R2MoO6:Eu3+ (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and lifetimes were used to characterize the resulting phosphors. The results of XRD indicate that all of the R1.96Eu0.04MoO6 (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors crystallized completely at 800 °C. Y1.96Eu0.04MoO6 and Gd1.96Eu0.04MoO6 are of isomorphous monoclinic (α) structure, while La1.96Eu0.04MoO6 preferentially adopts the tetragonal (γ) form. FE-SEM study reveals that the samples mainly consist of aggregated particles with an average grain size ranging from 100 to 250 nm. The luminescent properties of R2MoO6:Eu3+ (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors are largely dependent on their structure, grain size, and powder morphology. The isomorphous Y2MoO6:Eu3+ and Gd2MoO6:Eu3+ phosphors show very similar luminescence properties, which differ greatly from that of the La2MoO6:Eu3+ phosphor.