Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: April 2020

9 - Formation and Evolution of Volcanoes

Summary

How are volcanoes born, in which way do they live, and why and when, eventually, do they become extinct? More specifically, why are there any polygenetic central volcanoes at all? Why is the volcanism not simply evenly distributed through the volcanic zone or field? There are certainly volcanic areas where the volcanism is more or less evenly distributed – such as at fast-spreading ridges. But for most other volcanic areas one or more locations within the area dominates the volcanism, resulting in the formation of a specific central volcano. The central volcano erupts much more frequently than its surroundings and, therefore, normally forms an edifice. The edifice is a structure with a certain mechanical strength, most of which derives from the internal structure of the volcano. Later in the evolution of the volcano, it may form a collapse caldera, as well as being subject to lateral collapses, all of which affect its shape. When, eventually, the supply of magma to the volcano is cut off, it becomes extinct, that is, dies.

Acocella, V., 2007. Understanding caldera structure and development: an overview of analogue models compared to natural calderas. Earth-Science Reviews, 85, 125160.
Acocella, V., Behncke, B., Neri, M., D’Amico, S., 2003. Link between major flank slip and eruptions at Mt. Etna (Italy). Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2286, doi:10.1029/2003GL018642.
Acosta, J., Uchupi, E., Munoz, A., et al., 2003. Geologic evolution of the Canarian Islands of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera and comparison of landslides at these islands and those at Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Marine Geophysical Research, 24, 140.
Aguirre-Diaz, G., 2008. Types of collapse calderas. Institute of Physics Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3, 012021.
Agustsdottir, T., Woods, J., Greenfield, T., 2016. Strike-slip faulting during the 2014 Bardarbunga–Holuhraun dike intrusion, central Iceland. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 14951503.
Almond, D. C. 1977. The Sabaloka igneous complex, Sudan. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A287, 595633.
Anderson, E. M., 1936. The dynamics of formation of cone sheets, ring dykes and cauldron subsidences. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 56, 128163.
Andrew, R. E. B., Gudmundsson, A., 2008. Volcanoes as elastic inclusions: their effects on the propagation of dykes, volcanic fissures, and volcanic zones in Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, 10451054.
Apuani, T., Corazzato, C., Cancelli, C., Tibaldi, A., 2005. Stability of a collapsing volcano (Stromboli, Italy): limit equilibrium analysis and numerical modelling. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 144, 191210.
Aramaki, S. 1984. Formation of the Aira caldera, southern Kyushu, ~ 22,000 years ago. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 84848501.
Baragar, W. R. A., Lambert, M. B., Baglow, N., Gibson, I. L., 1987. Sheeted dykes of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, 34, 257272.
Billings, M. P., 1972. Structural Geology, 3rd edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bonaccorso, A., Davis, P., 1999. Models of ground deformation from vertical volcanic conduits with application to eruptions of Mount St. Helens and Mount Etna. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 1053110542.
Boudon, G., Le Friant, A., Komorowski, J. C., Deplus, C., Semet, M. P., 2007. Volcano flank instability in the lesser Antilles arc: diversity of scale, processes, and temporal recurrence. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112 (B8), Art. No. B08205.
Branney, M. J. 1995. Downsag and extension at calderas: new perspectives on collapse geometries from ice-melt, mining, and volcanic subsidence. Bulletin of Volcanology, 57, 303318.
Browning, J., Gudmundsson, A., 2015a. Surface displacements resulting from magma-chamber roof subsidence, with application to the 2014–2015 Bardarbunga–Holuhraun volcanotectonic episode in Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 308, 8298.
Browning, J., Gudmundsson, A., 2015b. Caldera faults capture and deflect inclined sheets: an alternative mechanism of ring-dike formation. Bulletin of Volcanology, 77, 889, doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0889-4.
Browning, J., Drymoni, K., Gudmundsson, A., 2015. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece. Scientific Reports, 5, doi:10.1038/srep15785.
Chaussard, E., Amelung, F., 2014. Regional controls on magma ascent and storage in volcanic arcs. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15, doi:10.1002/2013GC005216.
Chesner, C. A., 2012. The Toba Caldera Complex. Quaternary International, 258, 518.
