Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
Egypt and the Struggle for Power in Sudan
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Egypt and the Struggle for Power in Sudan
    • Online ISBN: 9781108181952
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108181952
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

For decades, the doctrine of the 'Unity of the Nile Valley' united Egyptians of a variety of political and nationalist backgrounds. Many Egyptians regarded Sudan as an integral part of their homeland, and therefore battled to rid the entire Nile Valley of British imperialism and unite its inhabitants under the Egyptian crown. Here, Rami Ginat provides a vital and important revised account of the history of Egypt's colonialist struggle and their efforts to prove categorically that the Nile Valley constituted a single territorial unit. These were clustered around several dominant theoretical layers: history, geography, economy, culture and ethnography. This book, for both Middle Eastern and African historians, uses a mixture of Arabic and English sources to critically examine the central stages in the historical development of Egypt's doctrine, concentrating on the defining decade (1943–1953) that first witnessed both the pinnacle of the doctrine's struggle and the subsequent shattering of a consensual nationalist dream.

Reviews

'Remarkable accomplishment, illuminating and insightful. Egypt and the Struggle for Power in Sudan offers a fresh and original reading of the Egyptian national struggle for unity of the Nile Valley. Combining intellectual with political history, Rami Ginat, examines, in a most sophisticated yet concrete manner, the British-Egyptian rivalry for control and hegemony in Sudan and explains why it culminated dramatically in the 1940s and early 1950s. Ginat systematically and comprehensively reconstructs a broader, multi-vocal system of the Egyptian public’s responses to the doctrine of the Nile Valley unification by the ruling elite as well as broader civil society. The book ends with a requiem for the Nile Valley unity dream, shattered by the new 1952 July Revolution regime, who recognized Sudan’s right to national self-determination and independence.'

Israel Gershoni - Tel-Aviv University

'Based on diligent, impeccable archival research, Ginat challenges deep-rooted nationalist narratives to provide a dispassionate, nuanced look at the complexities - and contradictions - of Egyptian claims to sovereignty over the Nile Valley. Situated within the broad contexts of British imperialism and Egyptian and Sudanese decolonization, this is a splendid work of political and intellectual history.'

Joel Gordon - Director of the King Fahd Center, University of Arkansas, and author of Nasser’s Blessed Movement: Egypt’s Free Officers and the July Revolution

'… an in-depth book about a relatively short period of history that saw the unraveling of a complex imperial situation.'

Peter Woodward Source: Middle East Journal

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Al-Dawriyyat: majmu‘at al-suhuf wa-al-majallat al-yawmiyya wa-al-ajnabiyya. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya (Cairo: The Egyptian National Library).
The National Archives (Public Record Office), London.
FO141 – Embassy and Consular Archives, Egypt: Correspondence. Foreign Office.
FO371 – Political Correspondence of the Foreign Office. Foreign Office.
FO800 – Foreign Office, Private Offices: Various Ministers’ and Officials’ Papers. Foreign Office.
FO407 – Confidential Print, Egypt and the Sudan. Foreign Office.
FO953 – Information Policy Department and Regional Information Departments: Registered Files. Foreign Office.
FO924 – Cultural Relations Department: Correspondence and Papers. Foreign Office.
Sudan Archive (SA), Archives and Special Collections, University of Durham
Files of: C. W. M Cox (1937–1970), J. S. R. Duncan (1942–1956), K. D. D. Henderson (1926–1953), D. M. H. Evans (1930–1935), W. G. Piper (1927–1953), J. W. Robertson (1922–1953); S. R. Simpson files (1926–1953), F. R. Wingate files (1861–1953).
Middle East Centre Archive, St. Antony’s College, Oxford
Private Collections Egypt and Sudan: Farouk, King of Egypt (1920–1965); Keown-Boyd, Sir Alexander William (1884–1954); Lampson, Sir Miles Wedderburn, 1st Baron Killearn (1880–1964); Wingate, Sir Ronald Evelyn Leslie, 2nd Baronet (1889–1978).
Sudan Conferences, GB165-0356, Boxes 1–6.
National Archives of India (NAI), Janpath, New Delhi, Ministry of External Affairs, 1946–1955.
Collection of Tali‘at al-‘Ummal (Al-Fajr al-Jadid). International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam.
Egyptian Communists in Exile (Rome Group) Archives. International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam.
Fond (Collection) 495, Ispolkom Kominterna (Comintern’s Executive), Opis’ (Inventory) 85. Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv sotsial'no-politichskoi istorii [Russian Governmental Archive of Social-Political History, RGASPI], Moscow.
General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, The National Archives and Record Administration, College Park, MD.
Documents on the Sudan, 1899–1953 (Cairo: Egyptian Society of International Law, 1953).
Egyptian Kingdom, Presidency of Council of Ministers, Egypt Sudan (Cairo: Government Press, 1947).
Egyptian Kingdom, Presidency of Council of Ministers, The Unity of the Nile Valley, Its Geographical Bases and Its Manifestations in History (Cairo: Government Press, 1947).
Egyptian Government, Committee of Experts, Status of the Sudan (Cairo: Government Press, 1947).
Ghurbal, M. Shafiq, ‘Abbas, ‘Ammar M., Badawi, Ahmad, ‘Abd al-Rahman, Zaki, and Nashi, Ibrahim, Wahdat Wadi al-Nil: Ususuha al- Jughrafiyya wa-mazahiruha fi al-ta’rikh (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1947).
al-Mustasharin, Hay’at, Qadiyyat al-sudan (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1947).
al-Wuzara, Ri’asat Majlis’, Qadiyyat al-Sudan (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1947).
Nuqrashi, Mahmud Fahami al-, Qadiyyat wadi al-nil (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1947).
Presidence du Conseil des Ministres, Comite des Experts, La Cause du Soudan (Cairo: Imprimerie Nationale, 1947).
