This paper initiates the study of a process algebra based on atomic actions that are assigned resources, and that supports true concurrency. By true concurrency we mean that the parallel composition of concurrent processes does not rely on an interleaving of concurrent actions for its definition. Our process algebra includes a number of interesting operators that can be defined using resources of atomic actions to control their behaviour: of particular note is a (weak) sequential composition operator that exploits the truly concurrent nature of the semantics; this operator extends significantly the operation of prefixing by atomic actions that is supported in most truly concurrent semantics. Our language also includes a parallel composition operator that allows local events to execute asynchronously, while requiring synchronising events to execute simultaneously. In addition, the language supports a restriction operator and includes (unguarded) recursion.
We present both a denotational semantics and a companion operational semantics for our language. The denotational semantics supports true concurrency, so that parallel composition is defined without non-determinism or interleaving. This semantics also is novel for its treatment of recursion. The meaning of a recursive process is defined using a least fixed point on a subdomain that is determined by the body of the recursion, and that varies from one process to another. Nonetheless, the recursion operators in the language have continuous interpretations in the denotational model. In fact, our denotational model is based on a domain-theoretic generalisation of Mazurkiewicz traces in which the concatenation operator, as well as the other operators from our language, can be given continuous interpretations.
The operational model is presented in a natural SOS style. We prove a congruence theorem relating the two semantics, which implies the operational model itself is compositional. The congruence theorem also implies the denotational model is adequate with respect to the operational semantics, and we characterise the relatively mild conditions under which the denotational semantics is fully abstract with respect to the operational semantics.