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  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: August 2009

5 - Coleoptera

Summary

Introduction

Beetles comprise the largest order of insects, with over a quarter of a million described species. They have four wings, with the front pair thickened, leathery, or hardened, and usually covering the hind wings. Their chewing mouthparts are well developed in the adults and larvae. Mandibles range from slender and sharp use for predaceous habits, to large and toothed, used to crush plant and animal material, or gnawing wood. In weevils, the front of the head is produced into an elongated snout, with the mandibles at the end. Development in this order includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. Larvae vary considerably in form, but most are elongate and flattened or grub-like. The life cycle varies in length to provide several generations a year to one generation in several years. Overwintering generally occurs as a larva or pupa in protected sites, but some species overwinter as adults in large aggregations.

Wood is a source of food and harborage for several species of beetles. However, cellulose and lignin that give wood strength and durability are not easily converted to food. Only a small number of insects actually derive nutrition from wood. Others, such as carpenter ants and carpenter bees, have mouthparts strong enough to tunnel into sound or slightly decayed wood, but their gut is not equipped with the enzymes or microorganisms necessary to convert it into food components.

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Cerambycidae
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Higgs, M. D. and Evans, D. A.. Chemical mediators in the oviposition behavior of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Experimentia, 34 (1977), 46–7
Jensen, K.Die Verbreitung des Hausbocks in Denmark. Der Prakt. Schadlbek., 8 (1956), 59–60
Jensen-Storch, Sv.Eine Ubersicht uber die Entwicklung der Hausbockfrage in Danemark und eine Methode zur Untersuchung des relativen Wertes der verschiedenen Konservierungs-flussigkeiten als Bekampfungs- und Vorbeugungsmittel. Anz. Schadlingsk., 7 (1932), 101–21
Kaufman, R. E. U.Notes on the occurrence of Hylotrupes bajulus L. in England. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 83 (1947), 37–40
Kennedy, R. and M. G. Jeffries. The Two-Toothed Longhorn Ambedontus tristis (F.) (Col., Cerambycidae) Breeding in Leicestershire. British Wood Preserving Asso., News Sheet No. 138, 1975
Klausnitzer, B. and F. Sander. Die Bockäfer Mitteleuropas: Cerambycidae. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag, 1978
Knusson, P. and Baake, A.. The present distribution of Hylotrupes bajulus L. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Norway and its abundance in some districts. Nordsk Ent. Tidskr., 14 (1967), 94–102
Korting, A.Zur Entwicklung und Schadtatigkeit des Hausbockkafers, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) in Dachstuhlen verschiedenen Alters. Anz. Schadlingsk., 39 (1962), 150–3
Korting, A.Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Hausbockkafer) in Tannenholz. Mater. Org., 5 (1970), 241–54
Korting, A.Hausbockbefall und jahreszeitliche Schwankung der Holzfeuchtigkeit im Dachstuhl. Prakt. Schadingsbekampfer, 27 (1975), 137–8
Kuhne, H.Lebenweise und Umweltabhangigkeit des Grubenhalsbocks (Criocephalus rusticus (L.), Cerambycidae, Col.). Mater. Org., 10 (1975), 161–201
Lea, R. G. House Longhorn Beetle: Geographical Distribution and Pest Status in the UK. Building Research Establishment information paper IP/8/94. UK: Stewkley Press, 1994
Linsley, E. G.Ecology of Cerambycidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 4 (1959), 99–138
Mateus, T. J. E. Principalis aspectos do problema da proteccao das conservaaco madeiras em Portugal, em special contro o Hylotrupes bajulus, pp. 7–23. Publication no. 20. Lisbon: Ministeria das Obras Publicas, Lab Engenharia Civil, 1952
Menon, K. D.Longhorn beetle attack on timber in buildings. Malay. Forest, 17 (1954), 143–6
Milligan, R. H. The European house borer Hylotrupes bajulus L., a possible pest to New Zealand. N.Z. Forest Res. Notes, 25 (1961)