Presidence du Conseil des Ministres, Note sur les pouvoirs du gouvernement Egyptien en matière législative au Soudan (Cairo: Imprimerie Nationale, 1947).
Sanhuri, Ahmad ‘Abd al-Razzaq, Qadiyyat wadi al-nil, Misr wa-al-Sudan (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1949).
Wizarat, al-Kharijiyya, Mu‘ahadat tahaluf bayna Misr wa-Baritaniyya al-‘uzma’ (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya, 1936).
al-Ahram, al-Alam al-Arabi, al-Asas, al-Balagh, al-Balagh al-Usbui, al-Bashir, al-Damir, Egyptian Gazette, al-Fajr al-Jadid, al-Hilal, al-Jamahir, al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, al-Jihad, al-Jumhur al-misri, al-Katib al-Misri, Kifah al-Shab, Kifah al-Umma, al-Majalla al-Jadida, Misr al-Fatat, al-Misri, al-Muqattam, al-Musawwar, al-Nadhir, Qadaya Fikriyya, al-Risala, Ruz al-Yusuf, Sawt al-Umma, al-Siyasa, al-Siyasa al-Usbuiyya, al-Sudani, Umdurman, Wadi al-Nil, Al-Wafd al-Misri.
[anonymous] An Egyptian publicist, “Egypt’s Claim to the Sudan,” Current History, 21:5 (1925), pp. 721727.
[anonymous] Anwar, “Likay la nansa,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 14 December 1946, p. 8.
[anonymous] M. A., “Inna al-sha‘b la yuridukum,” al-Jamahir, 5 May 1947.
[anonymous] Sh., “al-Qadiyya al-sudaniyya adiq naqatahu fi mutalibina amam majlis al-amn,” al-Jamahir, 11 August 1947.
Abbas, Mekki, The Sudan Question: The Dispute over the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium 1884–1951 (London: Faber and Faber, 1952).
‘Abbas, Ra’uf, Awraq henri curiel wa-al-haraka al-shuyu‘iyya al-misriyya (Cairo: Sina lil-Nashr, 1988).
‘Abd al-Hafiz, Salah, “Kalimat thalath … ,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 5 January 1946, pp. 17–18.
‘Abd al-Majid, ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, al-Tarbiyya fi al-sudan min al-qarn al-sadis ‘ashar ila nihayat al-qarn al-tasi‘ ‘ashar (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriya, 1949).
‘Abd al-Qadir, Hasanain, Ta’rikh al-sihafa fi al-sudan 1899–1919, Vol. 1 (Cairo: Dar al-Nahda al-‘Arabiyya, 1967).
‘Abd al-Qadir, Muhammad Zaki, “al-Rawabit al-thaqafiyya bayna misr wa-al-sudan,” al-Ahram, 21 January 1946, pp. 3–4.
‘Abd al-Quddus, Ihsan, “‛Ala al-sudan an yadfa‛u thaman taqrir masirihi,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 1294, 30 March 1953.
‘Abd al-Quddus, Ihsan, “Lahum al-sudan wa-lana al-kalam,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 929, 4 April 1946.
‘Abd al-Quddus, Ihsan, “Madha nastati‛?!,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 1045, 21 June 1948.
‘Abd al-Quddus, Ihsan, “Nisf jala’ wa-nisf wahda!!,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 1191, 10 April 1951.
‘Abdallah, Sayyid ‘Abdallah al-Raziq Yusuf, Mahmud Fahmi al-Nuqrashi – wa-dawrihi fi al-siyasa al-misriyya wa-hall jama‘at al-ikhwan al-muslimin 1888–1948 (Cairo: al-Madbuli Library, 1995).
‘Abdel Rahim, Muddathir, Imperialism and Nationalism in the Sudan (Khartoum: Khartoum University Press, 1986).
Abu al-Sa‘ud, ‘Abd al-Hafiz, “Isbaʻ al-injliz fi al-nuba,” al-Risala, No. 788, 9 August 1948, pp. 894–896.
Abu Hasabu, ‘Abd al-Majid, “al-Kifah al-mushtarak,” Umdurman, 1 January 1946.
Agwani, M. S., Communism in the Arab East (Bombay and London: Asia Publishing House, 1969).
Akyeampong, Emmanuel K., and Gates, Henry Louis (eds.), Dictionary of African Biography, Vols. 4 and 5 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
‘Ammar, ‘Abbas, “The Physical, Ethnographical, Cultural and Economic Bases of the Unity,” in The Unity of the Nile Valley, pp. 9–33.
‘Ammar, ‘Abbas, “The Transformation of Egypt and the Sudan into a Muslim Arabic Speaking Country,” in The Unity of the Nile Valley, pp. 58–60.
Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London and New York: Verso, 2006).
‘Ashmawi, Salih, “Diktaturiyyat al-injliz fi al-sudan,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 21 June 1947, p. 3.
‘Ashmawi, Salih, “Laysa baʻda fashl al-mufawadat illa al-jihad,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 3 August 1946, p. 3.
‘Ashmawi, Salih, “Mawqif hasim fi taʼrikh al-daʻwah,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 25 August 1946, p. 3.
‘Atifah, Abu al-Futuh, “Thawrat al-sharq,” al-Risala, No. 971, 11 February 1952, pp. 162–163.
Azhari, Isma‘il al-, Difa‘ ‘an wahdat wadi al-nil (Beirut: Matabi‘ al-Kashshaf, n.d.).
‘Aziz, Da’ud, “al-Barnamaj al-thawri – ta‘liq ‘ala al-barnamaj al-thawri lil-hizb al-shuyu‘iy al-misri (al-raya),” Qadaya Fikriyya, July 1996, pp. 279–288.
