Skip to main content Accessibility help

Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands

  • J. F. Soussana (a1), T. Tallec (a1) and V. Blanfort (a1) (a2)


Soil carbon sequestration (enhanced sinks) is the mechanism responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in the agriculture sector. Carbon sequestration in grasslands can be determined directly by measuring changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and indirectly by measuring the net balance of C fluxes. A literature search shows that grassland C sequestration reaches on average 5 ± 30 g C/m2 per year according to inventories of SOC stocks and −231 and 77 g C/m2 per year for drained organic and mineral soils, respectively, according to C flux balance. Off-site C sequestration occurs whenever more manure C is produced by than returned to a grassland plot. The sum of on- and off-site C sequestration reaches 129, 98 and 71 g C/m2 per year for grazed, cut and mixed European grasslands on mineral soils, respectively, however with high uncertainty. A range of management practices reduce C losses and increase C sequestration: (i) avoiding soil tillage and the conversion of grasslands to arable use, (ii) moderately intensifying nutrient-poor permanent grasslands, (iii) using light grazing instead of heavy grazing, (iv) increasing the duration of grass leys; (v) converting grass leys to grass-legume mixtures or to permanent grasslands. With nine European sites, direct emissions of N2O from soil and of CH4 from enteric fermentation at grazing, expressed in CO2 equivalents, compensated 10% and 34% of the on-site grassland C sequestration, respectively. Digestion inside the barn of the harvested herbage leads to further emissions of CH4 and N2O by the production systems, which were estimated at 130 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year. The net balance of on- and off-site C sequestration, CH4 and N2O emissions reached 38 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year, indicating a non-significant net sink activity. This net balance was, however, negative for intensively managed cut sites indicating a source to the atmosphere. In conclusion, this review confirms that grassland C sequestration has a strong potential to partly mitigate the GHG balance of ruminant production systems. However, as soil C sequestration is both reversible and vulnerable to disturbance, biodiversity loss and climate change, CH4 and N2O emissions from the livestock sector need to be reduced and current SOC stocks preserved.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Allard, V, Soussana, JF, Falcimagne, R, Berbigier, P, Bonnefond, JM, Ceschia, E, D’hour, P, Hénault, C, Laville, P, Martin, C, Pinarès-Patino, C 2007. The role of grazing management for the net biome productivity and greenhouse gas budget (CO2, N2O and CH4) of semi-natural grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 4758.
Ammann, C, Flechard, CR, Leifeld, J, Neftel, A, Fuhrer, J 2007. The carbon budget of newly established temperate grassland depends on management intensity. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121, 520.
Baldocchi, D, Meyers, T 1998. On using eco-physiological, micrometeorological and biogeochemical theory to evaluate carbon dioxide, water vapor and trace gas fluxes over vegetation: a perspective. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 90, 125.
Baldock, JA, Skjemstad, JO 2000. Role of the matrix and minerals in protecting natural organic materials against biological attack. Organic Geochemistry 31, 697710.
Balesdent, J, Balabane, M 1996. Major contribution of roots to soil carbon storage inferred from maize cultivated soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28, 12611263.
Bellamy, PH, Loveland, PJ, Bradley, RI, Lark, RM, Kirk, GJD 2005. Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978–2003. Nature 437, 245248.
Beniston, M 2004. The 2003 heat wave in Europe: a shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L02202, doi:10.1029/2003GL018857.
Betts, RA, Cox, PM, Collins, M, Harris, PP, Huntingford, C, Jones, CD 2004. The role of ecosystem–atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonian precipitation decrease and forest dieback under global climate warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78, 157175.
Bird, SB, Herrick, JE, Wander, MM, Wright, SF 2002. Spatial heterogeneity of aggregate stability and soil carbon in semi-arid rangeland. Environmental Pollution 116, 445455.
Boeckx, P, Van Cleemput, O 2001. Estimates of N2O and CH4 fluxes from agricultural lands in various regions in Europe. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60, 3547.
