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Twenty weaned rabbits were fed ad libitum two granulated feeds containing lucerne meal, barley, oats, wheat bran, oilseed meals and sugarbeet pulp in different proportions. Phytate P in these feeds represented 28·6 and 29·3 % of the total P. Digestibility trials were carried out in rabbits 7 and 10 weeks old. Digestibility of phytate P was 82·1 %, on average. Apparent digestibility of total P was 48·1 and 35·5 % in rabbits aged 7 and 10 weeks, respectively. Concentration of P in the faecal DM of these rabbits averaged 11·9 and 14·7 m/. Most of the faecal P was phosphates P (68·1 %). Proportion of phytate P in total faecal P was 9·0 %. Age effect on total P digestibility and faecal P concentration was significant (P<0·05). In five in vitro experiments twenty-four rabbits were killed at the age of 11 weeks, digesta samples diluted with physiological saline containing phytic acid and incubated anaerobically. Calculations of phytase activity in segments of the digestive tract were based on the estimation of phytic acid hydrolysed during the first 2 h of incubation. The caecum contained 58·6 % of the phytase activity of the digestive tract. Corresponding relative values for the phytase activity in the stomach, small intestine and colon were 22·3, 7·7 and 11·4 %, respectively. In incubations of the caecal contents, phytic acid was hydrolysed more rapidly at pH 5–6 than in the neutral pH region. The hydrolysis was inhibited by Ca cations, and to a small extent also by phosphate anions. Commercial fungal phytase (Natuphos®) was highly active in incubations of the contents of the stomach at pH 1·9. It can be concluded that phytic acid is hydrolysed quite efficiently in the digestive tract of rabbits. This hydrolysis occurred mainly in the caecum. Absorption of soluble inorganic phosphates in the gut is incomplete.
High plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is reported to be a risk factor for vascular diseases. We investigated the extent to which serum folate and plasma tHcy respond to a high intake of natural folate from food. Thirty-seven healthy females volunteered to participate in a crossover dietary intervention. The study included a baseline period and two 5-week diet periods (low- and high-folate diets) with a 3-week washout in between. The low-folate diet contained one serving of both vegetables and frui/, while during the high-folate diet the subjects ate at least seven servings of vegetables, berries, and citrus frui/. Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) folate, serum vitamin B12, and plasma tHcy concentrations were measured at the baseline and at the end of each diet period. The mean concentrations of serum and RBC folate were 11·0 (sd 3·0) nmo/ and 412 (sd 120) nmo/ at the end of the low-folate diet and 78 (95 % CI 62, 94) % and 14 (95 % CI 8, 20) % higher in response to the high-folate diet (P<0·001). The serum concentration of vitamin B12 remained unchanged during the intervention. The mean plasma tHcy concentration was 8·0 μmo/ at the end of the low-folate diet and decreased by 13 (95 % CI 9, 18) % in response to the high-folate diet (P<0·001). In conclusion, a diet high in fresh berries, citrus fruit, and vegetables effectively increases serum and RBC folate and decreases plasma homocysteine.
Mild-to-moderate vitamin C depletion in weanling guinea-pigs affects pyridinoline:deoxypyridinoline (collagen cross-link) ratios in femur shaft and urine, attributed to impairment of hydroxylation of collagen lysine. We investigated: (1) whether the picture at two time points is compatible with progressive accumulation of abnormal collagen; (2) whether any changes are seen in skin, where little deoxypyridinoline occurs; (3) whether total food restriction has similar effects. Male weanling Dunkin–Hartley guinea-pigs were fed diets containing either 0·5 (vitamin C-restricted) or 160·0–320·0 (vitamin C-adequate) mg vitamin /. Two groups receiving the vitamin C-adequate diet received it ad libitum. Two other groups received the vitamin C-adequate diet in a restricted amount, limited to that which permitted nearly the same growth rate as in the vitamin C-restricted groups. Animals were fed for 4 or 8 weeks; urine was collected, and vitamin C and collagen indices were measured. In the femur shaft, the hydroxyproline content per unit weight was unaffected by vitamin C restriction or by total food restriction. Deoxypyridinoline was increased and the pyridinoline:deoxypyridinoline ratio was decreased in vitamin C-restricted groups, but not in food-restricted groups. Changes in the value of the ratio were greater after 8 than after 4 weeks. Urine indices mirrored bone indices. In skin, the main effect of vitamin C restriction was to reduce hydroxyproline. Here, the cross-link ratios changed less markedly than in bone, and there was less deoxypyridinoline. We conclude that the picture at two time points is compatible with a progressive accumulation of pyridinoline-enriched collagen in vitamin C-deprived animals, that the picture in skin differs from that of bone and urine, and that cross-link changes are not produced by total food restriction.