‘Azzam, Jamil ‘Arif ‘Abd al-Rahman, Safahat min al-mudhakkirat al-sirriyya li-awwal amin ‘amm lil-jami‘a al-‘arabiyya (Cairo: al-Maktab al-Misri al-Hadith, 1977).
Baddour, Abd El Fattah Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sudanese–Egyptian Relations: A Chronological and Analytical Study (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1960).
Baker, Samuel, Ismailia, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1874).
Bakri, Tawfiq Ahmad al-, “Hadhihi al-ahdath al-jariyya fi janub wadi al-nil,” al-Ahram, 17 November 1948.
Bakri, Tawfiq Ahmad al-, “Ziyarat al-misriyyina lil-sudan,” al-Ahram, 3 April 1950.
Balal, , “al-Sha‘b al-sudani,” Umdurman, 15 March 1946.
Balal, , “Hawla al-qadiyya al-sudaniyya,” Umdurman, 1 July 1946.
Banna, Hasan al-, “al-Ikhwan al-muslimun wa-al-mufawadat,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 23 April 1946, p. 3.
Banna, Hasan al-,“Ila al-wafd al-sudani – min al-ikhwan al-muslimina,” al-Ahram, 8 April 1946.
Barakat, Da’ud, al-Sudan al-misri wa-matami‘ al-siyasa al-baritaniyya (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Salafiyya bi-Misr, 1924).
Barawy, Rashed El-, Egypt, Britain and the Sudan (Cairo: Renaissance Bookshop, 1952).
Barir, ‘Ali al-, “al-Sudaniyyuna wa-al-barlaman al-misri,” al-Ahram, 14 December 1949.
Bashear, Suliman, Communism in the Arab East 1918–1928 (London: Ithaca Press, 1980).
Bashiri, Mahjub ‛Umar, Ma‛alim al-haraka al-wataniyya fi al-sudan (Beirut: Maktabat al-Thaqafa, 1996).
Beinin, Joel, and Lockman, Zackary, Workers on the Nile: Nationalism, Communism, Islam, and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882–1954 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987).
Bell, Morag, Butlin, Robin, and Heffernan, Michael (eds.), Geography and Imperialism, 1820–1840 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995).
Berlin, Isaiah, Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas (London: Hogarth Press, 1979).
Beshir, Mohamed Omer, Educational Development in the Sudan, 1898–1956 (London: Oxford University Press, 1969).
Beswick, Stephanie, Sudan’s Blood Memory: The Legacy of War, Ethnicity and Slavery in South Sudan (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2004).
Bishri, Tariq al-, al-Haraka al-siyasiyya fi misr, 1945–1952 (Cairo: al-Hay’a al-‛Amma lil-Kitab, 1972).
Boggs, Carl, Social Movements and Political Power: Emerging Forms of Radicalism in the West (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986).
Botman, Selma, The Rise of Egyptian Communism 1939–1970 (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1988).
Bourdieu, Pierre, “The Intellectual Field: A World Apart,” in Bourdieu, , In Other Words: Essays towards a Reflexive Sociology, tr. Adamson, Mathew (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990), pp. 140149.
Budd, Adrian, “Nation and Empire: Labour’s Foreign Policy 1945–51,” International Socialism, 62 (Spring 1994), at http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj62/budd.htm (accessed 18 October 2016).
Churchill, Winston, The River War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1902).
Cliff, T., and Gluckstein, D., The Labour Party: A Marxist History (London: Bookmarks, 1988).
Cohen, Benjamin J., The Question of Imperialism: The Political Economy of Dominance and Dependence (New York: Basic Books, 1973).
Collins, Robert O., A History of Modern Sudan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Collins, Robert O., “Historical Discord in the Nile Valley by Gabriel R. Warburg,” The International History Review, 16:4 (November 1994), pp. 799801.
Collins, Robert O., and Tignor, Robert L., Egypt and the Sudan (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).
Cromer, , The Earl of, Modern Egypt (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909).
Curiel, Henri, Min ajil salam ‘adil fi al-sharq al-awsat (Cairo: Dar al-Thaqafa al-Jadida, 1999).
Daly, M. W., and Hogan, Jane R., Images of Empire: Photographic Sources for the British in the Sudan (Leiden: Brill, 2005).
Daly, M. W., Imperial Sudan: The Anglo–Egyptian Condominium 1934–1956 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Di-Capua, Yoav, Gatekeepers of the Arab Past: Historian and History Writing in Twentieth-Century Egypt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
Dirar, Dirar Salih, Hijrat al-qaba’il al-‘arabiyya ila wadi al-nil misr wa-al-sudan (Riyad: Maktabat al-Tawba, 1997).
Dirar, Dirar Salih, Ta’rikh al-sudan al-hadith, (Beirut: Dar Maktabat al-Hayat, 1965).
Disuqi, ‘Asim, “al-Mashru‘ al-watani wa-al-ijtima‘i fi barnamaj al-hizb al-shuyu‘iy al-misri fi al-‘ishriniyyat wa-al-thalathiniyyat,” Qadaya Fikriyya, July 1996, pp. 38–45.
Doran, Michael, Pan-Arabism before Nasser (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Eisenstadt, S. N., “Intellectuals and Tradition,” in Eisenstadt, and Graubard, S. R. (eds.), Intellectuals and Tradition (New York: Humanities Press, 1973), pp. 119.
El Madani, Khalil Abdalla, “On the Epistemology of Ethnicity – A Critical Review of the Theories on Ethnic Formation,” in Hurreiz, Sayyid H. and Abdel Salam, Elfatih A. (eds.), Ethnicity, Conflict and National Integration in the Sudan (Khartoum: University of Khartoum Printing Press, 1989), pp. 128.
Ephrat, Daphna, Atallah, Copti, and Hatina, Meir, Introduction to the History of Islam, Vol. IV (Raanana: Open University of Israel, 2008) [Hebrew].
