Measurements are presented for low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layers developing in a zero pressure gradient on the sidewall of a duct. The effect of rotation on these layers is examined. The mean-velocity profiles affected by rotation are described in terms of a common universal sublayer and modified logarithmic and wake regions.
The turbulence quantities follow an inner and outer scaling independent of rotation. The effect appears to be similar to that, of increased or decreased layer development. Streamwise-energy spectra indicate that, for a given non-dimensional wall distance, it is the low-wavenumber spectral components alone that are affected by rotation.
Large spatially periodic spanwise variations of skin friction are observed in the destabilized layers. Mean-velocity vectors in the cross-stream plane clearly show an array of vortex-like structures which correlate strongly with the skin-friction pattern. Interesting properties of these mean-flow structures are shown and their effect on Reynolds stresses is revealed. Near the duct centreline, where we have measured detailed profiles, the variations are small and there is a reasonable momentum balance.
Large-scale secondary circulations are also observed but the strength of the pattern is weak and it appears to be confined to the top and bottom regions of the duct. The evidence suggests that it has minimally affected the flow near the duct centreline where detailed profiles were measured.