Bony, S, Colman, R, Kattsov, VM, Allan, RP, Bretherton, CS, Dufresne, JL, Hall, A, Hallegatte, S, Holland, MM, Ingram, W, Randall, DA, Soden, DJ, Tselioudis, G, Webb, MJ 2006. How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes? Journal of Climate 19, 34453482.
Bossuyt, H, Six, J, Hendrix, PF 2005. Protection of soil carbon by microaggregates within earthworm casts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37, 251258.
Byrne, KA, Kiely, G, Leahy, P 2005. CO2 fluxes in adjacent new and permanent temperate grasslands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 135, 8292.
Byrne, KA, Kiely, G, Leahy, P 2007. Carbon sequestration determined using farm scale carbon balance and eddy covariance. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121, 357364.
Cannell, MGR, Milne, R, Hargreaves, KJ, Brown, TAW, Cruickshank, MM, Bradley, RI, Spencer, T, Hope, D, Billett, MF, Adger, WN, Subak, S 1999. National inventories of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks: the UK experience. Climatic Change 42, 505530.
Chevallier, T, Voltz, M, Blanchart, E, Chotte, JL, Eschenbrenner, V, Mahieu, M, Albrecht, A 2000. Spatial and temporal changes of soil C after establishment of a pasture on a long-term cultivated vertisol (Martinique). Geoderma 94, 4358.
Ciais, P, Reichstein, M, Viovy, N, Granier, A, Ogee, J, Allard, V, Aubinet, M, Buchmann, N, Bernhofer, C, Carrara, A, Chevallier, F, De Noblet, N, Friend, AD, Friedlingstein, P, Grunwald, T, Heinesch, B, Keronen, P, Knohl, A, Krinner, G, Loustau, D, Manca, G, Matteucci, G, Miglietta, F, Ourcival, JM, Papale, D, Pilegaard, K, Rambal, S, Seufert, G, Soussana, JF, Sanz, MJ, Schulze, ED, Vesala, T, Valentini, R 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 529533.
Clayton, H, McTaggart, IP, Parker, J, Swan, L, Smith, KA 1997. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilised grassland: a 2-year study of the effects of N fertiliser form and environmental conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 25, 252260.
CLIMSOIL 2008. Review of existing information on the interrelations between soil and climate change. Final report of the ClimSoil project, contract number 070307/2007/486157/SER/B1. European Commission, December 2008.
Conant, RT, Paustian, K, Elliott, ET 2001. Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications 11, 343355.
Conant, RT, Easter, M, Paustian, K, Swan, A, Williams, S 2007. Impacts of periodic tillage on soil C stocks: a synthesis. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 110.
Crutzen, PJ, Mosier, AR, Smith, KA, Winiwarter, W 2007. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion 7, 1119111205.
Davison, B, Brunner, A, Ammann, C, Spirig, C, Jocher, M, Neftel, A 2008. Cut-induced VOC emissions from agricultural grasslands. Plant Biology 10, 7685.
De Mazancourt, C, Loreau, M, Abbadie, L 1998. Grazing optimization and nutrient cycling: when do herbivores enhance plant production? Ecology 79, 22422252.
Delgado, CL 2005. Rising demand for meat and milk in developing countries: implications for grasslands-based livestock production. In ‘Grassland: a global resource’, Proceedings of the XXth International Grassland Congress, Dublin, Ireland (ed. DA McGilloway), pp. 2939. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Dueck, TA, de Visser, R, Poorter, H, Persijn, S, Gorissen, A, de Visser, W, Shapendonk, A, Vergahen, J, Snel, J, Harren, FJM, Ngai, AKY, Verstappen, F, Bouwmeester, H, Voesenek, LACJ, Van Der Werf, A 2007. No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: a 13C-labelling approach. New Phytologist 175, 2935.
Emmerich, WE 2003. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 116, 91102.
Faverdin, P, Maxin, G, Chardon, X, Brunschwig, P, Vermorel, M 2007. A model to predict the carbon balance of a dairy cow. In ‘Elevage et environnement’, Proceedings of the XIVth symposium Rencontres Recherches Ruminants, Paris, France, p. 66.
Fearnside, PM 2000. Global warming and tropical land-use change: Greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Climatic Change 46, 115158.
