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This journal follows Cambridge University Press’s Green Open Access policy for Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) journals.

Authors can archive certain versions of their articles in an institutional or non-commercial subject repository, or on their personal or departmental websites. The archived version can be the Accepted Manuscript (after peer review) six months after publication, or an earlier version at any time, but not the final published PDF (the Version of Record). This allows authors to comply with the open access mandates of many funders and institutions. Please note however that this journal's Green Open Access policy is not compatible with Plan S.

If you have open access questions which are not answered by our policy pages and resources, please contact


A preprint is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. This journal allows preprints to be posted anywhere at any time, including before submission to the journal. For more information, see the Cambridge University Press preprint policy.