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The genetically unrelated chick strains Hy-1 and Hy-2, which have been strongly selected for growth rate, both exhibit hyperplasia of the lens epithelium. These two strains and a control strain N, not selected for growth rate, were compared with respect to incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 14C-uridine by freshly excised lenses in culture at different times throughout a 24-h period. The levels of incorporation of label into the lens cells were found to vary according to the time of day. The pattern of diurnal variation in both thymidine and uridine incorporation was found to be strain specific. Hy-1 and Hy-2 showed a greater degree of synchrony than did normal (N) lenses, and the frequency of the peaks of incorporation was also higher. Autoradiography confirmed that only lens epithelium incorporates thymidine during culture and that the number of labelled nuclei depends on the time of day when the lenses were explanted. These data point to genetic control of the cell cycle.
Thirty-four populations of Aedes aegypti representing the world-wide distribution of the species, were analysed for genetic variation at 19–22 isozyme loci. The species has an average expected heterozygosity of 0·129±0·045 based on 19 loci analysed in every population. Based on this genetic information, two major groups can be defined: the dark, often sylvan, African subspecies formosus and the light domestic subspecies aegypti in Africa and the New World. Asian populations do not fall easily into either group. These results are related to models which have been proposed for the evolution of this species. Although A. aegypti was introduced into the New World c. 350 years ago and has recently recolonized many areas following eradication programmes, no signs of founder effects are evident in this region. Asian populations, on the other hand, do show a significantly lower level of genetic variation compared to other populations. This may be related to the time of introduction of A. aegypti into Asia and historical absence of yellow fever on the Asian continent.
A new mutation, Sleek, similar in appearance to mutations at the Ta, cr and dl loci, has been investigated. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant and maps very close to dl on chromosome 13. Allelism with dl seems probable since Sleek interacts with dl but not with cr. The unusual occurrence of dominant and recessive alleles at the same locus which produce a similar mutant phenotype suggests that the locus might either code for a multimeric protein or a regulatory product.
The steps in the parasexual cycle required for genetic analysis by mitotic haploidization were readily accomplished in Aspergillus amstelodami. Balanced heterokaryons were synthesized between strains carrying complementary auxotrophic mutations and heterozygous-diploid colonies were recovered from these heterokaryons at frequencies between 1 × 10−6 and 5 × 10−6 among conidia plated. When grown in the presence of p-fluorophenylalanine or benomyl, heterozygous-diploid strains produced discrete haploid segregants. Examination of the segregation of 12 mutations among haploid segregants from ten diploids indicated that these genes were located in six linkage groups, thereby increasing the number of linkage groups recognized in this species. This haploidization analysis provided a clear distinction between linked and unlinked genes and continuation of this approach should reveal the chromosome number of A. amstelodami. Linkage at meiosis was detected between only one of five pairs of mitotically linked genes tested, emphasising the value of mitotic-haploidization analysis for assigning markers to linkage groups. A. amstelodami is amenable to both mitotic and meiotic genetic analysis and further studies should permit extensive comparisons of the genetic and biochemical organization of this species with that of A. nidulans.
Some sampling properties related with the mean and variance of the number of alleles and single locus heterozygosity are derived to study the effect of variations in mutation rate of selectively neutral alleles. The correlation between single locus heterozygosity and the number of alleles is also derived. Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to examine the effect of stepwise mutations. The relevance of these results in estimating the population parameter, 4Neν, is discussed in connexion with neutralist-selectionist controversy over the maintenance of genetic variability in natural populations.
Five clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells with increased resistance to bleomycin have been isolated following ethylmethanesulphonate mutagenesis. Resistance was stable in three of the clones, but unstable in the other two. One of the stably resistant clones was cross resistant to unrelated drugs, and in contrast to the parental cells, its response to bleomycin was potentiated by tween 80. These two observations suggested a membrane alteration in the resistant clone. There was no significant difference in bleomycin-inactivating enzyme activity between the parental and resistant clones.
This paper examines the suggestion of Gale & Mackay (1979) that dominance modification will be slower in an environment with fluctuating selection coefficients than in a constant environment. The case of statistical independence between successive environments is studied. It is shown that there is an effect in the suggested direction, but that it is quantitatively slight with biologically plausible values for the parameters involved. It therefore seems unlikely that the phenomena noted by Charlesworth (1979) can be explained in these terms.
Two spontaneously formed R-plasmids (pFS401 and pFS402) originating from the multiple drug-resistant Escherichia coli strain UR12644 were found to carry transposable drug-resistance elements. Incompatibility between these two plasmids was used to select for transposition. An ampicillin transposon (Tn1781) residing on pFS401 and a tetracycline transposon (Tn1771) present on pFS402 were independently translocated to the endogenous RTF-plasmid pFS2. Molecular weight determinations of pFS2::Tn1781(Ap) and pFS2::Tn1771(Tc) revealed a value of 2·9 Mdal for Tn1781 and 7·1 Mdal for Tn1771. The arrangement of 3 PstI and 1 BamHI restriction endonuclease sites was found to be characteristic for the ampicillin transposon whereas the restriction map of Tn1771 features a nearly symmetrical location of 3 EcoRI cleavage sites, two of them close to the termini and one in the middle of the transposon. A model is presented suggesting the existence of repetitive DNA-segments at these positions which represent the structural preconditions for the genetic properties of Tn1771. The role of a cryptic plasmid involved in the generation of the endogenous R-plasmids pFS401 and pFS402 is discussed.
Population cages were set up containing an X-chromosome balancer, and either a single wild-type chromosome(homozygous cages) or a mixture of wild-type chromosomes(heterozygous cages). The balancer chromosome was eliminated more rapidly from the heterozygous cages, indicating that chromosome heterozygotes are at an advantage over chromosome homozygotes. The disadvantage of X-chromosome homozygosity in the female is estimated to be about 40%. From earlier studies it is known that the average disadvantage of homozygosity for either of the two major autosomes of D. melanogaster is approximately 80%. Since these autosomes are both about twice as long as the X chromosome, the disadvantage per unit length is similar for both chromosomal types.
Both X-chromosomal and autosomal heterosis can be explained by either dominance or overdominance at individual loci. However, a dominance model can only explain the similarity if many of the X-linked loci (about 50%) are limited in expression to the female.
Drosophila melanogaster adults were collected throughout the summers of 1976 and 1977 in Hartford, Connecticut. The frequencies of the Adh isoalleles were determined and seasonal variation demonstrated. Correlation coefficients were calculated between Adh frequencies and the seasonal variations in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and barometric pressure. Although five correlations were significant it was concluded that these were due to chance.