Erlich, Haggai, The Cross and the River: Ethiopia, Egypt and the Nile (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002).
Erlich, Haggai,Egypt: The Older Sister (Tel Aviv: Open University Press, 2003) [Hebrew].
Erlich, Haggai,Students and University in 20th Century Egyptian Politics (London: Frank Cass, 1989).
Erlich, Haggai, and Gershoni, Israel (eds.), The Nile: Histories, Cultures, Myths (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000).
Etheredge, Laura S. (ed.), Middle East Region in Transition, Egypt (New York: Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011).
Fabunmi, L. A., The Sudan in Anglo–Egyptian Relations: A Case Study in Power Politics 1800–1956 (London: Longmans, 1960).
Fadl, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu al-, Judhur al-‘alaqat al-misriyya al-sudaniyya ba‘da istiqlal al-sudan (Cairo: al-Hay’a al-Misriyya al-‘Amma lil-Kitab, 2005).
Fadlalla, Mohamed H., Short History of Sudan (Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2004).
Falola, Toyin, and Jean-Jackues, Daniel (eds.), Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society, Vol. 3 (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2016).
Farman, Ghaʼib Tuʻmah, “Ya ikhwanina fi wadi al-nil!” al-Risala, No. 717, 31 March 1947, pp. 366–367.
Fawzy-Rossano, Didar, Le Soudan en question (Paris: LA Table Ronde, 2002).
Galatoli, Anthony M., Egypt in Midpassage (Cairo: Urwand and Sons Press, 1950).
Gershoni, Israel, “Geographers and Nationalism in Egypt: Huzayyin and the Unity of the Nile Valley, 1945–1948,” in Erlich and Gershoni (eds.), The Nile, pp. 199–215.
Gershoni, Israel,Light in the Shade: Egypt and Fascism, 1922–1937 (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1999) [Hebrew].
Gershoni, Israel, “The Theory of Crisis and the Crisis in a Theory: Intellectual History in Twentieth-Century Middle Eastern Studies,” in Gershoni, Israel, Singer, Amy, and Erdem, Hakan (eds.), Middle East Historiographies: Narrating the Twentieth Century (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2006), pp. 131182.
Gershoni, Israel, and Jankowski, James P., Egypt, Islam and the Arabs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).
Gershoni, Israel, and Jankowski, James P., Redefining Egyptian Nation, 1930–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Gershoni, Israel, and Hatina, Meir (eds.), Narrating the Nile (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2008).
Ghurbal, M. Shafiq, “The Building-up of a Single Egyptian–Sudanese Fatherland in the 19th Century,” in The Unity of the Nile Valley, pp. 61–75.
Gifford, Jayne. “Extracting the Best Deal for Britain: The Assassination of Sir Lee Stack in November 1924 and the Revision of Britain’s Nile Valley Policy,” Canadian Journal of History, 48:1, pp. 87–114.
Ginat, Rami, “British Concoction or Bilateral Decision? Revisiting the Genesis of Soviet–Egyptian Diplomatic Relations,” International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 31 (1999), pp. 3960.
Ginat, Rami,“Egypt’s Efforts to Unite the Nile Valley: Diplomacy and Propaganda, 1945–1947,” Middle Eastern Studies, 43:2 (2007), pp. 193222.
Ginat, Rami, A History of Egyptian Communism: Jews and their Compatriots in Quest of Revolution (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2011).
Ginat, Rami, “India and the Palestine Question: The Emergence of the Asio-Arab Bloc and India’s Quest for Hegemony in the Post-Colonial Third World,” Middle Eastern Studies, 40/6 (November 2004), pp. 187216.
Ginat, Rami, “The Reopening of Gordon College: A Layer in the Anglo-Egyptian Struggle for Hegemony over the Building of the Sudanese Educational System, 1943–1946,” in Ayalon, Ami and Wasserstein, David (eds.), Madrasa: Education, State and Religion in the Middle East (Tel Aviv: Dayan Center, 2005), pp. 217239 [Hebrew].
Ginat, Rami, The Soviet Union and Egypt, 1945–1955 (London: Frank Cass, 1993).
Ginat, Rami, “Swimming against the Nationalist Current: The Egyptian Communists and the Unity of the Nile Valley”, in Gershoni, and Hatina, (eds.), Narrating the Nile, pp. 67–90.
Ginat, Rami, Syria and the Doctrine of Arab Neutralism (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2005).
Ginat, Rami, “Zramim dissidentim mitsriyyim miyamin umismol veshehelat ahdut ‘emeq hanilus,” Hamizrah Hehadash, 51 (2012), pp. 2351.
Goldschmidt, Arthur Jr., Modern Egypt, the Formation of a Nation State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004).
Gordon, Joel, Nasser’s Blessed Movement (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Griffiths, V. L., An Experiment in Education: An Account of the Attempts to Improve the Lower Stages of Boy’s Education in the Moslem Anglo–Egyptian Sudan, 1930–1950 (London: Longmans, 1953).
Hail, J. A., Britain’s Foreign Policy in Egypt and Sudan, 1947–1956 (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1996).
Hajj, al-Mu‘tasim Ahmad al-, Mu‘jam shakhsiyyat mu’tamar al-khirrijin (Umm Durman: Markaz Muhammad ‘Umar Bashir lil-Dirasat al-Sudaniyya, 2009).
Hammadi, Mahmud, “al-‘Ahd al-hadir huwa nuqtat al-du‘f al-ra’isiyya fi al-qadiyya al-misriyya,” al-Jamahir, 26 May 1947.
Hanes, William Travis, Imperial Diplomacy in the Era of Decolonization: The Sudan and Anglo–Egyptian Relations, 1945–1956 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995).
Hannawi, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Hamid Ahmad, Ma‘rakat al-jala’ wa-wahdat wadi al-nil, 1945–1954 (Cairo: al-Hay’a al-Misriyya al-‘Amma lil-Kitab, 1998).
