1.WHO. Shaping the Future. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
2.Feigin, VL, Krishnamurthi, RV, Parmar, P, et al. Update on the global burden of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in 1990–2013: the GBD 2013 Study. Neuroepidemiology 2015; 45(3): 161–76.
3.Miller, EL, Murray, L, Richards, L, et al. Comprehensive overview of nursing and interdisciplinary rehabilitation care of the stroke patient: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke 2010; 41(10): 2402–48.
4.Gordon, NF, Gulanick, M, Costa, F, et al. Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Subcommittee on Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention; the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; and the Stroke Council. Stroke 2004; 35(5): 1230–40.
5.Kwakkel, G, Veerbeek, JM, Harmeling-van der Wel, BC, van Wegen, E, Kollen, BJ. Early prediction of functional outcome after stroke I. Diagnostic accuracy of the Barthel Index for measuring activities of daily living outcome after ischemic hemispheric stroke: does early poststroke timing of assessment matter? Stroke 2011; 42(2): 342–6.
6.Veerbeek, JM, Kwakkel, G, van Wegen, EE, Ket, JC, Heymans, MW. Early prediction of outcome of activities of daily living after stroke: a systematic review. Stroke 2011; 42(5): 1482–8.
7.Weimar, C, Konig, IR, Kraywinkel, K, Ziegler, A, Diener, HC. German Stroke Study C. Age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score within 6 hours after onset are accurate predictors of outcome after cerebral ischemia: development and external validation of prognostic models. Stroke 2004; 35(1): 158–62.
8.Kwakkel, G, Veerbeek, JM, van Wegen, EE, et al. Predictive value of the NIHSS for ADL outcome after ischemic hemispheric stroke: does timing of early assessment matter? J Neurol Sci 2010; 294(1–2): 57–61.
9.Konig, IR, Ziegler, A, Bluhmki, E, et al. Predicting long-term outcome after acute ischemic stroke: a simple index works in patients from controlled clinical trials. Stroke 2008; 39(6): 1821–6.
10.Granger, CV, Dewis, LS, Peters, NC, Sherwood, CC, Barrett, JE. Stroke rehabilitation: analysis of repeated Barthel Index measures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1979; 60(1): 14–17.
11.Alexander, MP. Stroke rehabilitation outcome. A potential use of predictive variables to establish levels of care. Stroke 1994; 25(1): 128–34.
12.Muscari, A, Puddu, GM, Santoro, N, Zoli, M. A simple scoring system for outcome prediction of ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 2011; 124(5): 334–42.
13.Reid, JM, Gubitz, GJ, Dai, D, et al. Predicting functional outcome after stroke by modelling baseline clinical and CT variables. Age Ageing 2010; 39(3): 360–6.
14.Tilling, K, Sterne, JA, Rudd, AG, et al. A new method for predicting recovery after stroke. Stroke 2001; 32(12): 2867–73.
15.Ntaios, G, Faouzi, M, Ferrari, J, et al. An integer-based score to predict functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke: the ASTRAL score. Neurology 2012; 78(24): 1916–22.
16.Johnston, KC, Connors, AF, Jr., Wagner, DP, et al. A predictive risk model for outcomes of ischemic stroke. Stroke 2000; 31(2): 448–55.
17.Ntaios, G, Gioulekas, F, Papavasileiou, V, Strbian, D, Michel, P. ASTRAL, DRAGON and SEDAN scores predict stroke outcome more accurately than physicians. Eur J Neurol 2016; 23(11): 1651–7.
18.Cao, KG, Fu, CH, Li, HQ, Xin, XY, Gao, Y. A new prognostic scale for the early prediction of ischemic stroke recovery mainly based on traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and NIHSS score: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 407.
19.Haselbach, D, Renggli, A, Carda, S, Croquelois, A. Determinants of neurological functional recovery potential after stroke in young adults. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2014; 4(1): 77–83.
20.Lamola, G, Bertolucci, F, Rossi, B, Chisari, C. Clinical assessments for predicting functional recovery after stroke. Int J Neurorehab 2015; 2(174); doi: 10.4172/2376-0281.1000174.
21.Kwah, LK, Herbert, RD. Prediction of walking and arm recovery after stroke: a critical review Brain Sci 2016; 6(4): 53.
