Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: March 2013

2 - Anxiety and depression in young people: developmental considerations

from Section 1 - Developmental cognitive theory and clinical practice


Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Bernert, al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement, 420, 21–27.
Arseneault, L., Bowes, L. & Shakoor, S. (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’?Psychological Medicine, 40, 717–729.
Bar-Haim, Y., Morag, I. & Glickman, S. (2011). Training anxious children to disengage attention from threat: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 861–869.
Barrera, M. & Garrisonjones, C. (1992). Family and peer social support as specific correlates of adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 1–16.
Bartels, M., Van De Aa, N., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E., Middeldorp, C. M. & Boomsma, D. I. (2011). Adolescent self-report of emotional and behavioral problems: interactions of genetic factors with sex and age. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 35–52.
Beesdo, K., Lau, J. Y., Mcclure-Tone, E. al. (2009). Common and specific amygdala engagement perturbations in depressed versus anxious adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 275–285.
Belli, S., Rogers, R. & Lau, J. Y. F. (2012). Adult and adolescent social reciprocity: experimental data from the Trust Game. Journal of Adolescence, Jun 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Boomsma, D. I., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. & Hudziak, J. J. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on anxious/depression during childhood: a study from the Netherlands Twin Register. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 4, 466–481.
Boomsma, D. I., Willemsen, G., Sullivan, P. F. et al. (2008). Genome-wide association of major depression: description of samples for the GAIN Major Depressive Disorder Study: NTR and NESDA biobank projects. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 335–342.
Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O. & Eales, M. J. (1993). Etiology of anxiety and depressive-disorders in an inner-city population. 2. Comorbidity and adversity. Psychological Medicine, 23, 155–165.
Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O. & Eales, M. J. (1996). Social factors and comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 50–57.
Burnett, S., Sebastian, C., Cohen Kadosh, K. & Blakemore, S. J. (2011). The social brain in adolescence: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1654–1664.
Cauce, A. M., Hannan, K. & Sargeant, M. (1992). Life stress, social support, and locus of control during early adolescence – interactive effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 787–798.
Cole, D. A. & Turner, J. E. (1993). Models of cognitive mediation and moderation in child depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 271–281.
Compas, B. E., Davis, G. E. & Forsythe, C. J. (1985). Characteristics of life events during adolescence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 677–691.
Conley, C. S., Haines, B. A., Hilt, L. M. & Metalsky, G. I. (2001). The Children’s Attributional Style Interview: developmental tests of cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 445–463.
Davila, J., Steinberg, S. J., Kachadourian, L., Cobb, R. & Fincham, F. (2004). Romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence: the role of a preoccupied relational style. Personal Relationships, 11, 161–178.
Durston, S., Davidson, M. C., Tottenham, al. (2006). A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development. Developmental Science, 9, 1–8.
Eley, T. C., Napolitano, M., Lau, J. Y. & Gregory, A. M. (2010). Does childhood anxiety evoke maternal control? A genetically informed study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 772–779.
Eley, T. C. & Stevenson, J. (2000). Specific life events and chronic experiences differentially associated with depression and anxiety in young twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 383–394.
Fenzel, L. M. (2000). Prospective study of changes in global self-worth and strain during the transition to middle school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20, 93–116.
Flint, J., Chen, Y., Shi, S., Kendler, K. S.; CONVERGE consortium (2012). Epilogue: Lessons from the CONVERGE study of major depressive disorder in China. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140, 1–5.
Forbes, E. E., Christopher May, J., Siegle, G. al. (2006). Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: an fMRI study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1031–1040.
Forbes, E. E., Hariri, A. R., Martin, S. al. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 64–73.
Gardner, M. & Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625–635.
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G. W. (2003). Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development, 74, 257–278.
Gazelle, H. & Rudolph, K. D. (2004). Moving toward and away from the world: social approach and avoidance trajectories in anxious solitary youth. Child Development, 75, 829–849.
Gesell, A. (1932). The developmental morphology of infant behavior pattern. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 18, 139–143.
Giedd, J. N. & Rapoport, J. L. (2010). Structural MRI of pediatric brain development: what have we learned and where are we going?Neuron, 67, 728–734.
Gilman, S. E., Kawachi, I., Fitzmaurice, G. M. & Buka, L. (2003). Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1341–1355.
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., Mcmahon, S. D. & Gipson, P. Y. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412–425.
Greco, L. A. & Morris, T. L. (2002). Paternal child-rearing style and child social anxiety: investigation of child perceptions and actual father behavior. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 259–267.
Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. al. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 301–308.
Gunderson, K. L., Steemers, F. J., Lee, G., Mendoza, L. G. & Chee, M. S. (2005). A genome-wide scalable SNP genotyping assay using microarray technology. Nature Genetics, 37, 549–554.
Gunther Moor, B., Guroglu, B., Op De Macks, Z. al. (2012). Social exclusion and punishment of excluders: neural correlates and developmental trajectories. Neuroimage, 59, 708–717.
Guyer, A. E., Lau, J. Y., Mcclure-Tone, E. al. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 1303–1312.
Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M. & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: a review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 876–894.
Halari, R., Simic, M., Pariante, C. al. (2009). Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naive adolescents with depression compared to controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 307–316.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. al. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128–140.
Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C. & Abela, J. R. (2005). Daily depression and cognitions about stress: evidence for a traitlike depressogenic cognitive style and the prediction of depressive symptoms in a prospective daily diary study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 673–685.
Hankin, B. L., Lakdawalla, Z., Carter, I. L., Abela, J. R. Z. & Adams, P. (2007). Are neuroticism, cognitive vulnerabilities and self-esteem overlapping or distinct risks for depression? Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 29–63.
Hartley, C. A. & Phelps, E. A. (2010). Changing fear: the neurocircuitry of emotion regulation. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 136–146.
Hawker, D. S. & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–455.
Hoffmann, J. P. & Cerbone, F. G. (1999). Stressful life events and delinquency escalation in early adolescence. Criminology, 37, 343–373.
Hoffman, M. A., Levyshiff, R., Sohlberg, S. C. & Zarizki, J. (1992). The impact of stress and coping – developmental changes in the transition to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 451–469.
Jacobs, R. H., Reinecke, M. A., Gollan, J. K. & Kane, P. (2008). Empirical evidence of cognitive vulnerability for depression among children and adolescents: a cognitive science and developmental perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 759–782.
Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O. & Lichtenstein, P. (2008). A developmental twin study of symptoms of anxiety and depression: evidence for genetic innovation and attenuation. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1567–1575.
Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O. & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 789–796.
Kessler, R. C., Angermeyer, M., Anthony, J. al. (2007). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry, 6, 168–176.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, al. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM–IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.
La Greca, A. M. & Harrison, H. M. (2005). Adolescent peer relations, friendships, and romantic relationships: do they predict social anxiety and depression?Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 49–61.
Lamb, D. J., Middeldorp, C. M., Van Beijsterveldt, C. al. (2010). Heritability of anxious-depressive and withdrawn behavior: age-related changes during adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 248–255.
Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G. & Duckett, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744–754.
Lau, J. Y., Britton, J. C., Nelson, E. al. (2011a). Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 108, 4500–4505.
Lau, J. Y. & Eley, T. C. (2006). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 422–427.
Lau, J. Y. & Eley, T. C. (2008a). Attributional style as a risk marker of genetic effects for adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 849–859.
Lau, J. Y. & Eley, T. C. (2008b). Disentangling gene-environment correlations and interactions on adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 142–150.
Lau, J. Y., Goldman, D., Buzas, al. (2009). Amygdala function and 5-HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety and major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 349–355.
Lau, J. Y., Gregory, A. M., Goldwin, M. A., Pine, D. S. & Eley, T. C. (2007). Assessing gene–environment interactions on anxiety symptom subtypes across childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychopathology, 19, 1129–1146.
Lau, J. Y., Guyer, A. E., Mcclure-Tone, E. al. (2012a). Neural responses to peer rejection in anxious adolescents: contributions from the amygdala-hippocampal complexInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 36–44.
Lau, J. Y., Hilbert, K., Goodman, al. (2012b). Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems. Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Lau, J. Y., Molyneaux, E., Telman, M. D. & Belli, S. (2011b). The plasticity of adolescent cognitions: data from a novel cognitive bias modification training task. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 679–693.
Lebel, C. & Beaulieu, C. (2011). Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 10937–10947.
Lester, K. J., Field, A. P. & Muris, P. (2010). Experimental modification of interpretation bias regarding social and animal fear in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 697–705.
Levitan, R. D., Rector, N. A., Sheldon, T. & Goering, P. (2003). Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: issues of co-morbidity and specificity. Depression and Anxiety, 17, 34–42.
Lothmann, C., Holmes, E. A., Chan, S. W. Y. & Lau, J. Y. (2011). Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52, 24–32.
Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L. al. (2009). Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: understanding the distress of peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 143–157.
Mcclure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. al. (2007). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 97–106.
Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., Mcclure, E. al. (2006). Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1091–1097.
Moore, P. S., Whaley, S. E. & Sigman, M. (2004). Interactions between mothers and children: impacts of maternal and child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 471–476.
Munafò, M. R., Freimer, N. B., Ng, al. (2009). 5-HTTLPR genotype and anxiety-related personality traits: a meta-analysis and new data. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 150B, 271–281.
Muris, P., Huijding, J., Mayer, B. & Hameetman, M. (2008). A space odyssey: experimental manipulation of threat perception and anxiety-related interpretation bias in children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 39, 469–480.
Muris, P., Huijding, J., Mayer, B., Remmerswaal, D. & Vreden, S. (2009). Ground control to Major Tom: experimental manipulation of anxiety-related interpretation bias by means of the ‘space odyssey’ paradigm and effects on avoidance tendencies in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 333–340.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S. & Seligman, M. E. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405–422.
O’Connor, T. G., McGuire, S., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E. M. & Plomin, R. (1998a). Co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence: a common genetic liability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 27–37.
O’Connor, T. G., Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E. M. & Plomin, R. (1998b). Genetic contributions to continuity, change, and co-occurrence of antisocial and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 323–336.
Plomin, R., Defries, J. C., McLearn, G. E. & McGuffin, P. (2008). Behavioral Genetics. New York, NY: Worth Books.
Puskar, K. R. & Rohay, J. M. (1999). School relocation and stress in teens. Journal of School Nursing, 15, 16–22.
Quamma, J. P. & Greenberg, M. T. (1994). Childrens experience of life stress – the role of family social support and social problem-solving skills as protective factors. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 295–305.
Rice, D. P. & Miller, L. S. (1998). Health economics and cost implications of anxiety and other mental disorders in the United States. British Journal of Psychiatry, Suppl. (34), 4–9.
Rice, F., Harold, G. T. & Thapar, A. (2002). Assessing the effects of age, sex and shared environment on the genetic aetiology of depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 1039–1051.
Sallinen, M., Ronka, A., Kinnunen, U. & Kokko, K. (2007). Trajectories of depressive mood in adolescents: does parental work or parent–adolescent relationship matter? A follow-up study through junior high school in Finland. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 181–190.
Schinka, J. A., Busch, R. M. & Robichaux-Keene, N. (2004). A meta-analysis of the association between the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and trait anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 197–202.
Scourfield, J., Rice, F., Thapar, al. (2003). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: changing aetiological influences with development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 968–976.
Sebastian, C. L., Fontaine, N. M., Bird, al. (2012). Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 53–63.
Sebastian, C. L., Tan, G. C., Roiser, J. al. (2011). Developmental influences on the neural bases of responses to social rejection: implications of social neuroscience for education. Neuroimage, 57, 686–694.
Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D. & Blakemore, S. J. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain Cognition, 72, 134–145.
Sobocki, P., Jonsson, B., Angst, J. & Rehnberg, C. (2006). Cost of depression in Europe. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 9(2), 87–98.
Somerville, L. H., Jones, R. M. & Casey, B. J. (2010). A time of change: behavioral and neural correlates of adolescent sensitivity to appetitive and aversive environmental cues. Brain and Cognition, 72, 124–133.
Steinberg, L. & Monahan, K. C. (2007). Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1531–1543.
Steinberg, L. & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.
Stroud, L. R., Foster, E., Papandonatos, G. al. (2009). Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors. Developmental Psychopathology, 21, 47–68.
Sumter, S. R., Bokhorst, C. L. & Westenberg, P. M. (2009). Social fears during adolescence: is there an increase in distress and avoidance?Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 897–903.
Thapar, A. & McGuffin, P. (1994). A twin study of depressive symptoms in childhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 259–265.
Turner, J. E. & Cole, D. A. (1994). Developmental differences in cognitive diatheses for child depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 15–32.
Van Der Valk, J. C., Van Den Oord, E. J., Verhulst, F. C. & Boomsma, D. I. (2003). Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change in children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1212–1220.
Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T. & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: effects of being ignored over the internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748–762.
Wittchen, H. U., Essau, C. A., von Zerssen, D., Krieg, J. C. & Zaudig, M. (1992). Lifetime and six-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Munich Follow-Up Study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 241(4), 247–258.
Wittchen, H. U. & Fehm, L. (2003). Epidemiology and natural course of social fears and social phobia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement, 417, 4–18.
Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2002). The development of romantic relationships and adaptations in the system of peer relationships. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 216–225.