Milligan, R. H.Susceptibility of New Zealand podocarb timbers to Hylotrupes bajulus L. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). N. Z. Entomol., 3 (1967), 52–6
Neu, W. Funde von Hylotrupes bajulus (Hausbock) in Istanbul. Festschrift 60, pp. 500–2. Riga: Geburtstag Strand, 1938
Nielsen, H.Hausbocke (Hylotrupes bajulus). Vorkommen und Bekampfung in Norwegen. Flyvehullet, 181 (1957), 25–7
Ozer, M.Ahsap mobily ada zazar yapen ev teke bocegi Hylotrupes bajulus L. uzerinde incelemeler. Plant-Prot. Bull., 3 (1963), 16–20
Pallaske, M.Autokologische Untersuchungen (Aktivitatun Orientierung) an Larven von Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Verh. Ges. Okol., 10 (1983), 619–23
Palli, F. and Gambetta, A.. Sue due Cerambicidi distributtori del legno (Hylotrupes bajulus L.; Hesperophanes cinerus Vill.). Consiglio Ric. Centro Legno, 5 (1962), 5–30
Parkin, E. A.The occurrence of the house longhorn beetle, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) in England. Forestry, 8 (1934), 150–4
Rasmussen, S.Effects of the microclimate on the growth and metamorphosis of Hylotrupes in Denmark. Oikos, 12 (1961), 173–94
Rasmussen, S.Growth of larvae of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus in constant conditions. Oikos, 12 (1967), 173–94
Saraiva, A. C.Combate ao Hylotrupes bajulus L. em bairos urbanos. Tecnico, 31 (1957), 270
Schultze-Dewitz, G. Beobachtungen uber die Bestandigkeit der Gewichtszunahme beim Wachstum der Larven des Hausbockes (Hylotrupes bajulus L.), pp. 44–53. Berlin: Wanderversamml. Deutscher Entomologen, 1957
Schwarz, L. U. and Rensch, A.. Uber Borsaure als Vorbeugungsmittel gegen den Hausbockkafer. Arch. Hyg. Bacteriol., 129 (1943), 293–311
Vasic, K. Problem predohrane I isuzbijonova kucne strizibube (Fragen zum Schutz gegen Hausbock und zu seiner Bekampfung). Zasista Bilja (Belgrad), (1962), 83–91
White, M. G.The house longhorn beetle, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Great Britian. Forestry, 27 (1954), 31–40
Wichmand, H.Hylotrupes bajulus L. in Denmark. Anz. Schadlingsk., 7 (1931), 13
Cleridae, Coccinellidae
Ashman, F.Factors affecting the abundance of the copra beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Deg.) (Col., Cleridae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 3 (1962), 671–80
Herman, J. and Cukerman, R.. Contact dermatitis due to ladybirds. Practitioner, 226 (1982), 311
Hodek, I. Biology of the Coccinellidae. The Hague: Junk, 1973
Koch, R. L. and Hutchinson, W. D.. Phenology and blacklight tapping of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a Minnesota agricultural landscape. J. Entomol. Sci., 38 (2003), 477–80
Simmons, P. and Ellington, G. W.. The ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes DeGeer. J. Agric. Res., 30 (1925), 845–65
Cucujidae
Arborgast, R. T.Population parameters for Oryzaephilus surinamensis and O. mercator: effect of relative humidity. Environ. Entomol., 5 (1976), 738–42
Ashby, K. R.The life-history and reproductive potential of Cryptolestes pusillus at high temperatures and humidities. Bull. Entomol. Res., 52 (1961), 353–61
Bishop, G. W.The comparative bionomics of American Cryptolestes (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) that infest stored grain. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 52 (1959), 657–65
Chang, S. S. and Loschiavo, R.. The influence of some fungi in flour, and humidity on the survival and development of Cryptolestes turcicus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Can. Entomol., 103 (1971), 261–6
Currie, J. E.Some effects of temperature and humidity on the rates of development, mortality and oviposition of Cryptolestes pusillus (Schonherr) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 3 (1967), 97–108
David, M. H. and Mills, R. B.. Development, oviposition and longevity of Ahasverus advena. J. Econ. Entomol., 68 (1975), 341–5
David, M. H., Mills, R. B., and Sauer, D. B.. Development and oviposition of Ahasverus advena (Walt.) (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) on seven species of fungi. J. Stored Prod. Res., 10 (1974), 17–22
