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In a crossover trial, a gown designed to increase skin coverage at the hands and wrists significantly reduced contamination of personnel during personal protective equipment (PPE) removal, and education on donning and doffing technique further reduced contamination. Simple modifications of PPE and education can reduce contamination during PPE removal.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic de-escalation before and after implementation of a 72-hour antibiotic time-out alert within the electronic medical record was analyzed. De-escalation occurred significantly more often after the implementation of the alert (55.0% vs 35.1%; 95% confidence interval, −0.3491 to −0.0488; P < .01).
More than 50% of outpatient surgeries predicted to have an increased likelihood of an adverse event were excluded from surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance based on Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) eligibility criteria, defined by clinician determination of invasiveness. Burden of SSI for eligible versus ineligible surgeries was similar; thus, surveillance activities in the outpatient setting need to be re-evaluated.
Interest in electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (EHHMSs) is now widespread throughout the infection control community. We tested 2 types of EHHMS for accuracy. The type B EHHMS captured more HH events with superior accuracy. Hospitals considering an EHHMS should assess the technology’s ability to accurately capture HH performance in the clinical workflow.
No standardized surveillance criteria exist for surgical site infection after breast tissue expander (BTE) access. This report provides a framework for defining postaccess BTE infections and identifies contributing factors to infection during the expansion period. Implementing infection prevention guidelines for BTE access may reduce postaccess BTE infections.
The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR)–driven intensive care unit (ICU) antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) service on clinician compliance with face-to-face AMS recommendations. AMS recommendations were defined by an internally developed “5 Moments of Antimicrobial Prescribing” metric: (1) escalation, (2) de-escalation, (3) discontinuation, (4) switch, and (5) optimization. The secondary objectives included measuring the impact of this service on (1) antibiotic appropriateness, and (2) use of high-priority target antimicrobials.
A prospective review was undertaken of the implementation and compliance with a new ICU-AMS service that utilized EMR data coupled with face-to-face recommendations. Additional patient data were collected when an AMS recommendation was made. The impact of the ICU-AMS round on antimicrobial appropriateness was evaluated using point-prevalence survey data.
For the 202 patients, 412 recommendations were made in accordance with the “5 Moments” metric. The most common recommendation made by the ICU-AMS team was moment 3 (discontinuation), which comprised 173 of 412 recommendations (42.0%), with an acceptance rate of 83.8% (145 of 173). Data collected for point-prevalence surveys showed an increase in prescribing appropriateness from 21 of 45 (46.7%) preintervention (October 2016) to 30 of 39 (76.9%) during the study period (September 2017).
The integration of EMR with an ICU-AMS program allowed us to implement a new AMS service, which was associated with high clinician compliance with recommendations and improved antibiotic appropriateness. Our “5 Moments of Antimicrobial Prescribing” metric provides a framework for measuring AMS recommendation compliance.
Alternatives to skin preparation with conventional preoperative antiseptics are required because of adverse reactions and the potential emergence of resistance. Here, we present 2 phase 2 studies of ZuraGard (ZG), a novel formulation of isopropyl alcohol and functional excipients developed for preoperative skin antisepsis.
Microbial skin flora on abdominal and inguinal sites in healthy volunteers were quantitatively assessed following application of ZG versus a negative control (ZV) and a chlorhexidine/alcohol preparation, Chloraprep (CP). In trial 1, ZG administered for both recommended and abbreviated application times was compared with CP and ZV via bacterial reductions at 10 minutes, and 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours following application. In trial 2, the 10-minute postapplication responder rates (RRs) for ZG, participants with abdominal ≥2 log10 per cm2, and inguinal ≥3 log10 per cm2 reductions in colony-forming units (CFU) were compared to RRs of participants treated with CP.
In trial 1, ZG at the recommended application time reduced mean bacterial counts by ~3.18 log10 CFU/cm2 and ~2.98 log10 CFU/cm2 at abdominal and inguinal sites, respectively. Qualitatively similar reductions were observed for the abbreviated ZG application time and all CP applications. Application of ZV was ineffective. In trial 2, 10-minute RRs for ZG and CP exceeded 90% at abdominal sites. At inguinal sites, RRs were 83.3% for ZG and 86.7% for CP. No skin irritation or other adverse events were observed.
ZG matched CP efficacy under these experimental conditions with immediate and persistent microbial reductions, including abbreviated application times. Further clinical studies of this novel preoperative antiseptic are merited.
Little is known about prescribers’ attitudes regarding clinical nurses and antimicrobial stewardship. We conducted focus groups of prescribers and inquired about attitudes regarding nurses and stewardship. During 6 focus groups, prescribers were receptive to nursing involvement in stewardship activities, but noted structural barriers and knowledge gaps that should be addressed.
Patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-positive clinical cultures during a prior hospitalization were screened using high sensitivity methods upon first readmission. Of 38 patients, 31.6% screened positive; 42% screened positive within 2 months from discharge, and 14% screened positive more than 5 months from discharge. Carriage was persistent up to 285 days.
To describe an outbreak of bacteremia caused by vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis (VSEfe).
An investigation by retrospective case control and molecular typing by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
A tertiary-care neonatal unit in Melbourne, Australia.
Risk factors for 30 consecutive neonates with VSEfe bacteremia from June 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed using a case control study. Controls were neonates matched for gestational age, birth weight, and year of birth. Isolates were typed using WGS, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was determined.
Bacteremia for case patients occurred at a median time after delivery of 23.5 days (interquartile range, 14.9–35.8). Previous described risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia did not contribute to excess risk for VSEfe. WGS typing results designated 43% ST179 as well as 14 other sequence types, indicating a polyclonal outbreak. A multimodal intervention that included education, insertion checklists, guidelines on maintenance and access of central lines, adjustments to the late onset sepsis antibiotic treatment, and the introduction of diaper bags for disposal of soiled diapers after being handled inside the bed, led to termination of the outbreak.
Typing using WGS identified this outbreak as predominately nonclonal and therefore not due to cross transmission. A multimodal approach was then sought to reduce the incidence of VSEfe bacteremia.
The value of decolonization as a strategy for preventing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains to be determined.
After adding decolonization to further reduce MRSA transmission in our NICU, we conducted this retrospective review to evaluate its effectiveness.
The review included patients who were admitted to our NICU between April 2015 and June 2018 and were eligible for decolonization including twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing over 5 consecutive days. Patients were considered successfully decolonized if 3 subsequent MRSA screenings conducted at 1-week intervals were negative. The MRSA acquisition rate (AR) was calculated as hospital-acquired (HA) MRSA per 1,000 patient days (PD) and was used to measure the effectiveness of the decolonization.
Of the 151 MRSA patients being reviewed, 78 (51.6%) were HA-MRSA, resulting in an overall AR of 1.27 per 1,000 PD. Between April 2015 and February 2016, when only the decolonization was added, the AR was 2.38 per 1,000 PD. Between March 2016 and June 2018 after unit added a technician dedicated to the cleaning of reusable equipment, the AR decreased significantly to 0.92 per 1,000 PD (P < .05). Of the 78 patients who were started on the decolonization, 49 (62.8%) completed the protocol, 11 (14.1%) remained colonized, and 13 (16.7%) were recolonized prior to NICU discharge.
In a NICU with comprehensive MRSA prevention measures in place, enhancing the cleaning of reusable equipment, not decolonization, led to significant reduction of MRSA transmission.
To establish the reliability of the application of National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) criteria within established reporting systems internationally.
Diagnostic-test accuracy systematic review.
We conducted a search of Medline, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL (EbscoHost), and PubMed (NCBI). Cohort studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared publicly reported CLABSI rates and were conducted by independent and expertly trained reviewers using NHSN/Centers for Disease Control (or equivalent) criteria. Two independent reviewers screened, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS 2 tool. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were analyzed.
A systematic search identified 1,259 publications; 9 studies were eligible for inclusion (n = 7,160 central lines). Publicly reported CLABSI rates were more likely to be underestimated (7 studies) than overestimated (2 studies). Specificity ranged from 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–0.81) to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00) and sensitivity ranged from 0.42 (95% CI, 0.15–0.72) to 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77–0.95). Four studies, which included a consecutive series of patients (whole cohort), reported CLABSI incidence between 9.8% and 20.9%, and absolute CLABSI rates were underestimated by 3.3%–4.4%. The risk of bias was low to moderate in most included studies.
Our findings suggest consistent underestimation of true CLABSI incidence within publicly reported rates, weakening the validity and reliability of surveillance measures. Auditing, education, and adequate resource allocation is necessary to ensure that surveillance data are accurate and suitable for benchmarking and quality improvement measures over time.
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) cause ~5%–10% of infections in hospitalized children, leading to an increased risk of death, prolonged hospitalization, and additional costs. Antibiotic exposure is considered a driving factor of MDRO acquisition; however, consensus regarding the impact of antibiotic factors, especially in children, is lacking. We conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between antibiotic use and subsequent healthcare-associated infection or colonization with an MDRO in children.
Systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline.
We searched PubMed and Embase for all English, peer-reviewed original research studies published before September 2018. Included studies evaluated hospitalized children, antibiotic use as an exposure, and bacterial MDRO as an outcome.
Of the 535 studies initially identified, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, a positive association was identified in most studies evaluating a specific antibiotic exposure (17 of 21, 81%), duration of antibiotics (9 of 12, 75%), and number of antibiotics received (2 of 3, 67%). Those studies that evaluated any antibiotic exposure had mixed results (5 of 10, 50%). Study sites, populations, and definitions of antibiotic use and MDROs varied widely.
Published studies evaluating this relationship are limited and are of mixed quality. Limitations include observation bias in recall of antibiotic exposure, variations in case definitions, and lack of evaluation of antibiotic dosing and appropriateness. Additional studies exploring the impact of antibiotic use and MDRO acquisition may be needed to develop effective antibiotic stewardship programs for hospitalized children.
The main risk factor for acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is antimicrobial exposure, although acquisition can occur in their absence. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of patients who acquire ARB without antimicrobial exposure.
We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library for publications between January 1, 2000, and July 24, 2017, to identify studies of ARB acquisition in endemic settings. Studies required collection of serial surveillance cultures with acquisition defined as a negative baseline culture and a subsequent positive culture for an ARB, including either multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria or antimicrobial-resistant enterococci. Intervention studies were excluded. For each study, the proportion of patients who acquired an ARB but were not exposed to antimicrobials during the study period was quantified.
A total of 4,233 citations were identified; 147 underwent full-text review. Of these, 10 studies met inclusion criteria; 7 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias; and 6 studies were conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The overall summary estimate for the proportion of patients who were not exposed to antimicrobials among those who acquired an ARB was 16.6% (95% CI, 7.8%–31.8%; P < .001), ranging from 0% to 57.1%. We observed no heterogeneity in the ICU studies but high heterogeneity among the non-ICU studies.
In most included studies, a subset of patients acquired an ARB but were not exposed to antimicrobials. Future studies need to address transmission dynamics of ARB acquisition in the absence of antimicrobials.