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Generalising previous results on classical braid groups by Artin and Lin, we determine the values of m, n ∈ $\mathbb N$ for which there exists a surjection between the n- and m-string braid groups of an orientable surface without boundary. This result is essentially based on specific properties of their lower central series, and the proof is completely combinatorial. We provide similar but partial results in the case of orientable surfaces with boundary components and of non-orientable surfaces without boundary. We give also several results about the classification of different representations of surface braid groups in symmetric groups.
Vertex-primitive self-complementary graphs were proved to be affine or in product action by Guralnick et al. [‘On orbital partitions and exceptionality of primitive permutation groups’, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.356 (2004), 4857–4872]. The product action type is known in some sense. In this paper, we provide a generic construction for the affine case and several families of new self-complementary Cayley graphs are constructed.
A graph $\Gamma $ is called $(G, s)$-arc-transitive if $G \le \text{Aut} (\Gamma )$ is transitive on the set of vertices of $\Gamma $ and the set of s-arcs of $\Gamma $, where for an integer $s \ge 1$ an s-arc of $\Gamma $ is a sequence of $s+1$ vertices $(v_0,v_1,\ldots ,v_s)$ of $\Gamma $ such that $v_{i-1}$ and $v_i$ are adjacent for $1 \le i \le s$ and $v_{i-1}\ne v_{i+1}$ for $1 \le i \le s-1$. A graph $\Gamma $ is called 2-transitive if it is $(\text{Aut} (\Gamma ), 2)$-arc-transitive but not $(\text{Aut} (\Gamma ), 3)$-arc-transitive. A Cayley graph $\Gamma $ of a group G is called normal if G is normal in $\text{Aut} (\Gamma )$ and nonnormal otherwise. Fang et al. [‘On edge transitive Cayley graphs of valency four’, European J. Combin.25 (2004), 1103–1116] proved that if $\Gamma $ is a tetravalent 2-transitive Cayley graph of a finite simple group G, then either $\Gamma $ is normal or G is one of the groups $\text{PSL}_2(11)$, $\text{M} _{11}$, $\text{M} _{23}$ and $A_{11}$. However, it was unknown whether $\Gamma $ is normal when G is one of these four groups. We answer this question by proving that among these four groups only $\text{M} _{11}$ produces connected tetravalent 2-transitive nonnormal Cayley graphs. We prove further that there are exactly two such graphs which are nonisomorphic and both are determined in the paper. As a consequence, the automorphism group of any connected tetravalent 2-transitive Cayley graph of any finite simple group is determined.
In this paper, we study finite semiprimitive permutation groups, that is, groups in which each normal subgroup is transitive or semiregular. These groups have recently been investigated in terms of their abstract structure, in a similar way to the O'Nan–Scott Theorem for primitive groups. Our goal here is to explore aspects of such groups which may be useful in place of precise structural information. We give bounds on the order, base size, minimal degree, fixed point ratio, and chief length of an arbitrary finite semiprimitive group in terms of its degree. To establish these bounds, we study the structure of a finite semiprimitive group that induces the alternating or symmetric group on the set of orbits of an intransitive minimal normal subgroup.
Denote by m(G) the largest size of a minimal generating set of a finite group G. We estimate m(G) in terms of $\sum _{p\in \pi (G)}d_p(G),$ where we are denoting by dp(G) the minimal number of generators of a Sylow p-subgroup of G and by π(G) the set of prime numbers dividing the order of G.
We provide a general program for finding nice arrangements of points in real or complex projective space from transitive actions of finite groups. In many cases, these arrangements are optimal in the sense of maximizing the minimum distance. We introduce our program in terms of general Schurian association schemes before focusing on the special case of Gelfand pairs. Notably, our program unifies a variety of existing packings with heretofore disparate constructions. In addition, we leverage our program to construct the first known infinite family of equiangular lines with Heisenberg symmetry.
Given a group G and a subgroup H, we let
$\mathcal {O}_G(H)$
denote the lattice of subgroups of G containing H. This article provides a classification of the subgroups H of G such that
$\mathcal {O}_{G}(H)$
is Boolean of rank at least
$3$
when G is a finite alternating or symmetric group. Besides some sporadic examples and some twisted versions, there are two different types of such lattices. One type arises by taking stabilisers of chains of regular partitions, and the other arises by taking stabilisers of chains of regular product structures. As an application, we prove in this case a conjecture on Boolean overgroup lattices related to the dual Ore’s theorem and to a problem of Kenneth Brown.
Let
$G$
be a finite group with two primitive permutation representations on the sets
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}_{1}$
and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}_{2}$
and let
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{1}$
and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{2}$
be the corresponding permutation characters. We consider the case in which the set of fixed-point-free elements of
$G$
on
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}_{1}$
coincides with the set of fixed-point-free elements of
$G$
on
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}_{2}$
, that is, for every
$g\in G$
,
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{1}(g)=0$
if and only if
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{2}(g)=0$
. We have conjectured in Spiga [‘Permutation characters and fixed-point-free elements in permutation groups’, J. Algebra299(1) (2006), 1–7] that under this hypothesis either
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{1}=\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{2}$
or one of
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{1}-\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{2}$
and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{2}-\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}_{1}$
is a genuine character. In this paper we give evidence towards the veracity of this conjecture when the socle of
$G$
is a sporadic simple group or an alternating group. In particular, the conjecture is reduced to the case of almost simple groups of Lie type.
Given a finite group $G$, define the minimal degree $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G)$ of $G$ to be the least $n$ such that $G$ embeds into $S_{n}$. We call $G$ exceptional if there is some $N\unlhd G$ with $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G/N)>\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G)$, in which case we call $N$ distinguished. We prove here that a subgroup with no abelian composition factors is not distinguished.