Davies, R. G.The biology of Laemophloeus minutus Oliv. (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 40 (1949), 63–82
Finlayson, L. H.The biology of Cephalonomia waterstoni Ghan (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), a parasite of Laemophloeus (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 41 (1950), 457–90
Halstead, D. G. H.A revision of the genus Orzaephilus Ganglbauer, including descriptions of related genera (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 69 (1980), 271–374
Howe, R. W.The biology of two common storage species of Oryzaephilus (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). Ann. Appl. Biol., 44 (1956), 341–55
LeCato, G. L.Sawtoothed grain beetle: population growth on peanuts stimulated by eating eggs or adults of the Indian meal moth. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 66 (1973), 13–65
Lefkovitch, L. P.The biology of Cryptolestes ugandae Steel and Howe (Coleoptera, Cucujidae), a pest of stored products in Africa. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 128 (1957), 419–29
Lefkovitch, L. P.The biology of Cryptolestes capensis (Walt.) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae), a pest of stored products in Africa. Bull. Entomol. Res., 53 (1962), 529–35
Lefkovitch, L. P.The biology of Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae), a pest of stored and processed cereals. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 138 (1962), 23–35
Lefkovitch, L. P. and Milnes, R. H.. Interaction of two species of Cryptolestes (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 54 (1963), 107–12
Loschiavo, S. R.Food selection by Oryzaephilus mercantor (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Can. Entomol., 108 (1976), 827–31
Loschiavo, S. R. and Sabourin, D.. The merchant grain beetle, Oryzaephilus mercator (Silvanidae: Coleoptera), as a household pest in Canada. Can. Entomol., 114 (1982), 1163–9
Payne, N. M.Life history and habits of the flat grain beetle (Laemophloeus minutus Oliv.). J.N.Y. Entomol. Soc., 54 (1946), 9–12
Thomas, E. L. and Shepard, H. H.. The influence of temperature, moisture, and food upon the development and survival of the saw toothed grain beetle. J. Agric. Res., 60 (1940), 605–15
Williams, G. C.Observations on the life history of Laemophloecus minutus (Ol.) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) when bred on various stored cereals and cereal products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 45 (1954), 341–9
Woodroffe, G. E.The status of the foreign grain beetle, Ahasverus advena (Walt.) (Coleoptera, Silvanidae), as a pest of stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 53 (1962), 537–40
Cryptophagidae
Coombs, C. W. and Woodroffe, G. E.. A revision of the British species of Cryptophagus (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Cryptophagidae). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc.Lond. 106 (1955), 237–82
Woodroffe, G. E. and Coombs, C. W.. A revision of the North American Cryptophagus Herbst (Coleoptera: Cryptophagidae). Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am., 2 (1961), 179–211
Curculionidae (stored food)
Essig, E. O.Origin of the bean weevil, Mylabris obtectus Say. J. Econ. Entomol., 22 (1929), 858–61
Evans, D. E.The capacity for increase at low temperatures of several Australian populations of Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Austr. J. Ecol., 2 (1977), 55–67
Evans, D. E.The capacity for increase at low temperatures of several Australian populations of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.). Austr. J. Ecol., 2 (1977), 69–79
Ewer, R. F.The effect of grain size on the oviposition of Calandra granaria Linn. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc.Lond. A, 20 (1954), 57–63
Howe, R. W.The biology of the rice weevil, Calandra oryzae (L.). Ann. Appl. Biol., 39 (1952), 168–80
Jay, E. G., Musen, H. L., and Pearman, G. C.. Damage to stored soybeans by the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ga. Entomol. Soc., 8 (1973), 164–7
Longstaff, B. C.Biology of the grain pest species of the genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a critical review. Prot. Ecol., 2 (1981), 83–130