Hasan, Salim, “5000 Years of Unity,” in Egypt Sudan, pp. 14–17.
Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, “Misr wa-matalibuha al-qawmiyya,” al-Ahram, 4 January 1946.
Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, Mudhakkirat fi al-siyasa al-misriyya, Part 3 (Cairo: Dar al-Ma‛arif, 1990).
Haykal, Muhammad Husayn,“No Basic Reason for Disagreement on the Sudan,” in Egypt Sudan, p. 13.
Higham, John, “American Intellectual History: A Critical Appraisal,” American Quarterly, 13/ 2 (Summer 1961), pp. 219233.
Higham, John, “Intellectual History and its Neighbors,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 15 (1954), pp. 339347.
Holt, P. M., A Modern History of the Sudan (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1961).
Holt, P. M., and Daly, M. W., A History of the Sudan from the Coming of Islam to the Present Day, 6th ed. (London and New York: Routledge, 2011).
Hourani, Albert, A History of the Arab Peoples (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991).
Hurreiz, Sayed Hamid A., and Abdel Salam, Elfatih A. (eds.), Ethnicity, Conflict and National Integration in the Sudan (Khartoum: Institute of Asian and African Studies, University of Khartoum, 1989).
Husayn, ‘Abdallah, al-Sudan min al-ta’rikh al-qadim ’ila’ rihlat al-ba‘tha al-misriyya, 3 vols. (Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Rahmaniyya bi-Misr, 1935).
Husayn, Muhammad Amin, “Hawla qarar al-mu’tamar,” Umdurman, 5 July 1945 and 21 July 1945.
Husayn, Muhammad Amin, “Kalimat umdurman,” Umdurman, 31 March 1945 and 21 June 1945.
Huzayyin, Sulayman, “Rabitat al-jins wa-al-thaqafa fi wadi al-nil,” al-Katib al-Misri, 6:21 (June 1947), pp. 228242.
Ibrahim, Ahmad Abu Bakr, “Nasib al-sudan,” al-Risala, No. 973, 25 February 1952, pp. 218–219.
Ibrahim, Hassan Ahmad, Sayyid ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi: A Study of Neo-Mahdism in the Sudan, 1899–1956 (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
Ismael, Tareq Y., and al-Sa‘id, Rif‘at, The Communist Movement in Egypt, 1920–1988 (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1990).
‘Izz al-Din, Ahmad, Mudhakkirat Mustafa al-nahhas: rub‘ qarn min al-siyasa fi Misr, 1927–1952 (Cairo: al-‘Usur al-Jadida, 2000).
Jalal, Muhammad Mahmud, “al-Sudan,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 4 October 1945, pp. 8–10.
Jawdat, al-Sayyid, “Wadi al-nil la yatajaza’u,” al-Ahram, 27 October 1946.
Jaziri, Muhammad Ibrahim al-, Athar al-za‘im sa‘d zaghlul and wizarat al-sha‘b (Cairo: Maktabat Madbuli, 1991).
Jindi, Muhammad Yusuf al-, “21 Fibrayir: dawr bariz lil-shuyu‘iyyin al-misriyyin fi al-haraka al-wataniyya al-misriyya,” Qadaya Fikriyya, July 1992, pp. 236–241.
Jumla, Muhammad Khalifa al-, “Ayna siyasatuna al-thabita lidafʻ ʻudwan al-injliz!?,” al-Balagh, 1 December 1947, the Nile Valley Page.
Jumla, Muhammad Khalifa al-, “al-Baritaniyyuna yuwasiluna khidaʽ hadha al-wadi,” al-Balagh, 24 November 1947, the Nile Valley Page.
Jumla, Muhammad Khalifa al-, “Tahrir wadi al-nil la tuhaqqiquhu al-asalib al-diblumasiyya,” al-Balagh, 4 November 1947.
Kamel, Mahmoud, “Documented Study on the Unity of the Nile Valley,” La Bourse Egyptienne, 6 September 1948.
Kamil, ʻAbd al-ʻAziz, “Khitab maftuh min shimal al-wadi ila janubihi,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 23 April 1946, pp. 6, 22.
Karar, Ali Salih, The Sufi Brotherhoods in the Sudan (London: Hurst, 1992).
Kedourie, Elie, Politics in the Middle East (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Kedourie, Elie,“The Transition from a British to an American Era in the Middle East,” in Shaked, Haim and Rabinovich, Itamar (eds.), The Middle East and the United States (New Brunswick and London: Transactions Books, 1980), pp. 39.
Keita, Maghan, Race and the Writing of History Riddling the Sphinx (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Khalil, Khalil Hasan, “al-Tawajjuhat al-iqtisadiyya lil-haraka al-yasariyya fi misr,” Qadaya Fikriyya, July 1996.
Khalil, Muhammad, The Arab States and the Arab League: A Documentary Record (Beirut: Khayats, 1962).
Khayr, Ahmad, Kifah Jil: ta’rikh harakat al-Khirrijin wa-tatawwuriha fi al-Sudan (Khartoum: al-Dar al-Sudaniyya lil-kutub, 2002).
Khiyyal, Saʻid, “Ila majlis al-amn,” al-Fajr al-Jadid, No. 19, 30 January 1946, p. 11.
Khiyyal, Saʻid, “Qadiyyatuna wa-majlis al-amn,” al-Fajr al-Jadid, No. 27, 27 March 1946, p. 8.
Kimenyi, Mwangi S., and Mkabu, John Mukum, “Turbulence in the Nile: Toward a consensual and sustainable allocation of the Nile River waters,” the Brookings Institution (August 2010), at www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2010/8/nile%20river%20basin%20kimenyi/08_nile_river_basin_kimenyi.pdf (accessed 26 September 2013).