Firbank, LG, Smart, SM, Crabb, J, Crabb, J, Critchley, CNR, Fowbert, JW, Fuller, RJ, Gladders, P, Green, DB, Henderson, I, Hill, MO 2003. Agronomic and ecological costs and benefits of set-aside in England. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 95, 7385.
Fitter, AH, Graves, JD, Wolfenden, J, Self, GK, Brown, TK, Bogie, D, Mansfield, TA 1997. Root production and turnover and carbon budgets of two contrasting grasslands under ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. New Phytologist 137, 47255.
Flanagan, LB, Wever, LA, Carlson, PJ 2002. Seasonal and interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon balance in a northern temperate grassland. Global Change Biology 8, 599615.
Flechard, CR, Ambus, P, Skiba, U, Rees, RM, Hensen, A, van Amstel, A, van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A, Soussana, JF, Jones, M, Clifton-Brown, J, Raschi, A, Horvath, L, Neftel, A, Jocher, M, Ammann, C, Leifeld, J, Fuhrer, J, Calanca, P, Thalman, E, Pilegaard, K, Di Marco, C, Campbell, C, Nemitz, E, Hargreaves, KJ, Levy, PE, Ball, BC, Jones, SK, van de Bulk, WCM, Groot, T, Blom, M, Domingues, R, Kasper, G, Allard, V, Ceschia, E, Cellier, P, Laville, P, Henault, C, Bizouard, F, Abdalla, M, Williams, M, Baronti, S, Berreti, F, Grosz, B 2007. Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121, 135152.
Flechard, CR, Neftel, A, Jocher, M, Ammann, C, Fuhrer, J 2005. Bi-directional soil/atmosphere N2O exchange over two mown grassland systems with contrasting management practices. Global Change Biology 11, 21142127.
Follett, RF, Samson-Liebig, SE, Kimble, JM, Pruessner, E, Waltman, SW 2001. Carbon sequestration under the conservation reserve program in the historic grazing land soils of the United States of America. In Soil C sequestration and the greenhouse effect (ed. R Lal), pp. 57, 27–40. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Follett, RF, Kimble, J, Leavitt, SW, Pruessner, E 2004. Potential use of soil C isotope analyses to evaluate paleoclimate. Soil Science 169, 471488.
Follett, RF, Schuman, GE 2005. Grazing land contributions to carbon sequestration. In ‘Grassland: a global resource’, Proceedings of the XXth International Grassland Congress, Dublin, Ireland (ed. DA McGilloway), pp. 265277. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Fontaine, S, Mariotti, A, Abbadie, L 2003. The priming effect of organic matter: a question of microbial competition? Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35, 837843.
Fontaine, S, Barot, S, Barre, P, Bdioui, N, Mary, B, Rumpel, C 2007. Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450, 277281.
FAO 2006. Livestock’s long shadows: environmental issues and options. FAO, Rome.
Frank, AB, Dugas, WA 2001. Carbon dioxide fluxes over a northern, semiarid, mixed-grass prairie. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 108, 317326.
Ganjegunte, GK, Vance, GF, Preston, CM, Schuman, GE, Ingram, LJ, Stahl, PD, Welker, JM 2005. Soil organic carbon composition in a northern mixed-grass prairie: effects of grazing. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 17461756.
Gilmanov, T, Soussana, JF, Aires, L, Allard, V, Amman, C, Balzarolo, M, Barcza, Z, Bernhofer, C, Campbell, CL, Cernusca, A, Cescatti, A, Clifton-Brown, J, Dirks, BOM, Dore, S, Eugster, W, Fuhrer, J, Gimeno, C, Gruenwald, T, Haszpra, L, Hensen, A, Ibrom, A, Jacobs, AFG, Jones, MB, Lanigan, G, Laurila, T, Lohila, A, Manca, G, Marcolla, B, Nagy, Z, Pilegaard, K, Pinter, K, Raschi, A, Rogiers, N, Sanz, MJ, Stefani, P, Sutton, M, Tuba, Z, Valentini, R, Williams, ML, Wohlfahrt, G 2007. Partitioning European grassland net ecosystem CO2 exchange into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration using light response function analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 93120.