Maceljski, M. and Korunic, Z.. Contribution to the morphology and ecology of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. in Yugoslavia. J. Stored Prod. Res., 9 (1973), 225–34
Potter, C.The biology and distribution of Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond., 85 (1936), 449–82
Reddy, D. B.Ecological studies of the rice weevil. J. Econ. Entomol., 43 (1950), 203–6
Richards, O. W.Observations on grain weevils, Calandra (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). I. General biology and oviposition. Proc. Zool. Soc.Lond. 117 (1947), 1–43
Curculionidae (wood infesting)
Buck, F. D.Pentarthrum huttoni Woll. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and some imported Cossoninae. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 9 (1948), 152–4
Hammad, S. M. 1955. The immature stages of Pentarthrum huttoni Woll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc.Lond. (A), 30 (1955), 33–9
Hum, M., Glaser, A. E., and Edwards, R.. Wood boring weevils of economic importance in Britain. J. Inst. Wood Sci., 8 (1980), 201–7
Pitman, A. J., S. M. Cragg, and G. Sawyer. An Investigation of the Nutritional Physiology of the Wood Boring Weevil Euophryum confine Brown. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, document no. IRG/WP 94–10082. 1994
Dermestidae
Amos, T. G.Some laboratory observations on the rates of development, mortality, and oviposition of Dermestes frischii (Kug.) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 4 (1968), 103–17
Archer, T. L. and Strong, R. G.. Comparative studies on the biologies of six species of Trogoderma: T. glabrum. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 68 (1975), 105–14
Armstrong, J. W. T.On Australian Dermestidae. Part II. The genus Troderma Berthold. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales Proc., 67 (1942), 321–30
Ayappa, P. K., Cheema, P. S., and Perti, S. L.. A life history of Anthrenus flavipes LeC. (Col., Dermestidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 50 (1957), 469–71
Azab, A. K., Tawfik, M. F. S., and Abouzeid, N. A.. The biology of Dermestes maculatus De Geer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol.Egypt, 56 (1972), 1–14
Azab, A. K., Tawfik, M. F. S., and Abouzeid, N. A.. Factors affecting development and adult longevity of Dermestes maculatus De Geer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol.Egypt, 56 (1972), 21–32
Back, E. A. and Cotton, R. T.. The black carpet beetle, Attagenus piceus (Oliv.). J. Econ. Entomol., 31 (1938), 280–6
Badawi, A.The biology of two species of Trogoderma existing in Egypt (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol.Egypt, 57 (1973), 239–46
Baker, J. E.Influence of nutrients on the utilization of woolen fabrics as a food for larvae of Attagenus megatoma (F.) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 10 (1974), 155–60
Banks, H. J.Distribution and establishment of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae): climate and other influences. J. Stored Prod. Res., 13 (1977), 183–202
Barber, H. S.On the odd, or tissue paper beetle supposed to be Thylodrias contractus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 40 (1947), 344–9
Beal, R. S.Biology and taxonomy of the Nearctic species of Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Calif. Univ. Pub. Entomol., 10 (1954), 35–102
Beal, R. S.Synopsis of the economic species of Trogoderma occurring in the United States with description of a new species (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 49 (1956), 559–66
Beal, R. S. Coleoptera: Dermestidae. Insects of Micronesia, vol. 16, pp. 109–35. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1960
Bellemare, E. R. and Brunelle, L.. Larval and pupal development of Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Can. Entomol., 82 (1950), 22–4
Bhattacharya, A. K. and Pant., N. C.Growth and development of khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) on pulses. Bull. Entomol. Res., 59 (1969), 383–8
Bry, R. E.Feeding studies of larvae of the black carpet beetle (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) on wool/synthetic blend fabrics. J. Ga. Entomol. Soc., 10 (1975), 284–6
