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Kant's Lectures on Anthropology
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Kant's lectures on anthropology, which formed the basis of his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798), contain many observations on human nature, culture and psychology and illuminate his distinctive approach to the human sciences. The essays in the present volume, written by an international team of leading Kant scholars, offer the first comprehensive scholarly assessment of these lectures, their philosophical importance, their evolution and their relation to Kant's critical philosophy. They explore a wide range of topics, including Kant's account of cognition, the senses, self-knowledge, freedom, passion, desire, morality, culture, education and cosmopolitanism. The volume will enrich current debates within Kantian scholarship as well as beyond, and will be of great interest to upper-level students and scholars of Kant, the history of anthropology, the philosophy of psychology and the social sciences.


‘The volume addresses many important topics in Kant's anthropological writings and does so in a scholarly, philosophically sustained, and accessible manner. Alix Cohen is to be thanked for putting this excellent collection of essays together; it will prove a valuable resource to students and teachers of Kant's philosophy and is bound to attract the attention of intellectual historians and political philosophers.'

Katerina Deligiorgi - University of Sussex

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  • Chapter 7 - The inclination toward freedom
    pp 114-132
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    Immanuel Kant's lectures on anthropology are divided into two parts. After a short, programmatic introduction there follows first an empirical psychology modeled after the third part of Baumgarten's Metaphysica. For the initially untitled second part, there is no textbook precedent. To use a modern turn of phrase, the second part of the lecture could be described on the whole as 'differential psychology'. From the mid-1770s, variously executed but similarly intentioned presentations of this sort came to conclude and climax in an attempt to characterise the human species as a whole. This internal development, which is also reflected in novel terminology, includes Kant's Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. The view of the human being associated with physical theology does, however, offer a striking contrast to the alternative 'determination of man' formulated from the beginning in the lectures on anthropology.
  • Chapter 8 - Empirical desire
    pp 133-150
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    This chapter explores Immanuel Kant's views on the cognitive faculties to establish what, if anything, can be done to compensate for the limits of introspective self-observation. By replacing empirical psychology with his own anthropology, Kant makes it clear that one should not study the soul by itself. He notes that the soul is sometimes regarded as the organ of inner sense just as the ear and eyes are organs of outer sense. What Kant is proposing instead is an anthropology that correlates the soul with mind and spirit. The chapter proposes that Kant's notion of an interior sense initiates that function and signals the transition to the idea that self-cognition is not a project of self-description but of self-assessment. The overall self-determination involved in the sublime and in the development of moral character goes further in that both move to the level of judgment and reason.
  • Chapter 9 - Kant as “vitalist”: the “principium of life” inAnthropologie Friedländer
    pp 151-171
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    This chapter deals with Immanuel Kant's remarks on touch and vision into the context of his pragmatic anthropology, by considering his views of the scope, aims, and methods of that fledgling discipline. Kant supports his discussion with appeals to observation and experience that form a kind of everyday phenomenology of sensory experience. The chapter considers Kant's notion of the relation between the pragmatic and the theoretical, including his remarks that a pragmatic anthropology does not present theoretical or scholastic knowledge but focuses on worldly knowledge. Kant derived the framework for his discussion of the five external senses from his lectures on metaphysics, especially those on empirical psychology. In both empirical psychology and anthropology he categorizes the senses into those that are comparatively objective and those that are comparatively subjective: the objective senses provide more cognition, and provide occasion for reflection, but the subjective senses have more sensation than reflection.
  • Chapter 10 - Indispensable education of the being of reason and speech
    pp 172-190
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    This chapter describes Immanuel Kant's conception of anthropology and the most basic distinctions he draws when invoking faculties throughout the anthropology transcripts. It explains Kant's account of the objective senses (hearing, sight, and touch), and shows that the sensory material provided by these senses are empirical conditions of experience that supplement the a priori conditions articulated in the Critique of Pure Reason. The chapter also describes some of the central details of Kant's account of the imagination, focusing on his distinction between wit and the power of judgment and on the law of association he endorses. It outlines Kant's account of both the deficiencies of the mind and the perfection of cognition. By showing how the transcendental faculties are manifested at the level of actual, concrete experience, the anthropology transcripts can help to illuminate Kant's understanding of the operations and functions of the human mind.
  • Chapter 11 - Kant on civilisation, culture and moralisation
    pp 191-210
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    This chapter shows that there is a crucial anthropological dimension to Immanuel Kant's account of cognition that has been unacknowledged until now. Kant's anthropology of cognition develops along two complementary lines. On the one hand, it studies nature's purposes for the human species, the natural dimension of human cognition. On the other hand, it uses this knowledge to realise the cognitive vocation, the pragmatic dimension of human cognition. This pragmatic dimension consists in spelling out the natural subjective conditions that help or hinder the cognition, thereby enabling one to become more cognitively efficacious. To illustrate this claim, the chapter examines the case of human temperaments. It discusses the idea that Kant's anthropology of cognition has a pragmatic dimension turns out to be problematic. The chapter shows that Kant makes room for a form of control that is sufficient to account for the possibility of a pragmatic anthropology of cognition.
  • Chapter 12 - Cosmopolitical unity: the final destiny of the human species
    pp 211-229
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    By providing a psychological account of affects and passions in terms of feeling and inclination, this chapter makes sense of Immanuel Kant's moral assessment of each. It offers some general overview of Kant's empirical psychology, and explains the psychology of affects and passions. Two key claims about affects and passions are present in Kant's earliest lectures on anthropology. Like affects, passions are illnesses of mind that shut out the sovereignty of reason, and just as affects prevent the comparison of one feeling with others, a passion is an inclination that prevents reason from comparing it with the sum of all inclinations in respect to a certain choice. With respect to Kant's seeming affirmation that one can be, to some degree, morally responsible for affects, one needs to distinguish between moral responsibility for actions motivated by affects, and responsibility for the affects themselves.
  • Chapter 13 - What a young man needs for his venture into the world: the function and evolution of the “Characteristics”
    pp 230-248
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    This chapter describes freedom as the end that is necessary in itself, and illustrates the development of Immanuel Kant's thought about the inclination to freedom and its cultivation and education in his anthropological and pedagogical lectures. The idea of freedom as the necessary end on which morality is based is also present in the introduction to Kant's lectures on natural right as recorded by Gottfried Feyerabend. In the lectures on anthropology, Kant always presents the inclination to freedom as one of two general or formal inclinations that one has, alongside the inclination to resources or means. Proper upbringing and education can develop a proper enthusiasm for the freedom of all that can prevent the original inclination toward own freedom from turning into a violent passion aimed exclusively at that, a passion that can lead to the desire for vengeance instead of justice that is excitable through mere self-love.
  • Bibliography
    pp 249-264
  • View abstract


    Immanuel Kant's focus in his discussion of the faculty of desire is on both the feelings and the desires that pose obstacles to the rational agent, both from the standpoint of prudence and from the standpoint of morality, in the rational task of self-mastery and self-making. The central concept in Kant's account of empirical desire is inclination. When Kant explicitly inquires about the objects of the inclinations, he identifies certain general objects. Throughout Kant's lectures on anthropology, the chief focus of his treatment of the faculty of desire is on feelings and inclinations that pose a threat to rational self-government, whether self-interested or moral. His main division is between affect and passion. Kant divides passions, however, into natural and social. Natural passions, every bit as much as social passions, are directed at other human beings, but they belong to what is innate, and not from culture, or what is acquired.


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