Gilmanov, TG, Tieszen, LL, Wylie, BK, Flanagan, LB, Frank, AB, Haferkamp, MR, Meyers, TP, Morgan, JA 2005. Integration of CO2 flux and remotely-sensed data for primary production and ecosystem respiration analyses in the Northern Great Plains: potential for quantitative spatial extrapolation. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14, 271292.
Goidts, E, van Wesemael, B 2007. Regional assessment of soil organic carbon changes under agriculture in Southern Belgium (1955–2005). Geoderma 141, 341354.
Hector, A, Schmid, B, Beierkuhnlein, C, Caldeira, MC, Diemer, M, Dimitrakopoulos, PG, Finn, JA, Freitas, H, Giller, PS, Good, J, Harris, R, Hogberg, P, Huss-Danell, K, Joshi, J, Jumpponen, A, Korner, C, Leadley, PW, Loreau, M, Minns, A, Mulder, CPH, O’Donovan, G, Otway, SJ, Pereira, JS, Prinz, A, Read, DJ, Scherer-Lorenzen, M, Schulze, ED, Siamantziouras, ASD, Spehn, EM, Terry, AC, Troumbis, AY, Woodward, FI, Yachi, S, Lawton, JH 1999. Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286, 11231127.
Hendriks, DMD, van Huissteden, J, Dolman, AJ, van der Molen, MK 2007. The full greenhouse gas balance of an abandoned peat meadow. Biogeosciences 4, 411424.
Hunt, JE, Kelliher, FM, McSeveny, TM, Ross, DJ, Whitehead, D 2004. Long-term carbon exchange in a sparse, seasonally dry tussock grassland. Global Change Biology 10, 17851800.
IPCC 1996. Revised guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis (Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC 2006. Good practice guidance on land use change and forestry in national greenhouse gas inventories. IPCC, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Tokyo, Japan.
IPCC 2007. Climate change 2007: the scientific basis (Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jaksic, V, Kiely, G, Albertson, J, Oren, R, Katul, G, Leahy, P, Byrne, KA 2006. Net ecosystem exchange of grassland in contrasting wet and dry years. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 139, 323334.
Janssens, IA, Freibauer, A, Ciais, P, Smith, P, Nabuurs, GJ, Folberth, G, Schlamadinger, B, Hutjes, RWA, Ceulemans, R, Schulze, ED, Valentini, R, Dolman, AJ 2003. Europe’s terrestrial biosphere absorbs 7 to 12% of European anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Science 300, 15381542.
Jones, MB, Donnelly, A 2004. Carbon sequestration in temperate grassland ecosystems and the influence of management, climate and elevated CO2. New Phytologist 164, 423439.
Keppler, F, Hamilton, JTG, Brass, M, Rockmann, T 2006. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439, 187191.
Klein, JA, Harte, J, Zhao, XQ 2005. Dynamic and complex microclimate responses to warming and grazing manipulations. Global Change Biology 11, 14401451.
Klumpp, K, Soussana, JF, Falcimagne, R 2007. Effects of past and current disturbance on carbon cycling in grassland mesocosms. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121, 5973.
Klumpp, K, Soussana, JF 2009. Using functional traits to predict grassland ecosystem change: a mathematical test of the response-and-effect approach. Global Change Biology, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01905.x (in press; available on line).
Lal, R 1999. Long-term tillage and wheel traffic effects on soil quality for two central Ohio soils. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 14, 6784.
Lal, R 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304, 16231627.
Leahy, P, Kiely, G, Scanlon, TM 2004. Managed grasslands: a greenhouse gas sink or source? Geophysical Research Letters 31, L20507, doi:10.1029/2004GL021161.
Lehner, B, Doll, P, Alcamo, J, Henrichs, T, Kaspar, F 2006. Estimating the impact of global change on flood and drought risks in Europe: a continental, integrated analysis. Climatic Change 75, 273299.