Burges, H. D.The effect of temperature, humidity and quality of food on the development and diapause of Trogoderma parabile Beal. Bull Entomol. Res., 51 (1961), 685–96
Burges, H. D.Studies on the dermestid beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts. Bull. Entomol. Res., 53 (1962), 193–213
Coombs, C. W. The effect of temperature and relative humidity upon the development and fecundity of Dermestes lardarius L. (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 14 (1978), 111–19
Coombs, C. WThe development, fecundity and longevity of Dermestes ater DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 17 (1981), 31–7
Greenwald, M. Studies on the biology of four common carpet beetles. Part II. The old-fashion carpet beetle (Anthrenus scrophulariae L.). Agricultural Experimental Station of the University of Cornell Mem., vol. 240, pp. 58–75. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1941
Griswold, G. H. Studies on the biology of four common carpet beetles. Part I. The black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus Oliv.), the varied carpet beetle (Anthrenus vorax Waterh.). Agricultural Experimental Station of the University of Cornell Mem., vol. 240, pp. 1–57. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1941
Hadaway, A. B.The biology of the dermestid beetles, Trogoderma granarium Everts and Trogoderma versicolor (Cruetz.). Bull. Entomol. Res., 46 (1956), 781–96
Hall, E. and Russell, C.. Dermestid beetles as an aid to cleaning bones. J. Mammal., 14 (1933), 372–4
Hamalainen, M. and Mannerkoski, I.. Occurrence and distribution of dermestids (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Finland. Notulae Entomol., 64 (1984), 167–84
Hilali, M., Dahle, H. K., and Aurstad, K.. Life history and food-spoiling enzymes of Dermestes lardarius (L.). Norsk Entomol. Tidsskr., 19 (1972), 25–32
Hinks, W. D.The odd beetle, Thylodrias contractus Motschulsky (Col., Dermestidae) in Britain. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 86 (1950), 148
Hinton, H. E.Natural reservoirs of beetles of the family Dermestidae known to infest stored products, with notes on those found in spiders' webs. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 18 (1943), 33–42
Jefferies, M. G.The occurrence of Dermestes species (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in deep pit poultry houses in Britain. Entomol. Gaz., 30 (1979), 207–12
Lingren, D. L., Vincent, L. F., and Krohne, M. E.. The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium. Hilgardia, 24 (1955), 1–36
Loschiavo, S. R.Life-history and behavior of Trogoderma parabile Beal (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Can. Entomol., 92 (1960), 611–18
Loschiavo, S. R.Adult longevity and oviposition of Trogoderma parabile Beal (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) at different temperatures. J. Stored Prod. Res., 3 (1967), 273–82
Mertins, J. W.Life history and morphology of the odd beetle, Thylodrias contractus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 74 (1981), 576–81
Metcalf, C. L.Thylodrias contractus Mots. J. Econ. Entomol., 26 (1933), 509–10
Minar, J. Synanthropisation and spreading of Dermestidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). In Robinson, W. H., F. Rettich, and G. W. Rambo (eds.) Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Urban Pests, p. 675. Blacksburg, VA: Pocahontas Press, 2002
Mroczkowski, M.Dermestidae (Coleoptera) from the Kazakh SSR. Ann. Zool. Instytut Zool. Polska Akad. Nauk, 20 (1962), 229–59
Mroczkowski, M.Distribution of the Dermestidae (Coleoptera) of the world with a catalogue of all known species. Ann. Zool. Instytut Zool. Polska Akad. Nauk, 26 (1968), 16–191
Mroczkowski, M.Dermestidae Skormikowate (Insecta: Coleoptera) [Dermestidae, Hide Beetles] (in Polish). Fauna Polski, 4 (1975), 1–163
Nair, K. S. and Desai, A. K.. Some new findings on factors inducing diapause in Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 8 (1972), 27–54
Novák, I. and Verner, P.. Faunistic records from Czechoslovakia. Coleoptera (Dermestidae): Reese vespulae. Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov., 87 (1990), 479