The composition of the raw legume Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. athropurpurea (PhVa) and its effects on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated. The levels of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, fibre and bioactive factors present in PhVa were comparable with those in other Phaseolus vulgaris varieties. However, the lectins of PhVa were predominantly of the leucoagglutinating type, and concentrated in the albumin protein fraction. Rats fed a diet (110 g total protein, 16·0 M/g) in which PhVa meal provided about half of the protein excreted high levels of N in faeces and urine, and grew more slowly, than rats fed a high-quality control diet (ad libitum or pair-fed). Small intestine, large intestine and pancreas weights were increased (by almost 100 %, P<0·05), whilst skeletal muscle, thymus and spleen weights were reduced. Blood insulin 16·20 v. 0·50 m/, P<0·05, thyroxine, glucose, protein (60·5 v. 48·3 /, P<0·05) and LDL-cholesterol were lowered, whilst glucagon (155·3 v. 185·4 n/, P<0·05), triiodothyronine and urea were elevated, as were urinary urea, creatinine and glucose. These changes in the local (gut) and systemic metabolism of rats were probably mediated primarily by lectins in PhVa, which were concentrated in the albumin protein fraction, whereas in many other Phaseolus vulgaris lines they are distributed across the globulin and albumin fractions.
The effect of adaptation time on the concentration and pattern of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) formed in the hindgut of rats given resistant starch (RS) in the form of raw potato starch (RPS) or high-amylose maize starch (HAS) was evaluated. Each starchy material was tested in diets containing 100 g indigestible carbohydrate/g DM, and fed for 13, 28 and 42 d. At the end of each period, the content of SCFA was determined in caecum, distal colon and faeces. The caecal concentration of total and individual SCFA increased for both diets with increasing adaptation time. The concentration of butyric acid was higher in the group fed RPS than in that fed HAS at all adaptation times. The caecal proportion of butyric acid was low both in rats fed RPS and HAS (6 and 4 %, respectively) following 13 d of adaptation. However, after 28 d of adaptation, the proportion of butyric acid had increased to 19 % in rats given RPS. A longer adaptation period (42 d) did not increase the proportion of butyric acid further. With HAS, there was also a significant (P<0·01) increase in the proportion of butyric acid with longer adaptation time. However, the increase was much slower and the proportion of butyric acid reached 6 and 8 % after 28 and 42 d respectively. It is concluded that the pattern of SCFA formed from RS in rats is dependent on adaptation time. It cannot be excluded that the different patterns of SCFA reported in the literature for RS may be due to the time of adaptation.
Elucidating the role of carbohydrate quality in human nutrition requires a greater understanding of how the physico-chemical characteristics of foods relate to their physiological properties. It was hypothesised that rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG), in vitro measures describing the rate of glucose release from foods, are the main determinants of glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) for cereal products. Twenty-three products (five breakfast cereals, six bakery products and crackers, and twelve biscuits) had their GI and II values determined, and were characterised by their fat, protein, starch and sugar contents, with the carbohydrate fraction further divided into total fructose, RAG, SAG and resistant starch. Relationships between these characteristics and GI and II values were investigated by regression analysis. The cereal products had a range of GI (28–93) and II (61–115) values, which were positively correlated (r2 0·22, P<0·001). The biscuit group, which had the highest SAG content (8·6 (sd 3·7) g per portion) due to the presence of ungelatinised starch, was found to have the lowest GI value (51 (sd 14)). There was no significant association between GI and either starch or sugar, while RAG was positively (r2 0·54, P<0·001) and SAG was negatively (r2 0·63, P<0·001) correlated with GI. Fat was correlated with GI (r2 0·52, P<0·001), and combined SAG and fat accounted for 73·1 % of the variance in GI, with SAG as the dominant variable. RAG and protein together contributed equally in accounting for 45·0 % of the variance in II. In conclusion, the GI and II values of the cereal products investigated can be explained by the RAG and SAG contents. A high SAG content identifies low-GI foods that are rich in slowly released carbohydrates for which health benefits have been proposed.