Cole, J. W., Milner, D. M., Spinks, K. D. 2005. Calderas and caldera structures: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 69, 126.
Coleman, R. G., 1977. Ophiolites. Ancient Oceanic Lithosphere? Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Del Potro, R., Hurlimann, M., 2008. Geotechnical classification and characterisation of materials for stability analyses of large volcanic slopes. Engineering Geology, 98, 117.
Dzurisin, D., 2006. Volcano Deformation: New Geodetic Monitoring Techniques. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Fedotov, S. A., Chirkov, A. M., Gusev, N. A., Kovalev, G. N., Slezin, Yu. B., 1980. The large fissure eruption in the region of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in Kamchatka, 1975–1976. Bulletin of Volcanology, 43, 4760.
Filson, J., Simkin, T., Leu, L. 1973. Seismicity of a caldera collapse: Galapagos Islands 1968. Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 85918622.
Foden, J., 1986. The petrology of the Tambora volcano, Indonesia: a model for the 1815 eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 27, 141.
Francis, P., 1993. Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Garcia, M. O., Sherman, S. B., Moore, G. F., et al., 2006. Frequent landslides from Koolau Volcano: results from ODP Hole 1223A. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151, 251268.
Gertisser, R., Self, S., Thomas, L. E., et al., 2012. Processes and timescales of magma genesis and differentiation leading to the great Tambora eruption in 1815. Journal of Petrology, 53, 271297.
Geshi, N., Shimano, T., Chiba, T., Nakada, S., 2002. Caldera collapse during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Bulletin of Volcanology, 64, 5568.
Geyer, A., Marti, J., 2008. The new worldwide collapse caldera database (CCDB): a tool for studying and understanding caldera processes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 175, 334354.
Geyer, A., Marti, J., 2014. A short review of our current understanding of the development of ring faults during collapse caldera formation. Frontiers in Earth Science, 2, doi:10.3389/feart.2014.00022.
Gudmundsson, A. 1988. Effect of tensile-stress concentration around magma chambers on intrusion and extrusion frequencies. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 35, 179194.
Gudmundsson, A., 1998. Magma chambers modeled as cavities explain the formation of rift zone central volcanoes and their eruption and intrusion statistics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 74017412.
Gudmundsson, A. 2000. Dynamics of volcanic systems in Iceland: example of tectonism and volcanism at juxtaposed hot spot and mid-ocean ridge systems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 28, 107140.
Gudmundsson, A., 2006. How local stresses control magma-chamber ruptures, dyke injections, and eruptions in composite volcanoes. Earth-Science Reviews, 79, 131.
Gudmundsson, A., 2009. Toughness and failure of volcanic edifices. Tectonophysics, 471, 2735.
Gudmundsson, A., 2011a. Rock Fractures in Geological Processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gudmundsson, A., 2011b. Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation. Tectonophysics, 500, 5064.
Gudmundsson, A., 2012. Magma chambers: formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 237–238, 1941.
Gudmundsson, A., 2015. Collapse-driven large eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 110
Gudmundsson, A., 2016. The mechanics of large volcanic eruptions. Earth-Science Reviews, 163, 7293.
Gudmundsson, A., 2017. The Glorious Geology of Iceland’s Golden Circle. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Gudmundsson, A., Brenner, S. L., 2004. Local stresses, dyke arrest, and surface deformation in volcanic edifices and rift zones. Annals of Geophysics, 47, 14331454.
Gudmundsson, A., Brenner, S. L., 2005. On the conditions for sheet injections and eruptions in stratovolcanoes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 768782.
Gudmundsson, A., Lotveit, I. F., 2012. Sills as fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs: examples and models. In Spence, G. H., Redfern, J., Aguilera, R., et al. (eds.), Advances in the Study of Fractured Reservoirs. Geological Society of London Special Publications, 374. London: Geological Society of London, pp. 251271.
Gudmundsson, A., Bergerat, F., Angelier, J., Villemin, T. 1992. Extensional tectonics of Southwest Iceland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of France, 163, 561570.
Gudmundsson, A., Friese, N., Galindo, I., Philipp, S. L., 2008. Dike-induced reverse faulting in a graben. Geology, 36, 123126.
Gudmundsson, A. T., 1990. On the Ringroad. Reykjavik: Lif og Saga (in Icelandic).