Partida, G. J. and Strong, R. G.. Comparative studies on the biologies of six species of Trogoderma: T. variable. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 68 (1975), 115–25
Rees, B. E.Taxonomy of the larvae of some North American species of the genus Dermestes (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 49 (1947), 1–14
Roth, L. M. and Willis, E. R.. The oviposition of Dermestes ater DeGeer, with notes on bionomics under laboratory conditions. Am. Midl. Nat., 44 (1950), 427–47
Spencer, G. J.Dead Pollenia rudis (Fabr.) as hosts of dermestids. Can. Entomol., 60 (1928), 283
Strong, R. G.Comparative studies of the biologies of six species of Trogoderma: T. inclusum. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 68 (1975), 91–104
Takio, M.Morphology and ecology of Dermestes vorax Motschulsky (Dermestidae). Bull. Seric. Exp. Sta. Jpn., 9 (1937), 167–84
White, G. D. and McGregor, H. E.. Epidemic infestations of wheat by a dermestid, Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst). J. Econ. Entomol., 50 (1957), 382–5
Woodroffe, G. E. and Southgate, B. J.. An investigation of the distribution and field habits of the varied carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci (L.) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae), in Britain with comparative notes on A. fuscus and A. museorum (L.). Bull. Entomol. Res., 45 (1954), 575–83
Zhantiev, R. D. Dermestids (fam. Dermestidae) of the fauna of U.S.S.R. Moscow: Moscow University, 1976
Histeridae, Lathridiidae
Hinton, H. E.The Lathridiidae of economic importance. Bull. Entomol. Res., 32 (1941), 191–247
Hinton, H. E.The Histeridae associated with stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 35 (1945), 309–40
Morgan, P. B., Patterson, R. S., and Weidhaas, D. E.. A life-history study of Carcinops pumilio Erichson (Coleoptera: Histeridae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc., 18 (1983), 353–9
Lyctidae
Alston, A. M.On the young larvae of Lyctus brunneus Steph. Ann. Appl. Biol., 9 (1922), 187–96
Alston, A. M.On the method of oviposition and the egg of Lyctus brunneus Steph. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool., 35 (1923), 581–97
Christian, M. B.Biology of the powder-post beetles, Lyctus planicollis LeConte and Lyctus parallelopipedus (Melsh.). Part I. La. Conserv. Rev., 9 (1940), 56–9
Christian, M. B.Biology of the powder-post beetles, Lyctus planicollis LeConte and Lyctus parallelopipedus (Melsh.). Part II. La. Conserv. Rev., 10 (1941), 40–2
Cymorek, S.Experimente mit Lyctus. Holz. U. Organismen (Int. Sympos. 1965). Beih. Mater. Org., 1 (1966), 391–413
Cymorek, S.Ueber den Einfluss der Holzdichte auf die Entwicklung von Holzinsekten und Versuche daruber mit Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) in Pressholz. Mater. Org., 2 (1967), 195–205
Gerberg, E. J. A revision of the New World species of powder-post beetles belonging to the Family Lyctidae. USDA Technical bulletin no. 1157. Washington, DC: USDA, 1957
Parkin, E. A.A study of the food relations of the Lyctus powder-post beetles. Ann. Appl. Biol., 23 (1936), 369–400
Parkin, E. A.The moisture content in timber in relation to attack by Lyctus powder-post beetles. Ann. Appl. Biol., 30 (1943), 130–42
Rosel, A.Oviposition, egg development and other features of the biology of five species of Lyctidae (Coleoptera). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc., 8 (1969), 145–52
Schmidt, H.Holzwirtschaft und Lyctus-Splintholzkafer. Holzforsch. Holzverwertung, 15 (1963), 63–6
Smith, R. H.The effect of wood moisture content on the emergence of the southern lyctus beetle. J. Econ. Entomol., 48 (1955), 770–1
Mycetophagidae, Nitidulidae, Oedemeridae
Balch, R. E.Notes on the warf borer (Nacerda melanura L.). Can. Entomol., 69 (1937), 1–5
Balzer, A. I.The life history of the corn sap beetle in rice. J. Econ. Entomol., 35 (1942), 606–7
Dobson, R. M.The species of Carpophilus Stephens (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) associated with stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 45 (1954), 389–402
