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  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: August 2009

7 - Diptera, Ephemeroptera

Summary

DIPTERA

Introduction

Flies are one of the most recognized pests in the urban environment. The fore wings of dipterans are developed, but the hind wings are reduced to small knobbed structures called halteres. Adult flies are active during the day, sometimes at dawn or dusk, and are usually attracted to the odors from sites suitable for larval feeding and development. The larvae are known as maggots, and although this is the primary feeding stage, it is often in a different habitat from the one visited by adults.

Domestic and peridomestic habitats attract fly species that feed as adults or larvae on decaying organic material. Many of these species came from populations in natural habitats separate from the urban environment. Food storage indoors often results in small amounts of ripe and decaying substrate that attract adult flies. Female fungus gnats and fruit flies can detect alcohols, acetic acid, and other volatile compounds from these materials, and follow the odor to an oviposition site. Dead and decaying organic matter is quickly identified as an oviposition site by adult scatopsides, sepsides, and phorids. Adults of several fly species are found indoors in the fall and winter. These include overwintering cluster flies and face flies that spend the winter in attics, wall voids, and other rooms. Chlorpoids and other small flies that occur in large numbers at windows in the fall do not overwinter, but are gathered in large numbers by prevailing winds and are carried in through open windows.

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Scatopsidae, Scenopenidae, Sciaridae
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Wilkerson, R. C., Butler, J. F., and Pechuman, L. L.. Swarming, hovering, and mating behavior of male horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Myia, 3 (1985), 515–46
Ephemeroptera
Alba-Tercedor, J. and A. Sanchez-Ortega. Overview and Strategies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Gainesville, FL: Sandhill Crane Press, 1991
Berner, L. The Mayflies of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1950
Berner, L. and M. L. Pescador. The mayfly family Baetiscidae (Ephemeroptera). Part I. In Flannagan, J. F. and K. E. Marshall (eds) Advances in Ephemeroptera Biology. New York: Plenum Press, 1980
Britt, N. W.Biology of two species of Lake Erie mayflies, Ephron album (Say) and Ephemera simulans Walker. Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv. (New ser.), 1 (1962), 1–70
Brittain, J. E.Biology of mayflies. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 27 (1982), 119–47
Burks, B. D.The mayflies or Ephemeroptera of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull., 26 (1953), 1–216
Campbell, I. C. (ed.) Mayflies and Stoneflies: Life Histories and Biology. Series Entomologica 44. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1990
Edmunds, G. E. Jr and McCafferty, W. P.. The mayfly subimago. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 33 (1988), 509–29
Edmunds, G. E., Jr, S. L. Jensen, and L. Berner. The Mayflies of North and Central America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976
Flannagan, J. F. and K. E. Marshall (eds) Advances in Ephemeroptera Biology. New York: Plenum Press, 1980
Fremling, C. R.Biology of a large mayfly, Hexagenia bilineata (Say) of the Upper Mississippi river. Iowa Agr. Home Econ. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull., 482 (1960), 842–52
Fremling, C. R.Rhythmic Hexagenia mayfly emergences and the environmental factors which influence them. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 15 (1964), 912–16
Harker, J. Mayflies. Naturalists' Handbooks 13. Slough, UK: Richmond, 1989
Harker, J.Swarm behavior and mate competition in mayflies (Ephemeroptera). J. Zool., 228 (1992), 571–87
Henson, E. B.Aquatic insects as inhalent allergens: a review of American literature. Ohio J. Sci., 66 (1966), 529–32
Hubbard, M. D. Mayflies of the World: A Catalog of the Family and Genus Group Taxa. Gainesville, FL: Sandhill Crane Press, 1990
Hubbard, M. D. and W. L. Peters. Ephemeroptera. In Hurlbert, S. H. (ed.) Biota Acuática de Sudamérica Austral. San Diego, CA: San Diego State University, 1977
Landholt, P. and M. Sartor (eds) Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera biology, ecology, systematics. Fribourg: Mauron, Tingley & Lachat
Macan, T. T. The study of stoneflies, mayflies and caddisflies. London: Amateur Entomologist's Society, 1982
Nedham, J. G.Burrowing mayflies of our larger lakes and streams. Bull. US Bur. Fish., 36 (1920), 269–92
Needham, J. G., J. R. Traver, and Y.-C. Hsu. The Biology of Mayflies. Ithaca, NY: Comstock, 1935
Peters, W. L. and P. G. Peters (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference of Ephemeroptera. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973
Savolainen, E.Swarming in Ephemeroptera: the mechanism of swarming and the effects of illumination and weather. Ann. Zool. Fenn., 15 (1978), 17–52
Simpson, S. J. and G. C. McGavin. The Right Fly: An Angler's Guide to Identifying and Matching Natural Insects. London: Aurum Press, 1996