22.Glize, B, Villain, M, Richert, L, et al. Language features in the acute phase of post-stroke severe aphasia could predict the outcome. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2016; 53(2): 249–55.
23.Lee, SY, Lim, JY, Kang, EK, et al. Prediction of good functional recovery after stroke based on combined motor and somatosensory evoked potential findings. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42(1): 16–20.
24.Arsava, EM, Helenius, J, Avery, R, et al. Assessment of the predictive validity of etiologic stroke classification. JAMA Neurology 2017; 74(4): 419–26.
25.Vogt, G, Laage, R, Shuaib, A, Schneider, A, Collaboration, V. Initial lesion volume is an independent predictor of clinical stroke outcome at day 90: an analysis of the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) database. Stroke 2012; 43(5): 1266–72.
26.Borsody, M, Warner Gargano, J, Reeves, M, Jacobs, B. Group MI-SS. Infarction involving the insula and risk of mortality after stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis Basel Switz 2009; 27(6): 564–71.
27.Ois, A, Cuadrado-Godia, E, Solano, A, Perich-Alsina, X, Roquer, J. Acute ischemic stroke in anterior choroidal artery territory. J Neurol Sci 2009; 281(1–2): 80–4.
28.Schiemanck, SK, Kwakkel, G, Post, MW, Kappelle, LJ, Prevo, AJ. Impact of internal capsule lesions on outcome of motor hand function at one year post-stroke. J Rehabil Med 2008; 40(2): 96–101.
29.Battey, TW, Karki, M, Singhal, AB, et al. Brain edema predicts outcome after nonlacunar ischemic stroke. Stroke 2014; 45(12): 3643–8.
30.Barber, PA, Demchuk, AM, Zhang, J, Buchan, AM, Group, AS. Validity and reliability of a quantitative computed tomography score in predicting outcome of hyperacute stroke before thrombolytic therapy. Lancet 2000; 355(9216): 1670–4.
31.Hill, MD, Rowley, HA, Adler, F, et al. Selection of acute ischemic stroke patients for intra-arterial thrombolysis with pro-urokinase by using ASPECTS. Stroke 2003; 34(8): 1925–31.
32.Alexander, LD, Pettersen, JA, Hopyan, JJ, Sahlas, DJ, Black, SE. Long-term prediction of functional outcome after stroke using the Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score in the subacute stage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2012; 21(8): 737–44.
33.Branco, JP, Costa, JS, Sargento-Freitas, J, et al. Neuroimaging and blood biomarkers in functional prognosis after stroke. Acta Med Port 2016; 29(11): 749–54.
34.Strbian, D, Meretoja, A, Ahlhelm, FJ, et al. Predicting outcome of IV thrombolysis-treated ischemic stroke patients: the DRAGON score. Neurology 2012; 78(6): 427–32.
35.Schiemanck, SK, Kwakkel, G, Post, MW, Prevo, AJ. Predictive value of ischemic lesion volume assessed with magnetic resonance imaging for neurological deficits and functional outcome poststroke: a critical review of the literature. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2006; 20(4): 492–502.
36.Lindenberg, R, Renga, V, Zhu, LL, et al. Structural integrity of corticospinal motor fibers predicts motor impairment in chronic stroke. Neurology 2010; 74(4): 280–7.
37.Kissela, B, Lindsell, CJ, Kleindorfer, D, et al. Clinical prediction of functional outcome after ischemic stroke: the surprising importance of periventricular white matter disease and race. Stroke 2009; 40(2): 530–6.
38.Kidwell, CS, Chalela, JA, Saver, JL, et al. Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA 2004; 292(15): 1823–30.
39.Strbian, D, Sairanen, T, Meretoja, A, et al. Patient outcomes from symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after stroke thrombolysis. Neurology 2011; 77(4): 341–8.
40.Park, JH, Ko, Y, Kim, WJ, et al. Is asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation really innocuous? Neurology 2012; 78(6): 421–6.
41.Thijs, VN, Lansberg, MG, Beaulieu, C, et al. Is early ischemic lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging an independent predictor of stroke outcome? A multivariable analysis. Stroke 2000; 31(11): 2597–602.
42.Johnston, KC, Wagner, DP, Wang, XQ, et al. Validation of an acute ischemic stroke model: does diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume offer a clinically significant improvement in prediction of outcome? Stroke 2007; 38(6): 1820–5.