Dolfi, Guralnick, Praeger and Spiga asked whether there exist infinitely many primitive groups of twisted wreath type with non-trivial coprime subdegrees. Here, we settle this question in the affirmative. We construct infinite families of primitive twisted wreath permutation groups with non-trivial coprime subdegrees. In particular, we define a primitive twisted wreath group G(m, q) constructed from the non-abelian simple group PSL(2, q) and a primitive permutation group of diagonal type with socle PSL(2, q)m, and determine many subdegrees for this group. A consequence is that we determine all values of m and q for which G(m, q) has non-trivial coprime subdegrees. In the case where m = 2 and $q\notin \{7,11,29\}$, we obtain a full classification of all pairs of non-trivial coprime subdegrees.
A group K is said to be a B-group if every permutation group containing K as a regular subgroup is either imprimitive or 2-transitive. In the second edition of his influential textbook on finite groups, Burnside published a proof that cyclic groups of composite prime-power degree are B-groups. Ten years later, in 1921, he published a proof that every abelian group of composite degree is a B-group. Both proofs are character-theoretic and both have serious flaws. Indeed, the second result is false. In this paper we explain these flaws and prove that every cyclic group of composite order is a B-group, using only Burnside’s character-theoretic methods. We also survey the related literature, prove some new results on B-groups of prime-power order, state two related open problems and present some new computational data.
Let $K$ be a field that admits a cyclic Galois extension of degree $n\geq 2$. The symmetric group $S_{n}$ acts on $K^{n}$ by permutation of coordinates. Given a subgroup $G$ of $S_{n}$ and $u\in K^{n}$, let $V_{G}(u)$ be the $K$-vector space spanned by the orbit of $u$ under the action of $G$. In this paper we show that, for a special family of groups $G$ of affine type, the dimension of $V_{G}(u)$ can be computed via the greatest common divisor of certain polynomials in $K[x]$. We present some applications of our results to the cases $K=\mathbb{Q}$ and $K$ finite.
A generalisation of von Staudt’s theorem that every permutation of the projective line that preserves harmonic quadruples is a projective semilinear map is given. It is then concluded that any proper supergroup of permutations of the projective semilinear group over an algebraically closed field of transcendence degree at least 1 is 4-transitive.
We prove that the monodromy group of a reduced irreducible square system of general polynomial equations equals the symmetric group. This is a natural first step towards the Galois theory of general systems of polynomial equations, because arbitrary systems split into reduced irreducible ones upon monomial changes of variables. In particular, our result proves the multivariate version of the Abel–Ruffini theorem: the classification of general systems of equations solvable by radicals reduces to the classification of lattice polytopes of mixed volume 4 (which we prove to be finite in every dimension). We also notice that the monodromy of every general system of equations is either symmetric or imprimitive. The proof is based on a new result of independent importance regarding dual defectiveness of systems of equations: the discriminant of a reduced irreducible square system of general polynomial equations is a hypersurface unless the system is linear up to a monomial change of variables.
For a finite group $G$, denote by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G)$ the degree of a minimal permutation representation of $G$. We call $G$ exceptional if there is a normal subgroup $N\unlhd G$ with $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G/N)>\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}(G)$. To complete the work of Easdown and Praeger [‘On minimal
faithful permutation representations of finite groups’, Bull. Aust.
Math. Soc.38(2) (1988), 207–220], for all primes $p\geq 3$, we describe an exceptional group of order $p^{5}$ and prove that no exceptional group of order $p^{4}$ exists.
We investigate products of certain double cosets for the symmetric group and use the findings to derive some multiplication formulas for the
$q$
-Schur superalgebras. This gives a combinatorialization of the relative norm approach developed in Du and Gu (A realization of the quantum supergroup
$\mathbf{U}(\mathfrak{g}\mathfrak{l}_{m|n})$
, J. Algebra 404 (2014), 60–99). We then give several applications of the multiplication formulas, including the matrix representation of the regular representation and a semisimplicity criterion for
$q$
-Schur superalgebras. We also construct infinitesimal and little
$q$
-Schur superalgebras directly from the multiplication formulas and develop their semisimplicity criteria.
We formulate some conjectures about the precise determination of the monodromy groups of certain rigid local systems on
$\mathbb{A}^{1}$
whose monodromy groups are known, by results of Kubert, to be finite. We prove some of them.
The classification of flag-transitive generalized quadrangles is a long-standing open problem at the interface of finite geometry and permutation group theory. Given that all known flag-transitive generalized quadrangles are also point-primitive (up to point–line duality), it is likewise natural to seek a classification of the point-primitive examples. Working toward this aim, we are led to investigate generalized quadrangles that admit a collineation group
$G$
preserving a Cartesian product decomposition of the set of points. It is shown that, under a generic assumption on
$G$
, the number of factors of such a Cartesian product can be at most four. This result is then used to treat various types of primitive and quasiprimitive point actions. In particular, it is shown that
$G$
cannot have holomorph compound O’Nan–Scott type. Our arguments also pose purely group-theoretic questions about conjugacy classes in nonabelian finite simple groups and fixities of primitive permutation groups.
Let $G$ be a finite group with $\mathsf{soc}(G)=\text{A}_{c}$ for $c\geq 5$. A characterization of the subgroups with square-free index in $G$ is given. Also, it is shown that a $(G,2)$-arc-transitive graph of square-free order is isomorphic to a complete graph, a complete bipartite graph with a matching deleted or one of $11$ other graphs.