Lemaire, G, Chapman, D 1996. Tissue flows in grazed plant communities. In The ecology and management of grazing systems (ed. J Hodgson and AW Illius), pp. 335. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Lettens, S, Van Orshovena, J, van Wesemael, B, De Vos, B, Muys, B 2005b. Stocks and fluxes of soil organic carbon for landscape units in Belgium derived from heterogeneous data sets for 1990 and 2000. Geoderma 127, 1123.
Lettens, S, van Orshoven, J, van Wesemael, B, Muys, B, Perrin, D 2005a. Soil organic carbon changes in landscape units of Belgium between 1960 and 2000 with reference to 1990. Global Change Biology 11, 21282140.
Levy, PE, Mobbs, DC, Jones, SK, Milne, R, Campbell, C, Sutton, MA 2007. Simulation of fluxes of greenhouse gases from European grasslands using the DNDC model. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 186192.
Lloyd, CR 2006. Annual carbon balance of a managed wetland meadow in the Somerset Levels, UK. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138, 168179.
Loiseau, P, Soussana, JF 1999. Elevated CO2, temperature increase and N supply effects on the accumulation of below-ground carbon in a temperate grassland ecosystem. Plant and Soil 212, 123134.
Lovett, DK, Shalloo, L, Dillon, P, O’Mara, FP 2006. A systems approach to quantify greenhouse gas fluxes from pastoral dairy production as affected by management regime. Agricultural Systems 88, 156179.
Martin, C, Morgavi, DP, Doreau, M 2009. Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animal (in press).
Meehl, GA, Tebaldi, C 2004. More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century. Science 305, 994997.
Morgan, JA, Pataki, DE, Korner, C, Clark, H, Del Grosso, SJ, Grunzweig, JM, Knapp, AK, Mosier, AR, Newton, PCD, Niklaus, PA, Nippert, JB, Nowak, RS, Parton, WJ, Polley, HW, Shaw, MR 2004. Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia 140, 1125.
Nelson, JDJ, Schoenau, JJ, Malhi, SS 2008. Soil organic carbon changes and distribution in cultivated and restored grassland soils in Saskatchewan. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem 82, 137148.
Nieveen, JP, Campbell, DI, Schipper, LA, Blair, IANJ 2005. Carbon exchange of grazed pasture on a drained peat soil. Global Change Biology 11, 607618.
Nemani, RR, Keeling, CD, Hashimoto, H, Jolly, WM, Piper, SC, Tucker, CJ, Myneni, RB, Running, SW 2003. Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net Primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science 300, 15601563.
Ogle, SM, Conant, RT, Paustian, K 2004. Deriving grassland management factors for a carbon accounting method developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Environmental Management 33, 474484.
Ojima, DS, Parton, WJ, Schimel, DS, Scurlock, JMO, Kittel, TGF 1993. Modeling the effects of climatic and CO2 changes on grassland storage of soil C. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 70, 643657.
Olesen, JE, Schelde, K, Weiske, A, Weisbjerg, MR, Asman, WAH, Djurhuus, J 2006. Modelling greenhouse gas emissions from European conventional and organic dairy farms. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 112, 207220.
Paustian, K, Cole, CV, Sauerbeck, D, Sampson, N 1998. CO2 mitigation by agriculture: an overview. Climatic Change 40, 135162.
Personeni, E, Loiseau, P 2004. How does the nature of living and dead roots affect the residence time of carbon in the root litter continuum? Plant and Soil 267, 129141.
Personeni, E, Loiseau, P 2005. Species strategy and N fluxes in grassland soil – a question of root litter quality or rhizosphere activity? European Journal of Agronomy 22, 217229.
Petersen, BM, Olesen, JE, Heidmann, T 2002. A flexible tool for simulation of soil carbon turnover. Ecological Modelling 151, 114.
Phillips, RL, Beeri, O 2008. Scaling-up knowledge of growing-season net ecosystem exchange for long-term assessment of North Dakota grasslands under the Conservation Reserve Program. Global Change Biology 14, 10081017.
Piao, S, Fang, J, Ciais, P, Peylin, P, Huang, Y, Sitch, S, Wang, T 2009. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China. Nature 458, 10091013.
Picon-Cochard, P, Teyssonneyre, F, Besle, JM, Soussana, JF 2004. Effects of elevated CO2 and cutting frequency on the productivity and herbage quality of a semi-natural grassland. European Journal of Agronomy 20, 363377.