43.Barrett, KM, Ding, YH, Wagner, DP, et al. Change in diffusion-weighted imaging infarct volume predicts neurologic outcome at 90 days: results of the Acute Stroke Accurate Prediction (ASAP) trial serial imaging substudy. Stroke 2009; 40(7): 2422–7.
44.Jang, SH. Prediction of motor outcome for hemiparetic stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging: a review. NeuroRehabilitation 2010; 27(4): 367–72.
45.Bigourdan, A, Munsch, F, Coupe, P, et al. Early fiber number ratio is a surrogate of corticospinal tract integrity and predicts motor recovery after stroke. Stroke 2016; 47(4): 1053–9.
46.Kim, KH, Kim, YH, Kim, MS, et al. Prediction of motor recovery using diffusion tensor tractography in supratentorial stroke patients with severe motor involvement. Ann Rehabil Med 2015; 39(4): 570–6.
47.Cho, SH, Kim, DG, Kim, DS, et al. Motor outcome according to the integrity of the corticospinal tract determined by diffusion tensor tractography in the early stage of corona radiata infarct. Neurosci Lett 2007; 426(2): 123–7.
48.Radlinska, B, Ghinani, S, Leppert, IR, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging, permanent pyramidal tract damage, and outcome in subcortical stroke. Neurology 2010; 75(12): 1048–54.
49.Liang, Z, Zeng, J, Zhang, C, et al. Longitudinal investigations on the anterograde and retrograde degeneration in the pyramidal tract following pontine infarction with diffusion tensor imaging. Cerebrovasc Dis Basel Switz 2008; 25(3): 209–16.
50.Puig, J, Pedraza, S, Blasco, G, et al. Acute damage to the posterior limb of the internal capsule on diffusion tensor tractography as an early imaging predictor of motor outcome after stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2011; 32(5): 857–63.
51.Kumar, P, Kathuria, P, Nair, P, Prasad, K. Prediction of upper limb motor recovery after subacute ischemic stroke using diffusion tensor imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Stroke 2016; 18(1): 50–9.
52.Lindenberg, R, Zhu, LL, Ruber, T, Schlaug, G. Predicting functional motor potential in chronic stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 2012; 33(5): 1040–51.
53.Riley, JD, Le, V, Der-Yeghiaian, L, et al. Anatomy of stroke injury predicts gains from therapy. Stroke 2011; 42(2): 421–6.
54.Kim, SH, Lee, DG, You, H, et al. The clinical application of the arcuate fasciculus for stroke patients with aphasia: a diffusion tensor tractography study. NeuroRehabilitation 2011; 29(3): 305–10.
55.Breier, JI, Hasan, KM, Zhang, W, Men, D, Papanicolaou, AC. Language dysfunction after stroke and damage to white matter tracts evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008; 29(3): 483–7.
56.Kim, SH, Jang, SH. Prediction of aphasia outcome using diffusion tensor tractography for arcuate fasciculus in stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2013; 34(4): 785–90.
57.Stinear, CM, Ward, NS. How useful is imaging in predicting outcomes in stroke rehabilitation? Int J Stroke 2013; 8(1): 33–7.
58.Kim, B, Winstein, C. Can neurological biomarkers of brain impairment be used to predict poststroke motor recovery? A systematic review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2017; 31(1): 3–24.
59.Fischer, U, Arnold, M, Nedeltchev, K, et al. NIHSS score and arteriographic findings in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2005; 36(10): 2121–5.
60.Smith, WS, Lev, MH, English, JD, et al. Significance of large vessel intracranial occlusion causing acute ischemic stroke and TIA. Stroke 2009; 40(12): 3834–40.
61.Gonzalez, RG, Lev, MH, Goldmacher, GV, et al. Improved outcome prediction using CT angiography in addition to standard ischemic stroke assessment: results from the STOP Stroke study. PLoS One 2012; 7(1): e30352.
62.Mortimer, AM, Simpson, E, Bradley, MD, Renowden, SA. Computed tomography angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke: prognostic implications and role in decision-making. Stroke 2013; 44(5): 1480–8.
63.Kucinski, T, Koch, C, Eckert, B, et al. Collateral circulation is an independent radiological predictor of outcome after thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke. Neuroradiology 2003; 45(1): 11–18.
