The lichen genus Ochrolechia found in China is revised. Twenty taxa are accepted in the genus, including four described as new to science: Ochrolechia alticola, differing from O. mexicana by the larger ascospores and the absence of lichexanthone, and from O. africana by the C+ red reaction of the apothecial margin cortex, the absence of 5-O-methylhiascic acid, and its alpine habitat; O. lijiangensis, differing from O. longispora by the larger apothecia and smaller ascospores, and by the presence of an additional undetermined fatty acid; O. longispora, differing from O. trochophora by the larger ascospores and the presence of two fatty acids; and O. rugomarginata, differing from O. pallescens in the minutely verruculose margins of the mature apothecia, the absence of variolaric acid and the C+ red thallus cortex, and from O. trochophora var. trochophora by the presence of alectoronic acid in the apothecial medulla, the coarsely pruinose disc and a preference for the bark of coniferous trees. Four new taxa are reported for China: Ochrolechia arborea, O. mahluensis, O. szatalaënsis and O. trochophora var. pruinirosella. An identification key to all taxa in the genus known from China is provided.