Humle, G., 1974. The interpretation of lava flow morphology. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 39, 361383.
Hurlimann, A., Marti, J., Ledesma, A., 2004. Morphological and geological aspects related to large slope failures on oceanic islands – the huge La Orotava landslides on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Geomorphology, 62, 143158.
Johnson, S. E., Schmidth, K. L., Tate, M. C., 2002. Ring complexes in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Mexico and the USA: magma plumbing system in the middle and upper crust. Lithos, 61, 187208.
Kaneko, T., Yasuda, A., Fujii, T., Yoshimoto, M., 2010. Crypto-magma chambers beneath Mt. Fuji. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 193, 161170.
Kerle, N., de Vries, B. V. W., 2001. The 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: investigation of structural deformation as the cause of slope instability using remote sensing. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 105, 4963.
Kilburn, C. J., 2000. Lava flows and flow fields. In Sigurdsson, H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 291305.
Kilburn, C. J., McGuire, W.J., 2001. Italian Volcanoes. Harpenden: Terra Publishing.
Lipman, P. W. 1984. The roots of ash flow calderas in western North America: windows into the tops of granitic batholiths. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 88018841.
Lipman, P. W. 1997. Subsidence of ash-flow calderas: relation to caldera size and magma chamber geometry. Bulletin of Volcanology, 59, 198218.
Lipman, P. W., Mullineaux, D. R. (eds.), 1981. The 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1250. Denver, CO: US Geological Survey.
Lipman, P. W., Dungan, M. A., Bachmann, O., 1997. Comagmatic granophyric granite in the Fish Canyon Tuff, Colorado: implications for magma-chamber processes during a large ash-flow eruption. Geology, 25, 915918.
Lippard, S. J., Shelton, A. W., Gass, I. (eds.), 1986. The Ophiolite of Northern Oman. Oxford: Blackwell.
Macdonald, G. A., 1972. Volcanoes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Martì, J., Gudmundsson, A., 2000. The Las Canadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands): an overlapping collapse caldera generated by magma-chamber migration. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 103, 161173.
Marti, J., Ablay, G. J., Redshaw, L. T., Sparks, R. S. J., 1994. Experimental studies of collapse calderas. Journal Geological Society London, 151, 919929.
Marti, J., Geyer, A., Folch, A., Gottsmann, J., 2008. A review on collapse caldera modelling. In Gottsmann, J. and Marti, J. (eds.), Caldera Volcanism: Analysis, Modelling and Response. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 233283.
Marti, J., Geyer, A., Folch, A., 2009. A genetic classification of collapse calderas based on field studies, and analogue and theoretical modelling. In Thordarson, T., Self, S. (eds.), Volcanology: The Legacy of GPL Walker. London: IAVCEI-Geological Society of London, pp. 249266.
Mitchell, N. C., Masson, D. G., Watts, A. B., Gee, M. J. R., Urgeles, R., 2002. The morphology of submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands – a comparative study of the Canary and Hawaiian hotspot islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115, 83107.
Moore, J. G., Clague, D. A., Holcomb, R. T., et al., 1989. Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 1746517484.
Moore, J. G., Normark, W. R., Holcomb, R. T., 1994. Giant Hawaiian landslides. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 22, 119144.
Morgan, J. K., Moore, G. F., Clague, D. A., 2003. Slope failure and volcanic spreading along the submarine south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 2415, doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002411.
Nakada, S., Uto, K., Sakuma, S., Eichelberger, J. C., Shimizu, H., 2005. Scientific results of conduit drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP). Scientific Drilling, 1, 1822, doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.1.03.2005.
Newhall, C. G., Dzurisin, D., 1988. Historical Unrest of Large Calderas of the World. Reston, VA: US Geological Survey.
Nicolas, A., 2013. Structures of Ophiolites and Dynamics of Oceanic Lithosphere. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
O’Driscoll, B., Troll, V.R., Reavy, R.J., Turner, P., 2006. The Great Eucrite intrusion of Ardnamurchan, Scotland: reevaluating the ring-dike concept. Geology, 34, 189192.