Lanfranchi, Sania Sharawi, Casting off the Veil: The Life of Huda Shaarawi, Egypt’s First Feminist (London: I.B. Tauris, 2015).
Lawson, Fred H., “Reassessing Egypt’s Foreign Policy during the 1920s and 1930s,” in Goldschmidt, Arthur, Johnson, Amy J., and Salmoni, Barak A. (eds.), Re-Envisioning Egypt 1919–1952 (Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2005), pp. 4667.
Lerman, Eran, “A Revolution Prefigured: Foreign Policy Orientations in the Postwar Years,” in Shamir, Shimon (ed.), Egypt from Monarchy to Republic (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 283308.
Logan, Rayford Whittingham, “The Anglo–Egyptian Sudan: A Problem in International Relations,” The Journal of Negro History, 16:4 (1931), pp. 371381.
Macdonald, Robert W., The League of Arab States (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965).
MacMichael, A. H., A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Darfur, 2 vols. (Cambridge: the University Press Publication, 1922).
Mahjub, ‘Umar Bashari, Ma‘alim al-haraka al-wataniyya fi al-sudan (Beirut: al-Maktaba al-Thaqafiyya, 1996).
Maqsus, al-Mijnah, “al-Lugha al-ʻarabiyya yuharibuha al-istiʻmar,” al-Ikhwan al-Musliman, 16 November 1946, p. 9.
Maqsus, al-Mijnah, “al-Madaris al-wataniyya shawka fi khalq al-istiʻmar,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 7 December 1946, p. 7.
Marlowe, John, A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo–Egyptian Relations, 1800–1956, 2nd ed. (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1965).
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt’s Liberal Experiment: 1922–1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer: A Study in Anglo–Egyptian Relations (New York: Praeger, 1969).
Melucci, Alberto, Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society, ed. by Keane, John and Mier, Paul (London: Hutchinson, 1989).
Mills, David E., Dividing the Nile: Egypt’s Economic Nationalists in the Sudan 1918–1956 (Cairo and New York: the American University in Cairo Press, 2014).
Moore-Harell, Alise, Gordon and the Sudan: Prologue to the Mahdiyya, 1877–1880 (London: Routledge, 2001).
Morgenthau, Hans J., Politics among Nations, Vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: Yachdav, 1968) [in Hebrew].
Mubarak, Ibrahim al-, “Muʻahada ʻarabiyya sudaniyya,” al-Risala, No. 633, 30 August 1945, pp. 900–901.
Muhami, ʻAli ʻAbd al-ʻAthim al, “Ayyah maslaha li-misr wa-al-sudan fi qubul hadhihi al-sawdana alati tuhadidu wahdatahuma,” al-Balagh, 5 June 1948.
Muhami, ʻAli ʻAbd al-ʻAthim al-, “Madha fa‛alna li-hadhihi al-haraka al-wataniyya al-mubaraka?,” al-Balagh, 25 July 1948.
Mursi, Fu’ad, Tatawwur al-ra’smaliyya wa-kifah al-tabaqat fi-misr (Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Ishtirakiyya, 1992).
Nabawiy, Mahmud al-, “Kalimat al-jamahir,” al-Jamahir, 12 May 1947.
Nabawiy, Mahmud al-, “al-Qadiyya al-wataniyya,” al-Jamahir, 26 May 1947.
Nahhas, Mustafa al-, “Min al-wafd al-misri ila abna’ al-wadi wa-ra’is al-hukuma wa-al-safir al-baritani,” al-Ahram, 21 September 1947.
Nazli, Salih Ahmad, al-Dimuqratiyya wa-al-tarbiyya (Cairo: Maktabat al-Anjlu al-Misriyya, 1979).
Neguib, Mohammed, Egypt’s Destiny (London: Gollancz, 1955).
Nettl, J. P., “Ideas, Intellectuals and Structures of Dissent,” in Rieff, Philip (ed.), On Intellectuals: Theoretical Studies, Case Studies (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969), pp. 53122.
Okoth-Owiro, Arthur, “The Nile Treaty, State Succession and International Treaty Commitments: A Case Study of the Nile Water Treaties,” Occasional Papers, East Africa, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Nairobi, Kenia, 2004, at www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_6306-544-1-30.pdf (accessed 26 September 2013).
Passmore Sanderson, Lilian, and Sanderson, Neville, Education, Religion and Politics in Southern Sudan 1899–1964 (London: Ithaca Press, 1981).
Porath, Yehoshua, In Search of Arab Unity, 1930–1945 (London: Frank Cass, 1986).
Qasbi, Hamid al-, “al-Dhahab al-abyad – bughyat al-injliz min al-sudan,” al-Balagh, 23 June 1951.
Qutb, Sayyid, “Bidayat al-nihaya,” al-Risala, No. 970, 4 February 1952, pp. 125–126.
Qutb, Sayyid, “Nar wa-dam,” al-Risala, No. 968, 21 January 1952, pp. 69–71.
Ra’fat, Wahid, “Misr wa-al-sudan – Yajib an yattafiqa abna’ wadi al-nil fima baynahum awalan,” al-Ahram, 21 April 1946, pp. 3, 5.
Rafi‘i, ‛Abd al-Rahman al-, Fi a‛qab al-thawra al-misriyya – Thawrat 1919, 3 vols. (Cairo: Dar al-Ma‛arif, 1989).
Rafi‘i, ‛Abd al-Rahman al-,Misr wa-al-sudan fi awa’il ‘ahd al-ihtilal (Cairo: Sharikat Maktabat wa-Matba‛at Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi wa-Awladihi bi-Misr, 1942).
Raflah, Filib and ‘Izz al-Din, Farid, Al-‘Alaqat al-ta’rikhiyya wa-al-iqtisadiyya bayna al-jumhuriyya al-‘arabiyya al-muttahida wa-al-sudan (Cairo: Maktabat al-Anjlu al-Misriyya, 1965).