64.Bang, OY, Saver, JL, Kim, SJ, et al. Collateral flow predicts response to endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2011; 42(3): 693–9.
65.Maas, MB, Lev, MH, Ay, H, et al. Collateral vessels on CT angiography predict outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009; 40(9): 3001–5.
66.Lima, FO, Furie, KL, Silva, GS, et al. The pattern of leptomeningeal collaterals on CT angiography is a strong predictor of long-term functional outcome in stroke patients with large vessel intracranial occlusion. Stroke 2010; 41(10): 2316–22.
67.Tan, BY, Kong, WY, Ngiam, JN, et al. The role of topographic collaterals in predicting functional outcome after thrombolysis in anterior circulation ischemic stroke. J Neuroimaging 2017; 27(2): 217–20.
68.Kane, I, Carpenter, T, Chappell, F, et al. Comparison of 10 different magnetic resonance perfusion imaging processing methods in acute ischemic stroke: effect on lesion size, proportion of patients with diffusion/perfusion mismatch, clinical scores, and radiologic outcomes. Stroke 2007; 38(12): 3158–64.
69.Bivard, A, Spratt, N, Levi, C, Parsons, M. Perfusion computer tomography: imaging and clinical validation in acute ischaemic stroke. Brain 2011; 134(11): 3408–16.
70.Heiss, WD, Zeiler, K, Havelec, L. Hirndurchblutung und soziale Prognose nach ischämischem zerebralem Insult. DtschMedWschr 1978; 103(70): 597–602.
71.Giubilei, F, Lenzi, GL, Di Piero, V, et al. Predictive value of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1990; 21(6): 895–900.
72.Parsons, MW, Pepper, EM, Chan, V, et al. Perfusion computed tomography: prediction of final infarct extent and stroke outcome. Ann Neurol 2005; 58(5): 672–9.
73.Psychogios, MN, Schramm, P, Frolich, AM, et al. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scale evaluation of multimodal computed tomography in predicting clinical outcomes of stroke patients treated with aspiration thrombectomy. Stroke 2013; 44(8): 2188–93.
74.Payabvash, S, Souza, LC, Kamalian, S, et al. Location-weighted CTP analysis predicts early motor improvement in stroke: a preliminary study. Neurology 2012; 78(23): 1853–9.
75.Payabvash, S, Kamalian, S, Fung, S, et al. Predicting language improvement in acute stroke patients presenting with aphasia: a multivariate logistic model using location-weighted atlas-based analysis of admission CT perfusion scans. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2010; 31(9): 1661–8.
76.Yoo, AJ, Barak, ER, Copen, WA, et al. Combining acute diffusion-weighted imaging and mean transmit time lesion volumes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score improves the prediction of acute stroke outcome. Stroke 2010; 41(8): 1728–35.
77.Schaefer, PW, Pulli, B, Copen, WA, et al. Combining MRI with NIHSS thresholds to predict outcome in acute ischemic stroke: value for patient selection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2015; 36(2): 259–64.
78.Padroni, M, Bernardoni, A, Tamborino, C, et al. Cerebral blood volume ASPECTS is the best predictor of clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective, combined semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment. PLoS One 2016; 11(1): e0147910.
79.Tsogkas, I, Knauth, M, Schregel, K, et al. Added value of CT perfusion compared to CT angiography in predicting clinical outcomes of stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Eur Radiol 2016; 26(11): 4213–19.
80.Heiss, W-D, Weber, OZ. Uncertainties in the assessment of cortical flow by perfusion-weighted MRI in acute stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2011; 32(2): 194–5.
81.Wahlgren, N, Ahmed, N, Eriksson, N, et al. Multivariable analysis of outcome predictors and adjustment of main outcome results to baseline data profile in randomized controlled trials: Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST). Stroke 2008; 39(12): 3316–22.
82.Strbian, D, Seiffge, DJ, Breuer, L, et al. Validation of the DRAGON score in 12 stroke centers in anterior and posterior circulation. Stroke 2013; 44(10): 2718–21.
83.Turc, G, Apoil, M, Naggara, O, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging-DRAGON score: 3-month outcome prediction after intravenous thrombolysis for anterior circulation stroke. Stroke 2013; 44(5): 1323–8.
