Seventeen corticolous shrubby apotheciate Usnea species without vegetative propagules are reported from Brazil, including five species that are new to science: Usnea aurantiaca-parvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by an orange medulla and lageniform spinulose fibrils), U. cirrosa Motyka, U. cladocarpa Fée (syn. nov.: U. ramillosa Motyka), U. concinna Stirton (lectotype designated here, syn. nov. U. radiata Stirton, U. florida var. scabrosa Zahlbr.), U. cristatula Motyka, U. erinacea Vain., U. fleigiae A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores and a thin, lax medulla), U. grandispora A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores, a black base and protocetraric or salazinic acids in the medulla), U. kalbiana P. Clerc & A. Gerlach (characterized by a vitreous cortex and annular cracks in the basal part), U. lunaria Motyka, U. meridionalis Zahlbr. (syn. nov.: U. michauxii I. I. Tav.), Usnea cf. moreliana Motyka, U. parvula Motyka, U. steineri Zahlbr, U. subelegans (Vain.) B. de Lesd. (lectotype designated here), U. subparvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by spinulose fibrils and protocetraric acid in the medulla) and one as yet unidentified species (named Usnea sp. 1). Usnea cirrosa, U. cristatula and U. erinacea are new records for Brazil. A full description with morphological, anatomical (CMA and ascospores) and chemical features (TLC), as well as geographical distribution, is provided for each species along with an identification key to all species reported. Molecular data from the ITS rDNA, RPB1 and Mcm7 markers are present for most taxa, except for U. concinna, U. cristatula, U. kalbiana, U. lunaria, U. cf. moreliana and U. subelegans.