This paper is a report on a recent study of urban Aboriginal children at home and at school, in Adelaide. It will mostly describe the situation for just three of the students in one reception / Year one classroom, as they are representative of many Aboriginal students in the other classroom which was closely studied, and in classrooms whose teachers I interviewed, or who were observed by me. In other words, the situation that I am describing for Naomi, Jason and Terry is, I believe, similar to the situation for many young Aboriginal students in urban classrooms in South Australia. Naomi, Jason and Terry were three physically attractive, energetic, bright and curious five year olds. Outside the classroom they were articulate and confident but inside the classroom, by the end of the year, they were in the lowest academic group for their age, considered troublesome by their teacher, and were largely ostracised by their non-Aboriginal peers.