Dobson, R. M.Notes on the taxonomy and occurrence of Carpophilus Stephens (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) associated with stored products. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 95 (1960), 156–8
Essig, E. O.The dried fruit beetle Carpophilus hemipterus (L.). J. Econ. Entomol., 8 (1915), 396–400
Hicken, N. E.Nacerdes melanura L. (Coleoptera, Oedomeridae) at a considerable height above ground. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 88 (1953), 107
Lefkovitch, L. P.Some observations on the life cycle of Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) on wheat bran. J. Stored Prod. Res., 2 (1966), 163–5
Parsons, C. T.Revision of Nearctic Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera). Coleopt. Bull., 29 (1975), 93–108
Pitman, A., Jones, A., and Gareth Jones, E.. The warf borer, Nacerdes melanura L: a threat to stored archeological timber. Studi. Conserv., 38 (1993), 274–85
Spencer, G. J.An unusual record of the wharf borer Nacerda melanura, in buried piling at Vancouver, British Columbia (Coleoptera: Oedemeridae). Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia, Proc., 43 (1947), 7–8
Spencer, G. J.The warf borer in a Vancouver branch library. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia, 54 (1957), 44–5
Stejskal, V.Faunistic records from Czechoslovakia. Coleoptera (Latridiidae): Latridus pseudominutus.Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov., 88 (1991), 79
Ptinidae
Belles, X. and Halstead, D. G.. Identification and geographic distribution of Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu and Gibbium psylloides (Czenpinski) (Coleoptera: Ptinidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 21 (1985), 151–5
Brown, W. J.A key to the species of Ptinidae occurring in dwellings and warehouses in Canada (Coleoptera). Can. Entomol., 72 (1940), 115–22
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Coombs, C. W. and Woodroffe, G. E.Some factors affecting larval development in Ptinus tectus Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Ptinidae) relevant to succession among grain beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res., 6 (1970), 199–216
Ewer, D. W. and Ewer, R. F.. The biology and behavior of Ptinus tectus Boiel. (Coleoptera: Ptinidae), a pest of stored products. III. The effect of temperature and humidity on oviposition, feeding, and duration of life cycle. J. Exp. Biol., 18 (1942), 290–305
Grace, J. K.A spider beetle, Sphaericus gibboides Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Ptinidae), tunneling in wood in service. Pan-Pac. Entomol., 61 (1985), 288–90
Gray, H. E.Some stored product pests in Canada with special reference to the hairy spider beetle, Ptinus villiger Reit. Entomol. Soc. Ont. Rept., 65 (1934), 59–66
Hall, D. W. and Howe, R. W.. A revised key to the larvae of the Ptinidae associated with stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 44 (1953), 85–96
Hickman, V. V.Notes on the biology of Ptinus exulans. J. Entomol. Soc. Aust. (N.S.W.), 8 (1974), 7–14
Hinton, H. E.The Ptinidae of economic importance. Bull. Entomol. Res., 31 (1940), 331–81
Hinton, H. E.The Ptinidae of economic importance. Bull. Entomol. Res., 31 (1941), 331–81
Hisamatsu, S.The Ptinidae of Japan (Coleoptera). Aghea, 11 (1970), 14–20
Howe, R. W.Studies on beetles of the family Ptinidae. I. Notes on the biology of species in Britain. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 85 (1949), 137–9
Howe, R. W.Studies on Ptinus tectus in a warehouse. Bull. Entomol. Res., 41 (1950), 371–94
Howe, R. W.The biology of Tipnus unicolor Pill and Mitt. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 91 (1955), 253–7
Howe, R. W.The biology of Ptinus pusillus Strum. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 92 (1956), 331–3
Howe, R. W.The biology of Ptinus hirtellus Strum and some notes on P. latro. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 92 (1956), 369–73
Howe, R. W.The development period of Ptinus clavipes Panz. form mobilis (= P. latro auct.). Entomol. Mon. Mag., 94 (1958), 236–7
Howe, R. W.Conclusions and additional remarks. Bull. Entomol. Res., 50 (1959), 287–326. [The biology of 14 species of spider beetles is summarized in this paper.]