Pinares-Patino, CS, D’Hour, P, Jouany, JP, Martin, C 2007. Effects of stocking rate on methane and carbon dioxide emissions from grazing cattle. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121, 3046.
Potter, KN, Torbert, HA, Johnson, HB, Tischler, CR 1999. Carbon storage after long-term grass establishment on degraded soils. Soil Science 164, 718725.
Rémy, JC, Marin-La Flèche, A 1976. L’entretien organique des terres. Coût d’une politique de l’humus. Entreprises Agricoles 11, 6367.
Reynolds, SG, Batello, C, Baas, S, Mack, S 2005. Grassland and forage to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty. In ‘Grassland: a global resource’, Proceedings of the XXth International Grassland Congress, Dublin, Ireland (ed. DA McGilloway), pp. 323338. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Riedo, M, Grub, A, Rosset, M, Fuhrer, J 1998. A pasture simulation model for dry matter production and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, water and energy. Ecological Modelling 105, 141183.
Robertson, GP, Paul, EA, Harwood, RR 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289, 19221925.
Robles, MD, Burke, IC 1998. Soil organic matter recovery on conservation reserve program fields in southeastern Wyoming. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 725730.
Rogiers, N, Conen, F, Furger, M, Stöcklis, R, Eugster, W 2008. Impact of past and present land-management on the C-balance of a grassland in the Swiss Alps. Global Change Biology 14, 26132625.
Röscher, C, Temperton, VM, Scherer-Lorenzen, M, Schmitz, M, Schumacher, J, Schmid, B, Buchmann, N, Weisser, WW, Schulze, ED 2005. Overyielding in experimental grassland communities – irrespective of species pool or spatial scale. Ecology Letters 8, 419429.
Salètes, S, Fiorelli, JL, Vuichard, N, Cambou, J, Olesen, JE, Hacala, S, Sutton, M, Furhrer, J, Soussana, JF 2004. Greenhouse gas balance of cattle breeding farms and assessment of mitigation option. In Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture Conference, Leipzig, Germany (10–12 February 2004), pp. 203–208.
Schär, C, Jendritzky, G 2004. Climate change: hot news from summer 2003. Nature 432, 559560.
Schils, RLM, Olesen, JE, del Prado, A, Soussana, JF 2007. A review of a farm level modelling approach for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock systems. Livestock Science 112, 240251.
Schlesinger, WH 1990. Evidence from chronosequence studies for a low carbon-storage potential of soils. Nature 348, 232234.
Siemens, J 2003. The European carbon budget: a gap. Science 302, 16811681.
Six, J, Callewaert, P, Lenders, S, De Gryze, S, Morris, SJ, Gregorich, EG, Paul, EA, Paustian, K 2002. Measuring and understanding carbon storage in afforested soils by physical fractionation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 19811987.
Skiba, U, Smith, KA 2000. The control of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural and natural soils. Chemosphere Global Change Science 2, 379386.
Smith, JU, Smith, P, Wattenbach, M, Zaehle, S, Hiederer, R, Jones, RJA, Montanarella, L, Rounsevell, M, Reginster, I, Ewert, F 2005. Projected changes in mineral soil carbon of European croplands and grasslands, 1990–2080. Global Change Biology 11, 21412152.
Smith, P, Chapman, SJ, Scott, WA, Black, HIJ, Wattenbach, M, Milne, R, Campbell, CD, Lilly, A, Ostle, N, Levy, PE, Lumsdon, DG, Millard, P, Towers, W, Zaehle, Z, Smith, JU 2007. Climate change cannot be entirely responsible for soil carbon loss observed in England and Wales, 1978–2003. Global Change Biology 13, 26052609.
Sommer, SG, Petersen, SO, Moller, HB 2004. Algorithms for calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 69, 143154.
Soussana, JF, Hartwig, UA 1996. The effects of elevated CO2 on symbiotic N2 fixation: a link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in grassland ecosystems. Plant and Soil 187, 321332.