We have compared lipoprotein metabolism in, and susceptibility to atherosclerosis of, two strains of male Golden Syrian hamster, the Bio F1B hybrid and the dominant spot normal inbred (DSNI) strain. When fed a normal low-fat diet containing approximately 40 g fat and 0·3 g cholestero/g, triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (chylomicron+VLDL) and HDL-cholesterol were significantly higher (P<0·001) in Bio F1B hamsters than DSNI hamsters. When this diet was supplemented with 150 g coconut oil and either 0·5 or 5·0 g cholestero/g, significant differences were seen in response. In particular, the high-cholesterol diet produced significantly greater increases in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the Bio F1B compared with the DSNI animals (P=0·002 and P<0·001 for cholesterol and triacylglycerol, respectively). This was particularly dramatic in non-fasting animals, suggesting an accumulation of chylomicrons. In a second experiment, animals were fed 150 g coconut oi/g and 5·0 g cholestero/g for 6 and 12 months. Again, the Bio F1B animals showed dramatic increases in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol, and this was confirmed as primarily due to a rise in chylomicron concentration. Post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly reduced (P<0·001) in the Bio F1B compared with the DSNI animals at 6 months, and virtually absent at 12 months. Bio F1B animals were also shown to develop significantly more (P<0·001) atherosclerosis. These results indicate that, in the Bio F1B hybrid hamster, cholesterol feeding reduces lipoprotein lipase activity, thereby causing the accumulation of chylomicrons that may be associated with their increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis.
Caseinophosphopeptides (CPP) were detected for the first time in ileostomy fluid, collected at 2 h intervals for 10 h post milk and CPP ingestion, from human volunteers with an ileostomy. The level of CPP present in ileostomy fluid obtained from milk-fed volunteers was markedly higher than that from volunteers fed with selected CPP preparations. The findings are based on HPLC analysis in combination with peptide-bound P determination, thin-layer electrophoresis and amino acid analysis, together with ELISA studies using polyclonal antibodies raised against a set of CPP to detect immunoreactive CPP in ileostomy fluid. These procedures allowed the detection of nm concentrations of CPP. CPP, which can be released during intestinal digestion, may function as bioactive constituents and carriers for different minerals, especially Ca, and may be used as ingredients in functional foods or pharmaceutical preparations.
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, has been suggested to be a novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. It has previously been reported that hyperhomocysteinaemia may be associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and reduced plasma level of NO-derived endproducts (NOx). In the present study, plasma levels of arginine and ADMA were measured in twenty-one healthy control subjects, and in twenty-one hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects before and after 6 weeks and 12 months of folic acid supplementation, and compared with previously measured plasma NOx values in the hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Compared with control subjects, hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects had higher plasma levels of arginine and ADMA. More importantly, folic acid therapy significantly reduced plasma levels of arginine and ADMA. Furthermore, plasma levels of arginine and ADMA were positively correlated with plasma homocysteine levels and negatively correlated with plasma folate, as well as negatively correlated with plasma NOx. Our results suggest that ADMA may be a mediator of the atherogenic effects of homocysteine.
Subjects with insulin resistance have been shown to have higher storage levels of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) than their insulin-sensitive counterparts. It has been proposed that elevated IMCL stores may be the main cause of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether there is a causal relationship between IMCL storage and insulin resistance. IMCL storage was assessed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by performing an oral glucose tolerance test. A 4-week intervention of reduction of dietary glycaemic index was used to manipulate insulin sensitivity in a cohort of healthy volunteers; the effects of this intervention on IMCL were measured after 4 weeks of intervention. Significant improvements in the insulin sensitivity index occurred following the dietary intervention (baseline 7·8 (sem 1·11) v. post-intervention 9·7 (sem 1·11), P=0·02). However, there were no changes in IMCL storage levels, suggesting that insulin sensitivity can be manipulated independently of IMCL. This suggests that in healthy volunteers, insulin sensitivity is independent of IMCL storage and the high storage levels that have been found in insulin-resistant subjects may occur as a consequence rather than a cause of insulin resistance.