Howe, R. W. and Burges, H. D.. Studies on beetles of the family Ptinidae. VI. The biology of Ptinus fur (L.) and P. sexpunctatus Panzer. Bull. Entomol. Res., 42 (1951), 499–513
Howe, R. W. and Burges, H. D.Studies on the beetles of the family Ptinidae VII. The biology of five ptinid species found in stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 43 (1952), 153–86
Howe, R. W. and Burges, H. D.Studies on beetles in the family Ptinidae. IX. A laboratory study of the biology of Ptinus tectus Boield. Bull. Entomol. Res., 44 (1953), 461–516
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Howe, R. W. and Burges, H. D.The biology of Mezium affine Boieldieu. Entomol. Mon. Mag., 91 (1953), 73–5
Manton, S. M.The larvae of Ptinidae associated with stored products. Bull. Entomol. Res., 35 (1945), 341–65
Papp, C. S.An illustrated and descriptive catalogue of the Ptinidae of North America. Deutsch. Ent. Z., 9 (1962), 367–423
Scarabaeidae, Scolytidae, Staphylinidae
Armstrong, R. K. and Winfield, J. L.. Staphylinidae dermatitis on Okinawa. J. Med. Entomol., 5 (1968), 362
Balachowsky, A. Coléoptères Scolytides. Faune de France, vol. 50. Paris: Paul Lechevalier, 1949
Frank, J. H.Paedrus, sensu lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): an index and review of the taxa. Insecta Mundi, 2 (1988), 97–159
Frank, J. H. and Kanamitsu, K.. Paederus, sensu lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); natural history and medical importance. J. Med. Entomol., 24 (1987), 155–91
Janbaksh, B. and Ardalan, A.. Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their medical importance. Iran. J. Publ. Health, 6 (1977), 70–7
Maddock, D. R. and Fehn, C.. Human ear invasions by adult scarabaeid beetles. J. Econ. Entomol., 51 (1958), 546–7
McCrae, A. W. R. and Visser, S. A.. Paedrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Uganda I. Outbreaks, clinical effects, extraction and bioassay of the vesicating toxin. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 69 (1975), 109–20
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Penchenier, L., Mouchet, J., Cros, B.et al. Invasions de Phaederus sabaeus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) en Afrique Centrale 1. Aspects entomologiques et epidémiologiques. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exotique, 87 (1994), 45–8
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Whelan, P. I. and Weir, T.. Skin lesions caused by Paedrus australis Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc., 26 (1987), 287–8
Tenebrionidae, Trogistidae
Applebaum, S. W.The suitability of groundnuts for the development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 5 (1969), 305–10
George, C. R.The effects of malnutrition on growth and mortality of the red rust flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) parasitized by Nosema whitei (Microsporidia: Nosematidae). J. Invert. Pathol., 18 (1971), 383–8
Hafeez, M. A. and Chapman, G.. Effects of temperature and high relative humidity on the rate of development and mortality of Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 1 (1966), 235–42
Halstead, D. G. H.Biological studies on species of Palorus and Coelopalorus with comparative notes on Tribolium and Latheticus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 2 (1967), 273–313
Halstead, D. G. H.Some observations on the biology of Lophocateres pusillus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Trogistidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 4 (1968), 197–202
Hinton, H. E.A synopsis of the genus Tribolium Macleay, with some remarks on the evolution of its species-groups (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 31 (1948), 331–81
Howe, R. W.The effect of temperature and humidity on the rate of development and mortality of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Ann. Appl. Biol., 44 (1956), 356–68
Howe, R. W.The effects of temperature and humidity on the rate of development and the mortality of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Ann. Appl. Biol., 48 (1960), 363–76
Koura, A., El-Halfawy, M. A., and Bishara, S. I.. On the biology of Tenebrio molitor L. in Egypt (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypt, 56 (1972), 297–300
LeCato, G. L.Red flour beetle: population growth on diets of corn, wheat, rice or shelled peanuts supplemented with eggs and adults of the Indian meal moth. J. Econ. Entomol., 68 (1975), 763–5
LeCato, G. L. and Flaherty, B. R.. Tribolium castaneum progeny production and development on diets supplemented with eggs or adults of Plodia interpunctella. J. Stored Prod. Res., 9 (1973), 199–203
Leech, H. B.Black flour beetle, Tribolium madens Charpi in British Columbia (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Can. Entomol., 75 (1953), 40
Morison, G. D.Notes on the broad-horned flour beetle [Gnatocerus (Echocerus) cornutus, Fabr.]. Proc. R. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 2 (1925), 14–18
Preiss, F. J. and Davidson, J. A.. Adult longevity, preoviposition period and fecundity of Alphitobius diaperinus in the laboratory (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc., 6 (1971), 105–9
Sinha, R. N.Development and mortality of Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on seed-borne fungi. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 59 (1966), 192–201
Wilson, T. H. and Miner, F. D.. Influence of temperature on development of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc., 42 (1969), 294–303