Ramadan, ‘Abd al-‘Azim Muhammad Ibrahim, Misr wa al-harb al-‘alamiyya al-thaniyya: Ma‘rakat tajnibu misr wa-yalat al-harb (Cairo: al-Hay’a al-Misriyya al-‘Amma lil-Kitab, 1998).
Ramadan, ‘Abd al-‘Azim Muhammad Ibrahim, Tatawwur al-haraka al-wataniyya fi misr min 1918 ila 1936 (Cairo: Maktabat al-Madbuli, 1983).
Ramadan, ‘Abd al-‘Azim Muhammad Ibrahim , Tatawwur al-haraka al-wataniyya fi misr min sanat 1937 ila sana 1948, 2 vols. (Beirut: al-Watan al-‘Arabi, 1973).
Ramadan, ‘Abd al-‘Azim Muhammad Ibrahim,Thawrat 1919 fi daw’ mudhakkirat saʻd zaghlul (Cairo: al-Hay’a al-Misriyya al-‘Amma lil-Kitab, 2002).
Ramzi, Ahmad, “‘Urubat mamlakat wadi al-nil,” al-Alam al-Arabi, 10 March 1948, pp. 27–35.
Reid, Donald M., Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Rif‛at, Muhammad, and Hasuna, Ahmad Muhammad, Ma‘alim ta’rikh al-‘usur al-wusta (Cairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1947).
Rif‛at, Muhammad, “Misr wa-al-sudan,” al-Katib al-Misri, 6:21 (June 1947), pp. 2236.
Rizq, Yunan Labib, Qadiyyat wahdat wadi al-nil bayna al-mu‘ahada wa taghyir al-waqi‘ al-isti‘mari, 1936–1946 (Cairo: Jami‘at al-Duwal al-‘Arabiyya, 1975).
Sa‛d, Ahmad Sadiq, “Wahadha sawt misr al-fatat,” al-Fajr al-Jadid, 16 September 1945.
Sa‘d, Ahmad Sadiq, “Mu‘ahadat 1936 limadha nunadi bi-ilgha’iha,” al-Fajr al-Jadid, 27 March 1946.
Sa‛id, Rif‘at al-, al-Yasar al-misri, 1925–1940 (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘a lil-Taba‘a wa-al-Nashr, 1972).
Sa‘id, Rif‘at al-, Ta’arikh al-haraka al-ishtirakiyya fi misr 1900–1925, 5th ed. (Cairo: Dar al-Thaqafa al-Jadida, 1981).
Sa‛id, Rif‘at al-, Ta’rikh al-munazzamat al-yasariyya al-misriyya, 1940–1950 (Cairo: Dar al-Thaqafa al-Jadida, 1976).
Sabri, al-Sayyid, “Hawla ta‛yin khalaf li-hakim al-sudan,” al-Ahram, 17 March 1947.
Sabry, Hussein Zulfakar, Sovereignty for Sudan (London: Ithaca Press, 1982).
Said, Edward W., Culture and Imperialism (London: Wingate Books, 1994).
Said, Edward W.,Representations of the Intellectual: The 1993 Reith Lectures (New York: Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, 1996), at www.mohamedrabeea.com/books/book1_10178.pdf (accessed 18 October 2016).
Salih, Mahjub Muhammad, al-Sihafa al-sudaniyya fi nisf qarn 1903–1953, Vol. 1 (Khartoum: Jami‘at al-Khartum, 1971).
Salim, Salah, “Lastum mamnu‛ina min al-radd ayyuha al-zu‛ama’,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 1286, 2 February 1953.
Salim, Salah, “Nahnu natahadda al-injliz min ajlikum,” Ruz al-Yusuf, No. 1294, 30 March 1953.
Saville, J., The Politics of Continuity: British Foreign Policy and the Labour Government 1945–51 (London: Verso, 1993).
Sayfi, ‘Abd al-Hafiz al-, “Ajal: al-sudan lil-sudaniyyin,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 20 September 1945, p. 15.
Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi, Egypt and Cromer: A Study in Anglo-Egyptian Relations (New York: Praeger, 1969).
Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Seligman, C. G., “Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan,” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 43 (1913), pp. 593705.
Seligman, C. G., and Seligman, B. Z., Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1932).
Seligman, C. G., Races of Africa (London: Home University Library, 1939).
Seri-Hersch, Iris, “Towards social progress and post-imperial modernity? Colonial politics of literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946–1956,” History of Education, 40:3 (2011), pp. 333356.
Shah, Tushaar, Taming the Anarchy: Groundwater Governance in South Asia (Washington DC: Resources for the Future, 2009).
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “Hadhihi biladuna,” al-Risala, No. 732, 14 July 1947, pp. 777–779.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad,“‘Ibar liman yaʻtabiru,” al-Risala, No. 738, 25 August 1947, pp. 915–916.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “Innahu jihad la siyasa!,” al-Risala, No. 714, 10 March 1947, pp. 271–273.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “al-Khiyana al-ʻuthma … !,” al-Risala, No. 714, 24 March 1947, pp. 327–330.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “La tudabiru ayyuha al-rijal,” al-Risala, No. 712, 24 February 1947, pp. 318–320.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “Misr hiya al-sudan,” al-Risala, No. 708, 27 January 1947, pp. 104–106.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “Muʼtamar al-mustadʻafina,” al-Risala, No. 742, 22 September 1947, p. 1028–1030.
Shakir, Mahmud Muhammad, “Shaʻb wahid, wa-qadiyya wahida!,” al-Risala, No. 730, 30 June 1947, pp. 722–725.
Shami, Salah al-Din al-, al-Mawani al-sudaniyya: dirasa fi al-jughrafiyya al-ta’rikhiyya (Cairo: Maktabat Misr, 1961).