To explore the hypothesis that proliferating lymphoid cells in immune-stimulated lymph nodes obtain nutrients locally from adjacent adipose tissue, adult guinea pigs were fed for 6 weeks on standard chow or on chow supplemented with 100 g suet, sunflower oil or fish oi/g. All the guinea pigs ate standard chow for the last 5 d, during which swelling of one popliteal lymph node was stimulated by repeated local injection of lipopolysaccharide. The fatty acid compositions of phospholipids in both popliteal and in several mesenteric lymph nodes, and of triacylglycerols in eleven samples of adipose tissue defined by their anatomical relations to lymph nodes, were determined by GC. The proportions of fatty acids in the phospholipids extracted from the stimulated popliteal node correlated best with those of triacylglycerols in the surrounding adipocytes, less strongly with those of adipocytes elsewhere in depots associated with lymphoid tissue, but not with those of nodeless depots. The composition of triacylglycerols in the perinodal adipose tissue changed under local immune stimulation. We conclude that proliferating lymphoid cells in activated lymph nodes obtain fatty acids mainly from the triacylglycerols in adjacent perinodal adipose tissue. Immune stimulation prompts changes in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols of adipocytes in node-containing depots that equip the adipose tissue for provisioning immune responses. Such local interactions show that specialised adipocytes can act as an interface between whole-body and cellular nutrition, and may explain why mammalian adipose tissue is partitioned into a few large and many small depots.
A model is described which aims to predict intake immediately following a change from one food to another that is higher in bulk content; it deals with the transition from one ‘equilibrium’ intake to another. The system considered is an immature pig fed ad libitum on a single homogeneous food, which is balanced for nutrients and contains no toxins so that the first limiting resource is always energy. It is assumed that an animal has a desired rate of food intake (DFI) which is that needed to meet the energy requirements for protein and lipid deposition and for maintenance. DFI may not be achieved if a bulk constraint to intake exists. Where a bulk constraint operates intake is calculated as constrained food intake (CFI) where CFI=Cwhc/WHC k/ (where WHC is the water-holding capacity of the food (kg wate/g dry food) and Cwhc is the animal's capacity for WHC (unit/g live weight per d)). Where intake is not constrained it is assumed that genetic potential will be achieved. Potential growth rate is described by the Gompertz growth function. Where intake is constrained, growth will be less than the potential. Constrained growth rate is predicted as (d/t)con=(EI−Em)/eg k/ where W is pig weight (kg), EI is energy intake (M/), Em is the energy required for maintenance (M/) and eg is the energy required for unit gain (M/g). The value of eg depends on weight and the fattening characteristics of the pig. Actual growth is predicted to be the lesser of potential and constrained growth. To deal with adaptation it is assumed that the time taken to reach equilibrium depends on the difference in WHC values between the previous and current food and that the capacity to consume food bulk is related to the WHC of the current food. It is proposed that the capacity for WHC on the first day on a new food will be equal to the current capacity for WHC on the last day of the previous food. Thus Cwhc=(FI×WHC)/W /g, where FI is food intake (k/). Thereafter Cwhc will gradually increase over time to a maximum of 0·27 /g. The rate of change in Cwhc is made to be the same for all pigs and all foods. The increase in capacity over time is assumed to be linear at the rate of 0·01 unit/. The model was tested using published data. Qualitatively the predictions of the model were in close agreement with the relevant observed data in at least some cases. It is concluded that the underlying theoretical assumptions of the model are reasonable. However, the model fails to predict initial intake when changed to foods high in wheat-bran content and fails to predict the intake of a non-limiting food where compensatory increases in intake and gain occur. The model could be adapted to overcome the first failure by taking into account the time course of digestive efficiency following a change in food. To deal with the second would require a sufficient understanding of the time course of compensatory growth.
