1. , . Opiates: basic mechanisms. In , , eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006, pp. 427–42.
2. , . Opioids: clinical use. In , , eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006, pp. 443–58.
3. , , . Opioid receptor subtypes: fact or artifact?Br J Anaesth 2011;107:8–18.
4. , . Opioid analgesics. In , , eds. Evidence-based Management of Low Back Pain. St Louis, MI: Elsevier Mosby; 2012, pp. 154–70.
5. , . Opioids. In , , , editors. Clinical Pain Management: A Practical Guide. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011, pp. 128–34.
6. , , , et al. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: an overview and literature update. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(3 Suppl):S3–14.
7. , . Pharmacology update: tapentadol for neuropathic pain. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2012;29:663–6.
8. , , , , . The specific disease burden of neuropathic pain: results of a French nationwide survey. Pain 2011;152:2836–43.
9. , , , . The burden of neuropathic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of health utilities. Pain 2010;149:338–44.
10. , , , et al. Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain – consensus statement and guidelines from the Canadian Pain Society. Pain Res Manag 2007;12:13–21.
11. , , , , . Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study. Br Med J 2008;336:199–201.
12. , , , , . The response of neuropathic pain and pain in complex regional pain syndrome I to carbamazepine and sustained-release morphine in patients pretreated with spinal cord stimulation: a double-blinded randomized study. Anesth Analg 2001;92:488–95.
13. , , , et al. Tramadol relieves pain and allodynia in polyneuropathy: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Pain 1999;83:85–90.
14. , , , , . Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain 2003;105:71–8.
15. , , , et al. Double-blind randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Neurology 1998;50:1842–6.
16. , . Efficacy of oxycodone in neuropathic pain: a randomized trial in postherpetic neuralgia. Neurology 1998;50:1837–41.
17. , . Treatment of pain due to postherpetic neuralgia with tramadol. Results of an open, parallel pilot study vs clomipramine with and without levomepromazine. Clin Drug Invest 1995;10:208–14.
18. , , , et al. Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2002;59:1015–21.
19. , , . Tramadol in post-herpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2003;104:323–31.
20. , , . Controlled-release oxycodone for pain in diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2003;60:927–34.
21. , , , . The effect of opioids on phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Pain 2001;90:47–55.
22. , , , et al. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1324–34.
23. , , , . Morphine, nortriptyline and their combination vs. placebo in patients with chronic lumbar root pain. Pain 2007;130:66–75.
24. , . Tramadol in neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2009;25:177–84.
25. , , , . Fentanyl buccal tablet for the relief of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant adult patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther 2007;29:588–601.
26. , , , et al. Morphine versus mexiletine for treatment of postamputation pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anesthesiology 2008;109:289–96.
27. , , . Prolonged-release oxycodone enhances the effects of existing gabapentin therapy in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. Eur J Pain 2008;12:804–13.
28. , , , et al. A randomized, controlled trial of oxycodone versus placebo in patients with postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy treated with pregabalin. J Pain 2010;11:462–71.
29. , , , et al. Safety and efficacy of tapentadol ER in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized-withdrawal, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Med Res Opin 2011;27:151–62.
30. , , . Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD006146.
31. , , . The evidence for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain 2010;150:573–81.
32. , , , . A comparison between enriched and nonenriched enrollment randomized withdrawal trials of opioids for chronic noncancer pain. Pain Res Manag 2011;16:337–51.
33. , . Treatment of neuropathic pain: an overview of recent guidelines. Am J Med 2009;122:S22–32.
34. , , , et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology 2011;76:1758–65. Erratum 2011;77:603.
35. , , , . Efficacy and safety of mu-opioid antagonists in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain Med 2008;9:634–59.
36. . Opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity: implications in clinical opioid therapy. Pain 2002;100:213–17.
37. , . Pharmacological treatment of opioid-induced hyperalgesia: a review of the evidence. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2011;25:219–30.
38. . Hypogonadism in men consuming sustained-action oral opioids. J Pain 2002;3:377–84.
39. . Opioid endocrinopathy in women consuming prescribed sustained-action opioids for control of nonmalignant pain. J Pain 2008;9:28–36.
40. , , . Fracture risk associated with the use of morphine and opiates. J Intern Med 2006;260:76–87.
41. , . Which medications to avoid in people at risk of delirium: a systematic review. Age Ageing 2011;40:23–9.
42. , , , . Canadian guideline for safe and effective use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain: clinical summary for family physicians. Part 2: special populations. Can Fam Physician 2011;57:1269–76.
43. , , , , . A systematic review of the use of opioid medication for those with moderate to severe cancer pain and renal impairment: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative opioid guidelines project. Palliat Med 2011;25:525–52.
45. , , . Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000–7. Drug Safety 2012;35:149–57.
46. , , , . Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic opioid use. Lung 2010;188:459–68.
47. , . Are opioids associated with sleep apnea? A review of the evidence. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2009;13(2):120–6.
48. , , , et al. Sleep and daytime sleepiness problems among patients with chronic noncancerous pain receiving long-term opioid therapy: a cross-sectional study. J Opioid Manag 2007;3:317–27.
49. , , , , . What percentage of chronic nonmalignant pain patients exposed to chronic opioid analgesic therapy develop abuse/addiction and/or aberrant drug-related behaviors? A structured evidence-based review. Pain Med 2008;9:444–59.
50. , . Predicting aberrant behaviors in opioid-treated patients: preliminary validation of the Opioid Risk Tool. Pain Med 2005;6:432–42.
51. , , , et al. Systematic review: treatment agreements and urine drug testing to reduce opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain. Ann Intern Med 2010;152:712–20.
52. , , , et al. Urine drug testing in chronic pain. Pain Physician 2011;14:123–43.
53. , , . The opioid manager: a point-of-care tool to facilitate the use of the Canadian Opioid Guideline. J Opioid Manag 2012;8:57–61.