84.Vora, NA, Shook, SJ, Schumacher, HC, et al. A 5-item scale to predict stroke outcome after cortical middle cerebral artery territory infarction: validation from results of the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) Study. Stroke 2011; 42(3): 645–9.
85.Davis, SM, Donnan, GA, Parsons, MW, et al. Effects of alteplase beyond 3 h after stroke in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET): a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(4): 299–309.
86.Albers, GW, Thijs, VN, Wechsler, L, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging profiles predict clinical response to early reperfusion: the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) study. Ann Neurol 2006; 60(5): 508–17.
87.Lansberg, MG, Straka, M, Kemp, S, et al. MRI profile and response to endovascular reperfusion after stroke (DEFUSE 2): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11(10): 860–7.
88.Parsons, M, Spratt, N, Bivard, A, et al. A randomized trial of tenecteplase versus alteplase for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(12): 1099–107.
89.Kidwell, CS, Jahan, R, Gornbein, J, et al. A trial of imaging selection and endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(10): 914–23.
90.Sarraj, A, Albright, K, Barreto, AD, et al. Optimizing prediction scores for poor outcome after intra-arterial therapy in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2013; 44(12): 3324–30.
91.Rijntjes, M, Weiller, C. Recovery of motor and language abilities after stroke: the contribution of functional imaging. Progress in Neurobiology 2002; 66(2): 109–22.
92.Thirumala, P, Hier, DB, Patel, P. Motor recovery after stroke: lessons from functional brain imaging. Neurol Res 2002; 24(5): 453–8.
93.Herholz, K, Heiss, WD. Functional imaging correlates of recovery after stroke in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000; 20(12): 1619–31.
94.Ward, NS. Future perspectives in functional neuroimaging in stroke recovery. Europa Medicophysica 2007; 43(2): 285–94.
95.Cramer, SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke: I. Mechanisms of spontaneous recovery. Ann Neurol 2008; 63(3): 272–87.
96.Rossini, PM, Calautti, C, Pauri, F, Baron, JC. Post-stroke plastic reorganisation in the adult brain. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2(8): 493–502.
97.Eliassen, JC, Boespflug, EL, Lamy, M, et al. Brain-mapping techniques for evaluating poststroke recovery and rehabilitation: a review. Top Stroke Rehabil 2008; 15(5): 427–50.
98.Sokoloff, L, Reivich, M, Kennedy, C, et al. The (14 C)-deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat. J Neurochem 1977; 28(5): 897–916.
99.Reivich, M, Kuhl, D, Wolf, A, et al. The [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization in man. Circulation Research 1979; 44(1): 127–37.
100.Wienhard, K, Pawlik, G, Herholz, K, Wagner, R, Heiss, WD. Estimation of local cerebral glucose utilization by positron emission tomography of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose: a critical appraisal of optimization procedures. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1985; 5(1): 115–25.
101.Heiss, WD, Emunds, HG, Herholz, K. Cerebral glucose metabolism as a predictor of rehabilitation after ischemic stroke. Stroke 1993; 24(12): 1784–8.
102.Herscovitch, P, Martin, WRW, Raichle, ME. The autoradiographic measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) with positron emission tomography: validation studies. J Nucl Med 1983; 24(9): P62–3.
103.Frackowiak, RSJ, Lenzi, GL, Jones, T, Heather, JD. Quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in man using 15 O and positron emission tomography: theory, procedure, and normal values. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1980; 4(6): 727–36.
104.Mintun, MA, Raichle, ME, Martin, WRW, Herscovitch, P. Brain oxygen utilization measured with O-15 radiotracers and positron emission tomography. J Nucl Med 1984; 25(2): 177–87.
105.Mintun, MA, Lundstrom, BN, Snyder, AZ, et al. Blood flow and oxygen delivery to human brain during functional activity: theoretical modeling and experimental data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001; 98(12): 6859–64.
106.Ogawa, S, Lee, TM, Kay, AR, Tank, DW. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990; 87(24): 9868–72.
107.Turner, R, Howseman, A, Rees, G, Josephs, O. Functional imaging with magnetic resonance. In: Frackowiak, RSJ, Friston, KJ, Frith, CD, Dolan, RJ, Mazziotta, JC, eds. Human Brain Function. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997: 467–86.
108.Stinear, CM, Byblow, WD. Predicting and accelerating motor recovery after stroke. Curr Opin Neurol 2014; 27(6): 624–30.