Growing yellow cattle (Bos taurus, n 30, 1·0–3·5 years old and 75–240 kg) from their native altitude (2000–2800 m) were used to evaluate the effects of altitude, ambient temperature (Ta) and solar radiation on the basal energy metabolism in this large mammal. Fasting heat production (FHP) was measured at altitudes of 2260, 3250 and 4270 m on the Tibetan plateau both in the summer and winter respectively, after a 90 d adaptation period at each experimental site. The gas exchanges of the whole animal were determined continuously for 3 (2260 and 3250 m) or 2 (4270 m) d after a 96 (2260 and 3250 m) or 48 (4270 m) h starvation period, using closed-circuit respiratory masks. Increasing altitude from 2260 to 3250 m at similar Ta in the summer significantly elevated FHP for all animals (P<0·01), and from 3250 to 4270 m for young cattle (P<0·05); increasing altitude from 2260 to 3250 m in the winter also significantly elevated FHP (P<0·05), but the increase was mainly due to the decrease of Ta and the increase in wind speed. No results were obtained at 4270 m in the winter, due to the problems of the animals, adaptating to the altitude. The magnitude of FHP elevation caused by increasing altitude was greater with summer sunshine or winter wind than without them. Increase of Ta from 10·0 to 22·0°C, in the presence of solar radiation, slightly (2260 m) or significantly (3250 and 4270 m, P<0·01) elevated FHP, but slightly reduced it in the absence of solar radiation; decrease of Ta from 0·0 to −30·0°C linearly increased FHP. At 3250 and 4270 m, FHP at the same Ta was higher with summer sunshine or winter wind (3250 m) than without them, but this did not occur at 2260 m. In conclusion, high altitude elevates FHP in yellow cattle in the warm season, and the summer solar radiation and winter wind at high altitude significantly increase metabolic rate. It may be also concluded that the effects of solar radiation on metabolic rate depend on the altitude and the environmental temperature.
Exploratory factor analysis might work well in elucidating the major dietary patterns prevailing in specific study populations. However, patterns extracted in one study population and their associations with disease risk cannot be reproduced with this data-specific method in other study populations. To construct less population-dependent pattern variables of similar content as original exploratory patterns, we proposed to derive so-called simplified pattern variables. They represent the sum of the unweighted standardised food variables which loaded high at the pattern of interest. Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study suggest that these simplified pattern variables might adequately approximate factor analysis-based dietary patterns. A simplified pattern variable based on the six highest loading food variables showed a correlation >0·95 with the originally derived factor score, which consisted of forty-seven food variables. Moreover, simplified pattern variables might adequately approximate patterns across different study populations. A simplified pattern variable showed similar factor loadings, ranging from 0·34 to 0·52, as well as similar associations with nutrient intake as a ‘western’ pattern originally reported from an US study population. These simplified pattern variables can subsequently be used to study pattern associations with disease risk, especially in multi-centre studies. It is therefore an approach that might overcome one of the most frequently claimed limitations of factor analyses applied in epidemiology: their non-comparable risk estimates.
The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0–7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by <bibr rid="b20">Kennedy et al. (1995)</bibr>. Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15·5, 1·0 and 5·6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0·001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4·5 %, P<0·001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0·001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq −88 ml, P<0·001) and Ca (dq −175 m/, P<0·001), and worse HEI (dq −2, P<0·01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1·77 %, P<0·001) and sugars (dq 2·02 %, P<0·001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt.
The present study was designed to define how dietary fat type regulates body adiposity in dietary obesity-susceptible (DOS) Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Eighty-three SD rats received a purified diet containing 50 g maize oil (MO)/kg for 3 weeks and then thirty-nine of the rats, designated as the DOS rats, were allotted to diets containing 160 g MO (DOS-MO), beef tallow (DOS-BT) or fish oil (DOS-FO)/kg for 9 weeks. As a result of the experiment, the DOS-FO rats had significantly (P<0·05) reduced weight gain and abdominal and epididymal fat-pad mass than the DOS-MO and DOS-BT rats. Serum leptin level was also significantly (P<0·05) lower in the DOS-FO rats; however, hypothalamic leptin receptor (a and b) mRNA and neuropeptide Y expressions were not altered by dietary fat sources. A lower acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in the liver was observed in the DOS-FO group, whereas hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA and protein expressions were markedly elevated in the DOS-FO group compared with those in the other groups. We did not observe differences in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expressions in epididymal fat of the DOS rats consuming MO, BT or FO. It is concluded from our present observations that dietary fat type, especially that rich in FO, plays a potential role in down-regulation of adiposity by altering hepatic lipogenic genes, rather than feeding behaviour, in the DOS-SD rats.