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Open access options

This journal is a wholly open access journal, which means all articles are published as Gold Open Access under a Creative Commons licence. This enables anyone to access and redistribute the content and, depending upon the licence, re-use the content in new or derivative works with attribution. The terms of re-use for Gold Open Access content are stated in the copyright line of the article.

The Creative Commons licences offered by this journal for Gold Open Access articles are CC BY, CC BY-NC-SA, and CC BY-NC-ND.

Open Access Funding

Gold Open Access publication in this journal is paid for through a series of different funding routes designed to ensure that every author, irrespective of their circumstances, can publish in the journal and enjoy the benefits of Gold OA. The costs of publishing an article are represented through an article publishing charge (APC) attached to each article, and these costs are typically covered in one of four ways:

  • If the research behind the article was funded by a grant or arrangement with a funding body that supports the payment of APCs, authors are asked to pay an APC out of those funds.
  • If the corresponding author is affiliated with an institution with which Cambridge University Press has a publishing agreement, in the majority of cases this will cover the full APC (though terms and conditions vary) and Cambridge will liaise directly with the institution to determine eligibility and secure this funding. Cambridge has made a substantial number of these agreements in order to make Gold Open Access available to authors irrespective of their access to direct grant funding, and authors can use this tool to see if their institution has an active agreement.
  • If the corresponding author is based in a Research4Life country, this journal grants 100% waivers to authors based in ‘Group A’ countries, and 50% waivers to those based in ‘Group B’ countries.
  • In other cases, this journal also grants waivers on a discretionary basis for any authors not covered by the three options above. Authors must request a waiver at or before submission, before an article enters editorial consideration by filling out this form.

Please note that the decision whether to accept a paper for publication will rest solely with the Editor, and without reference to the funding situation of the authors. The Editor, editorial board members, and reviewers will have no involvement with the billing of APCs and cannot grant waivers.

Please check the fees and pricing page for details of this journal’s charges, and our central APC page for further information such as APC refund policies.

Preprint policy

A preprint is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. This journal allows preprints to be posted anywhere at any time, including before submission to the journal. For more information, see the Cambridge University Press preprint policy.