109.Stinear, CM, Barber, PA, Petoe, M, Anwar, S, Byblow, WD. The PREP algorithm predicts potential for upper limb recovery after stroke. Brain 2012; 135(8): 2527–35.
110.Weiller, C. Recovery from motor stroke: human positron emission tomography studies. Cerebrovasc Dis 1995; 5: 282–91.
111.Heiss, WD, Thiel, A, Winhuisen, L, et al. Functional imaging in the assessment of capability for recovery after stroke. J Rehab Med 2003; 41: 27–33.
112.Horn, U, Grothe, M, Lotze, M. MRI biomarkers for hand-motor outcome prediction and therapy monitoring following stroke. Neural Plasticity 2016.
113.Rizzolatti, G, Luppino, G, Matelli, M. The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1998; 106(4): 283–96.
114.Loubinoux, I, Dechaumont-Palacin, S, Castel-Lacanal, E, et al. Prognostic value of FMRI in recovery of hand function in subcortical stroke patients. Cereb Cortex 2007; 17(12): 2980–7.
115.Nelles, G, Jentzen, W, Jueptner, M, Mller, S, Diener, HC. Arm training induced brain plasticity in stroke studied with serial positron emission tomography. Neuroimage 2001; 13(6): 1146–54.
116.Marshall, RS, Perera, GM, Lazar, RM, et al. Evolution of cortical activation during recovery from corticospinal tract infarction. Stroke 2000; 31(3): 656–61.
117.Calautti, C, Leroy, F, Guincestre, JY, Baron, JC. Dynamics of motor network overactivation after striatocapsular stroke: a longitudinal PET study using a fixed-performance paradigm. Stroke 2001; 32(11): 2534–42.
118.Murase, N, Duque, J, Mazzocchio, R, Cohen, LG. Influence of interhemispheric interactions on motor function in chronic stroke. Ann Neurol 2004; 55(3): 400–9.
119.Shimizu, T, Hosaki, A, Hino, T, et al. Motor cortical disinhibition in the unaffected hemisphere after unilateral cortical stroke. Brain 2002; 125(8): 1896–907.
120.Hsu, WY, Cheng, CH, Liao, KK, Lee, IH, Lin, YY. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor functions in patients with stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2012; 43(7): 1849–57.
121.Thiel, A, Aleksic, B, Klein, JC, Rudolf, J, Heiss, W-D. Changes in proprioceptive systems activity during recovery from post-stroke hemiparesis. J Rehabilitation Medicine 2007; 39(7): 520–5.
122.Heiss, WD, Kessler, J, Thiel, A, Ghaemi, M, Karbe, H. Differential capacity of left and right hemispheric areas for compensation of poststroke aphasia. Ann Neurol 1999; 45(4): 430–8.
123.Cao, Y, Vikingstad, EM, George, KP, Johnson, AF, Welch, KMA. Cortical language activation in stroke patients recovering from aphasia with functional MRI. Stroke 1999; 30(11): 2331–40.
124.Warburton, E, Price, CJ, Swinburn, K, Wise, RJS. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from positron emission tomography studies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66(2): 155–61.
125.Saur, D, Lange, R, Baumgaertner, A, et al. Dynamics of language reorganization after stroke. Brain 2006; 129(6): 1371–84.
126.Kobayashi, M, Pascual-Leone, A. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurology. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2(3): 145–56.
127.Naeser, MA, Martin, PI, Nicholas, M, et al. Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca's area: an open-protocol study. Brain Lang 2005; 93(1): 95–105.
128.Thiel, A, Schumacher, B, Wienhard, K, et al. Direct demonstration of transcallosal disinhibition in language networks. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2006; 26(9): 1122–7.
129.Thiel, A, Hartmann, A, Rubi-Fessen, I, et al. Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on language networks and recovery in early poststroke aphasia. Stroke 2013; 44(8): 2240–6.
130.Heiss, W-D, Thiel, A. Basic principles of rTMS in aphasia. In: Platz, T, ed. Therapeutic rTMS in Neurology: Principles, Evidence, and Practice Recommendations. Springer International Publishing Switzerland; 2016.
131.Umarova, RM, Nitschke, K, Kaller, CP, et al. Predictors and signatures of recovery from neglect in acute stroke. Ann Neurol 2016; 79(4): 673–86.