Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: July 2010

7 - Surface wave antennas

Summary

The concept of surface wave antennas (SWA) was initiated in the 1950s [1–2] and numerous theoretical and experimental investigations have been reported in the literature [3–10]. To support the propagation of surface waves, a commonly used structure in SWA designs is a corrugated metal surface. However, the corrugated structure is thick, heavy, and costly, which may limit the applications of surface wave antennas in wireless communication systems.

In this chapter, novel surface wave antennas are presented. Compared to traditional SWA designs, surface waves are now guided along a thin grounded slab loaded with periodic patches, resulting in a low profile conformal geometry. In contrast to the previous wire-EBG antennas or patch antennas that radiate to the broadside direction, the proposed SWA achieve a monopole-like radiation pattern with a null in the broadside direction. The low profile SWA is more attractive than a traditional monopole antenna that is a quarter-wavelength high.

A grounded slab loaded with periodic patches

Comparison of two artificial ground planes

We start with analyzing a complex artificial ground plane, which will be subsequently used in surface wave antenna designs. Figure 7.1 shows two artificial surfaces: a mushroom-like EBG surface and a grounded dielectric slab loaded with periodic patches. In the latter structure vertical vias are removed, which results in different surface wave properties in the two ground planes.

To compare the electromagnetic properties of these two structures, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to simulate their performance [11–12].

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Francis J. Zucker, “Surface-wave antennas,” in Antenna Engineering Handbook, 3rd edn., Richard, C. Johnson, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1993.
Schwering, F. and Oliner, A. A., “Millimeter-wave antennas,” in Antenna Handbook, Theory, Applications, and Design, Lo, Y. T. and Lee, S. W., Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, 1988.
Elliot, R., “Spherical surface wave antennas,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 4 , no. 3, 422–8, 1956.
Hougardy, R. and Hansen, R. C., “Scanning surface wave antennas – oblique surface waves over a corrugated conductor,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 6 , no. 4, 370–6, 1958.
Felson, L. B., “Radiation from a tapered surface wave antenna,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 8, 577–86, 1960.
Zucker, F. J. and Storm, J. A., “Experimental resolution of surface wave antenna radiation into feed and terminal patterns,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propogat., vol. 18, 420–2, 1970.
Chi, C.-L. and Alexopoulos, N. G., “Radiation by a probe through a substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 34, 1080–91, 1993.
Fikioris, G., King, R. W. P., and Wu, T. T., “Novel surface wave antennas,” IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas, Propagat., vol. 143 , no. 1, 1–6, 1996.
Kim, J. P., Lee, C. W., and Son, H., “Analysis of corrugated surface wave antenna using hybrid MOM/UTD technique,” Electronic Lett., vol. 35 , no. 5, 353–4, 1999.
Zhao, T., Jackson, D. R., Williams, J. T., and Oliner, A. A., “General formulas for 2-D leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propogat., vol. 53 , no. 11, 3525–33, 2005.
Aminian, A., Yang, F., and Rahmat-Samii, Y., “Bandwidth determination for soft and hard ground planes by spectral Finite Difference Time Domain: a unified approach in visible and surface wave regions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 53 , no. 1, 18–28, 2005.
Yang, F., Chen, J., Rui, Q., and Elsherbeni, A., “A simple and efficient Finite Difference Time Domain/Periodic Boundary Condition algorithm for periodic structure analysis,” Radio Sci., vol. 42 , no. 4, RS4004, 2007.
Zhang, K. and Li, D., Electromagnetic Theory for Microwaves and Optoelectronics, 2nd edn., Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2001.
Yang, F., Aminian, A., and Rahmat-Samii, Y., “A low profile surface wave antenna equivalent to a vertical monopole antenna,” 2004 IEEE APS Int. Symp. Dig., vol. 2, pp. 1939–42, Monterey, CA, June 20–26, 2004.
Yang, F., Aminian, A., and Rahmat-Samii, Y., “A novel surface wave antenna design using a thin periodically loaded ground plane,” Microwave Optical Tech. Lett., vol. 47 , no. 3, 240–5, 2005.
Huang, J., “Circularly polarized conical patterns from circular microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 32, 991–4, 1984.
Economou, L. and Langley, R. J., “Patch antenna equivalent to simple monopole,” Electronic Lett., vol. 33 , no. 9, 727–9, 1999.
Yang, F., Rahmat-Samii, Y., and Kishk, A., “A low profile surface wave antenna for wireless communications,” IET Proceedings Microwaves Antennas & Propagation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 261–6, February 2007.
Yang, F., Al-Zoubi, A., and Kishk, A., “A dual band surface wave antenna with a monopole like pattern,” 2006 IEEE APS Int. Symp. Dig., vol. 5, pp. 4281–4, July 2006.
Ravipati, C. B. and Reddy, C. J., “Dual-band planar antennas with monopole radiation patterns,” 2006 IEEE APS Int. Symp., pp. 469, July 2006.
Al-Zoubi, A., Yang, F., and Kishk, A., “A low profile dual band surface wave antenna with a monopole like pattern,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 55, no. 12, 3404–12, December 2007.
HFSS: High Frequency Structure Simulator Based on Finite Element Method, 2004, v. 9.2.1, Ansoft Corporation.