Soussana, JF, Casella, E, Loiseau, P 1996. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature increase on a temperate grass sward. 2. Plant nitrogen budgets and root fraction. Plant and Soil 182, 101114.
Soussana, JF, Allard, V, Pilegaard, K, Ambus, C, Campbell, C, Ceschia, E, Clifton-Brown, J, Czobel, S, Domingues, R, Flechard, C, Fuhrer, J, Hensen, A, Horvath, L, Jones, M, Kasper, G, Martin, C, Nagy, Z, Neftel, A, Raschi, A, Baronti, S, Rees, RM, Skiba, U, Stefani, P, Manca, G, Sutton, M, Tuba, Z, Valentini, R 2007. Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 121134.
Soussana, JF, Loiseau, P, Vuichard, N, Ceschia, E, Balesdent, J, Chevallier, T, Arrouays, D 2004. Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands. Soil Use and Management 20, 219230.
Suyker, AE, Verma, SB 2001. Year-round observations of the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in a native tallgrass prairie. Global Change Biology 7, 279289.
Teyssonneyre, F, Picon-Cochard, C, Falcimagne, R, Soussana, JF 2002. Effects of elevated CO2 and cutting frequency on plant community structure in a temperate grassland. Global Change Biology 8, 10341046.
Thomas, CD, Cameron, A, Green, RE, Bakkenes, M, Beaumont, LJ, Collingham, YC, Erasmus, BF, De Siqueira, MF, Grainger, A, Hannah, L, Hughes, L, Huntley, B, Van Jaarsveld, AS, Midgley, GF, Miles, L, Ortega-Huerta, MA, Peterson, AT, Phillips, OL, Williams, SE 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427, 145148.
Thomsen, IK, Olesen, JE 2000. C and N mineralization of composted and anaerobically stored ruminant manure in differently textured soils. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Cambridge 135, 151159.
Thuiller, W, Lavorel, S, Araujo, MB, Sykes, MT, Prentice, IC 2005. Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 82458250.
Tilman, D, Lehman, CL, Thomson, KT 1997. Plant diversity and ecosystem productivity: theoretical considerations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94, 18571861.
Tilman, D, Reich, PB, Knops, JMH 2006a. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature 441, 629632.
Tilman, D, Reich, PB, Knops, JMH 2006b. Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high diversity grassland biomass. Science 314, 15981600.
Tubiello, F, Soussana, JF, Howden, SM, Easterling, W 2007. Crop and pasture response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 1968619690.
US-EPA 2006. Global anthropogenic non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: 1990–2020 (EPA 430-R-06-003), US-EPA, Washington, DC.
Van der Werf, GR, Randerson, JT, Giglio, L, Collatz, GJ, Kasibhatla, PS, Arellano, AF 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 34233441.
Van Oost, K, Quine, TA, Govers, G, De Gryze, S, Six, J, Harden, JW, Ritchie, JC, McCarty, GW, Heckrath, G, Kosmas, C, Giraldez, JV, da Silva, JRM, Merckx, R 2007. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the global carbon cycle. Science 318, 626629.
Velthof, GL, Oenema, O 1997. Nitrous oxide emission from dairy farming systems in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 45, 347360.
Vleeshouwers, LM, Verhagen, A 2002. Carbon emission and sequestration by agricultural land use: a model study for Europe. Global Change Biology 8, 519530.
Vuichard, N, Ciais, P, Viovy, N, Calanca, P, Soussana, JF 2007a. Estimating the greenhouse gas fluxes of European grasslands with a process-based model: 2. Simulations at the continental level. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB1005, doi:10.1029/2005GB002612.
Vuichard, N, Soussana, JF, Ciais, P, Viovy, N, Ammann, C, Calanca, P, Clifton-Brown, J, Fuhrer, J, Jones, M, Martin, C 2007b. Estimating the greenhouse gas fluxes of European grasslands with a process-based model: 1. Model evaluation from in situ measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB1004, doi:10.1029/2005GB002611.
Xu, LK, Baldocchi, DD 2004. Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123, 7996.
Zavaleta, ES, Shaw, MR, Chiariello, NR, Mooney, HA, Field, CB 2003. Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 76507654.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed