The Gangdese magmatic belt across the southern Tibetan Plateau is juxtaposed with the Indus–Yurlung Zangbo suture zone (IYS), and many mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are exposed in the belt, thus providing a window for observing deep crust–mantle processes related to the Indo-Asian collision. The Nyemo intrusion is located in the middle part of the Gangdese magmatic belt and comprises host diorites with abundant MMEs. Compared with other parts of the Gangdese magmatic belt, the host rock of the Nyemo intrusion has a mineral composition similar to that of the MME, although differences are observed in chemical contents. To explore the genetic type of the MMEs and the deep processes of the Gangdese magmatic belt, the Nyemo intrusion is selected as the research object for this paper. Here, we report zircon U–Pb geochronological and whole-rock geochemical data for host diorites and MMEs, and electron probe data for hornblendes in diorites and MMEs, and combine mineralogy, petrology, petrogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry analyses. Research has shown that diorites in the Nyemo intrusion belong to the medium-K, metaluminous series. The light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) are significantly fractionated, and the LREE/HREE values are 5.77–7.71. The (87Sr/86Sr)i values of the diorites range from 0.704260 to 0.704287, and the εNd(t) values are from 3.73 to 4.17. The MMEs in the Nyemo intrusion have a limited range of SiO2 contents, are calc-alkaline with metaluminous affinity, and have relatively high contents of MgO (4.34–5.00 wt %) with Mg# (Mg2+/Mg2+ + Fe2+) values of 42.36–43.53, which is close to that of evolved basic magma. The contents of REEs vary from 108.87 to 120.59 ppm and show obvious Eu anomalies. The (87Sr/86Sr)i values of the MMEs range from 0.704680 to 0.704704, and the εNd(t) values are 0.35–3.74. The crystallization temperature of the hornblende in the diorite is 820 °C, the formation depth is 5.39 km, the oxygen fugacity is ΔNNO + 0.88 and the water content is 5.95 %. The crystallization temperature of the hornblende in the MMEs is 880 °C, the formation depth is 12.18 km, the oxygen fugacity is ΔNNO + 0.38 and the water content is 8.27 %. The Nyemo MMEs are formed by magma mingling, and originate from the partial melting of the depleted mantle, while the host diorite originates from partial melting of the juvenile crust with the addition of mantle material. The formation of the Gangdese magmatic belt is related to the Indo-Asian continental collision. The break-off of the subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate triggered partial melting of the asthenosphere, which resulted in accumulation of the basaltic magma and then caused the partial melting of the juvenile crust with the addition of mantle material, thus forming a variety of granitic rocks and the large Gangdese magmatic belt.