The Canadian spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Poaceae) cultivar ‘Superb’ was less susceptible to damage by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), than the spring wheat cultivars ‘AC Barrie’, ‘AC Foremost’, ‘McKenzie’, ‘AC Domain’, and ‘Glenlea’ in Manitoba. The partial resistance of ‘Superb’ was similar, at the seedling stage, to that of ‘Guard’, which possesses the resistance gene H18. Females laid eggs readily on all cultivars, providing no evidence for antixenosis, but few larvae developed on seedlings of ‘Superb’ and ‘Guard’, showing that antibiosis against larvae is the mechanism of resistance in these seedlings. In the field, where infestation of spring wheat takes place about 4 weeks after the seedling stage, ‘Guard’ continued to show high levels of resistance, but ‘Superb’ was less resistant, although still more resistant than highly susceptible cultivars. Infested stems of ‘Superb’ and ‘Nordic’ were less likely to break than infested stems of other cultivars, showing that these two cultivars are partially tolerant to infestation. Infested stems of ‘Guard’ and other cultivars showed high levels of stem breakage and are intolerant. Yield losses due to infestation by Hessian fly were mostly caused by the breakage and falling over of infested stems, which prevented the seeds on these stems from being harvested. Infested stems of all susceptible cultivars that remained standing at harvest had lower seed masses and fewer seeds per spike than uninfested stems, which contributed to yield loss. ‘Grandin’, a parent of ‘Superb’, is the probable source of resistance in ‘Superb’, but the pedigree of ‘Grandin’ provides no clue as to the gene(s) involved. The partial antibiosis and tolerance expressed by ‘Superb’ is sufficient to reduce losses to Hessian fly by 65% in comparison with a susceptible cultivar such as ‘AC Barrie’. ‘Superb’ is the first Canadian spring wheat cultivar identified to have an agronomically useful level of resistance to Hessian fly.