Sharkey, Heather J., Living with Colonialism: Nationalism and Culture in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
Shils, Edward, “Intellectuals,” in Sills, David L. (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 7 (New York: Macmillan Company, 1968), pp. 399415.
Shirazi, Marsil, Awraq munadil ’itali fi misr (Cairo: Dar al-‘Alam al-Thalith, 2002)
Shukri, Muhammad Fu’ad, al-Hukm al-misri fi al-sudan 1820–1885 (Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1947).
Shukri, Muhammad Fu’ad, Misr wa-al-siyada ‘ala al-sudan: al-wad‘ al-ta’rikhi lil-mas’ala (Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1946).
Shukri, Muhammad Fu’ad, Misr wa-al-sudan: ta’rikh wahdat wadi al-nil al-siyasiyya fi al-qarn al-tasi‛ ‛ashir, 3rd ed. (Cairo: Dar al-Ma‛arif bi-Misr, 1963).
Sidqi, Isma‘il, Mudhakkirati (Cairo: Dar al-Hilal, 1950).
Skinner, Quentin, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,” History and Theory, 8 (1969), pp. 353.
Smith, Charles D., “The Intellectual and Modernization: Definitions and Reconsiderations, the Egyptian Experience,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 22 (1980), pp. 513533.
Snailham, Richard, “Europeans on the Blue Nile,” The Anglo-Ethiopian Society (1992), at www.anglo-ethiopian.org/publications/articles.php?type=O&reference=publications/occasionalpapers/papers/europeansbluenile.php (accessed 15 January 2016).
Sudani, ‘Amir Hamadi al-, “Kifah mushtarak didda ‘adu mushtarak,” al-Fajr al-Jadid, 7 May 1946.
Tayeb, Salah El Din El Zein El, The Students’ Movement in the Sudan (Khartoum: Khartoum University Press, 1971).
Thabit, Husayn, “Tijarat al-sudan al-kharijiyya,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 2 April 1946, pp 8–9.
Tignor, Robert, Egypt: A Short History (Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 2011).
Tripp, C. R. H., “Sudan: State and Elite,” Africa 67:1 (1977), p. 159173.
Troutt Powell, Eve, “Brothers along the Nile: Egyptian Concepts of Race and Ethnicity, 1895–1910,” in Erlich, and Gershoni, (eds.), The Nile, pp. 171–182.
Troutt Powell, Eve, A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
Tusun, ‘Umar, Misr wa-al-sudan (al-Iskandariyya: Matba‘at al-‘Adl, n.d.).
‘Uthman, Muhammad Fathi, “Hadhihi ʽaqibat al-futur,” al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, 30 October 1948, p. 7.
‘Uthman, Taha Saʻd, “al-Amana al-qawmiyya,” al-Damir, No. 272, 3 October 1945.
Vatikiotis, P. J., The History of Modern Egypt from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1991).
Voll, John O., “Unity of the Nile Valley: Identity and Regional Integration,” Journal of African Studies, 3:2 (Summer 1976), pp. 205228.
Voll, John,“US Policy toward the Unity of the Nile Valley, 1945–1952,” in Gershoni and Hatina (eds.), Narrating the Nile, pp. 91–112.
Voll, John O., and Voll, Sarah P., The Sudan: Unity and Diversity in a Multicultural State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985).
Warburg, Gabriel, “The Condominium Revisited: The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1934–1956: A Review Article,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 56/1 (February 1993), pp. 112.
Warburg, Gabriel,Historical Discord in the Nile Valley (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1992).
Warburg, Gabriel, Islam, Nationalism and Communism in a Traditional Society: The Case of Sudan (London: Frank Cass, 1978).
Warburg, Gabriel, Islam, Sectarianism and Politics in Sudan since the Mahdiyya (London: Hurst & Co., 2003).
Waterbury, John, Hydropolitics of the Nile Valley (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1979).
Welter, Rush, “The History of Ideas in America: An Essay in Redefinition,” in Meredith, Robert (ed.), American Studies: Essays on Theory and Methods (Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1968), pp. 236253.
Wichhart, Stefanie Katharine, “Intervention: Britain, Egypt and Iraq during World War II” (PhD Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 2007).
Wilner, Alex, and Dubouloz, C J, “Homegrown Terrorism and Transformative Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Radicalization,” Global Change Peace and Security 22:1 (2010), pp. 3351.
Wittfogel, Karl, Oriental Despotism: A Critical Study of Total Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957).
Woodward, Peter, Condominium and Sudanese Nationalism (London: Rex Collings, 1979).
Woodward, Peter, The Horn of Africa: Politics and International Relations (London: I.B. Tauris, 2003).
Woodward, Peter, “Sudan: Political Transitions Past and Present,” Sir William Luce Fellowship Paper No. 9, Durham Middle East Papers No. 83 (September 2008), pp. 1–14.
Wright, Gordon, “Contemporary History in the Contemporary Age,” in Delzell, Charles F. (ed.), The Future of History (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1977), pp. 219230.
Zahir, Riyad, al-Sudan al-mu‘asir: mundhu al-fath al-misri hatta al-istiqlal 1821–1953 (Cairo: Maktabat al-Anjlu al-Misriyya, 1966).
Zald, M., and McCarthy, J., Social Movements in an Organizational Society (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1987).
Zamir, Meir, The Secret Anglo-French War in the Middle East: Intelligence and Decolonization, 1940–1948 (London: Routledge, 2014).
Zayyat, Ahmad Hasan al-, “Ila ikhwatina fi aʻali al-wadi,” al-Risala, No. 706, 13 January1947.
Zayyat, Ahmad Hasan al-, “Nihayat maʼsah,” al-Risala, No. 956, 29 October 1951, p. 1.
Zuruq, Hasan al-Tahir, “Mashru‛ al-sawdana – wa-limadha yata‛ajjalu al-jnjliz ibramahu,” al-Balagh, 12 June 1948.