermediates (x=0.01-0.30) were annealed at different temperatures in air. Photoluminescence spectra of doped Gd2O3 powders showed all transitions of Eu3+ species, being the 5D0→7F2 transition the most intense. On a common sample-weight basis, the highest photoluminescence intensity was obtained at ‘x’ = 0.15. The energy transfer from host to dopant was verified for all evaluated ‘x’ values, which suggest the actual incorporation of Eu species into the Gd-oxide lattice. It was also found that the photoluminescence intensity was strongly dependent on the annealing temperature and dopant concentration.
The correlation between structural properties of ZnO sharp conical needles grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrate and their optical signature measured by low temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) is investigated. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) shows the excellent structural properties of these needles from their base up to the end of the tip. In order to probe the emission of the needles along their length, UV CL mapping has been performed at low temperature on a single needle previously characterized by TEM. A clear blue shift of 25meV is observed for the excitonic emission close to the needle tip. This shift is too high to be fully attributed to quantum confinement. Although, it qualitatively agrees with previous observations which assigned it to a surface contribution becoming dominant upon size shrinking, the effect is less pronounced. The results are discussed in term of surface quality and other possible contributions associated to a decrease of the n-dopant concentration and to quantum confinement effect close to the tip.