We designed a 1: 1: 1 case-case-control study to identify risk factors for XDR A. baumannii bacteremia in Singapore and Thailand. Case group 1 was defined as having infection due to XDR A. baumannii, and case group 2 was defined as having infection due to non-XDR A. baumannii. The control group comprised patients with blood cultures obtained to determine possible infection.
There were 93 patients in each group. Pitt bacteremia score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.570 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.528–4.322]), central venous catheters (CVCs; aOR, 12.644 [95% CI, 2.143–74.620]), use of carbapenems (aOR, 54.391 [95% CI, 3.869–764.674]), and piperacillin-tazobactam (aOR, 55.035 [95% CI, 4.803–630.613]) were independently associated with XDR A. baumannii bacteremia. In case group 2, Pitt bacteremia score (aOR, 1.667 [95% CI, 1.265–2.196]) and third-generation cephalosporins (aOR, 2.965 [95% CI, 1.224–7.182]) were independently associated with non-XDR A. baumannii bacteremia. Concurrent infections (aOR, 3.527 [95% CI, 1.479–8.411]), cancer (aOR, 3.172 [95% CI, 1.135–8.865]), and respiratory source (aOR, 2.690 [95% CI, 1.160–6.239]) were associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality. Survivors received more active empirical therapy (16.7% vs 9.6%; P = .157), had fewer cases of XDR bacteremia (45.8% vs 52.6%; P = .452), and received higher median definitive polymyxin B doses (840,000 units vs 700,000 units; P = .339)
Use of CVC and broad spectrum antibiotics were unique risk factors of XDR A. baumannii bacteremia. Effective antimicrobial stewardship together with use of a CVC bundle may reduce the incidence of these infections. Risk factors of acquisition and mortality may help identify patients for early initiation of polymyxin B therapy.