Oehler, J. F., de Vries, B. V. W., Labazuy, P., 2005. Landslides and spreading of oceanic hot-spot and arc basaltic edifices on low strength layers (LSLs): an analogue modelling approach. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 144, 169189.
Oehler, J. F., Lenat, J. F., Labzuy, P., 2008. Growth and collapse of the Reunion Island volcanoes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 70, 717742.
Oftedahl, C. 1953. The igneous rock complex of the Oslo region: XIII. The cauldrons. Skrifter Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, 3, 1108.
Pina-Varas, P., Ledo, J., Queralt, P., Marcuello, A., Perez, N., 2018. On the detectability of Teide volcano magma chambers (Tenerife, Canary Islands) with magnetotelluric data. Earth, Planets and Space, 70, doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018–0783-y
Pinel, V., Jaupart, C., 2005. Some consequences of volcanic edifice destruction for eruption conditions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 145, 6880.
Ponomreva, V. V., Melekestev, I. V., Dirksen, O. V., 2006. Sector collapses and large landslides on late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 117138.
Reid, M. E., 2004. Massive collapse of volcano edifices triggered by hydrothermal pressurization. Geology, 32, 373376.
Rosi, M., Papale, P., Lupi, L., Stoppato, M., 2003. Volcanoes. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.
Rust, D., Behncke, B., Neri, M., Ciocanel, A., 2005. Nested zones of instability in the Mount Etna volcanic edifice, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 144, 137153.
Savin, G. N., 1961. Stress Concentration Around Holes. New York, NY: Pergamon.
Segalstad, T. V., 1975. Cauldron subsidences, ring-structures, and major faults in the Skien district, Norway. Norks Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55, 321333.
Self, S., Rampino, M. R., Newton, M. S., Wolff, J. A., 1984. Volcanological study of the great Tambora eruption of 1815. Geology, 12, 659663.
Siebert, L., 1984. Large volcanic debris avalanches: characteristics of source areas, deposits and associated eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 22, 163197.
Simkin, T., Howard, K.A. 1970. Caldera collapse in the Galapagos Islands, 1968. Science, 169, 429437.
Spera, F. J., 1980. Thermal evolution of plutons: a parameterized approach. Science, 207, 299301.
Spera, F. J., 2000. Physical properties of magmas. In Sigurdsson, H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 171190.
Thordarson, T., Hoskuldsson, A., 2008. Postglacial volcanism in Iceland. Jokull, 58, 197228.
Tibaldi, A., 2001. Multiple sector collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy: how they work. Bulletin of Volcanology, 63, 112125.
Tibaldi, A., Bistacchi, A., Pasquare, F. A., Vezzoli, L., 2006. Extensional tectonics and volcano lateral collapses: insights from Ollague volcano (Chile–Bolivia) and analogue modelling. Terra Nova, 18, 282289.
Tsuchida, E., Yaegashi, A. 1981. Stresses in a thick elastic plate containing a prolate spheroidal cavity subjected to an axisymmetric pressure. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 31, 8596.
Tsuchida, E., Saito, Y., Nakahara, I., Kodama, M., 1982a. Stresses in a semi-infinite elastic body containing a prolate spheroidal cavity subjected to axisymmetric pressure. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Bulletin, 25, 891897.
Tsuchida, E., Saito, Y., Nakahara, I., Kodama, M., 1982b. Stress concentration around a prolate spheroidal cavity in a semi-infinite elastic body under all-around tension. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Bulletin, 25, 493500.
Vinciguerra, S., Elsworth, D., Malone, S., 2005. The 1980 pressure response and flank failure of Mount St. Helens (USA) inferred from seismic scaling exponents. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 144, 155168.
Voight, B., Elsworth, D., 1997. Failure of volcano slopes. Geotechnique, 47, 131.
Walter, T. R., Schmincke, H. U., 2002. Rifting, recurrent landsliding and Miocence structural reorganisation on NW-Tenerife (Canary Islands). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 91, 615628.
Williams, H., McBirney, A. R., Lorenz, V. 1970. An Investigation of Volcanic Depressions. Part I. Calderas. Houston, TX: Manned Spacecraft Center.
Wooller, L., de Vries, B. V. W, Murray, J. B., Rymer, H., Meyer, S., 2004. Volcano spreading controlled by dipping substrata. Geology, 32, 573576.