Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: July 2009

5 - Regulatory Competence and Early Disruptive Behavior Problems: The Role of Physiological Regulation



Childhood externalizing behavior problems, including aggression, inattention, and defiance, have been the focus of considerable recent theoretical and empirical work (Broidy, Nagin, Tremblay, Bates, Brame, & Dodge, 2003; Campbell, 2002; Dodge & Pettit, 2003; Hinshaw, 2002; Moffit, 1993). This emphasis is due largely to the observation that such problems are moderately stable and predictive of other, more serious kinds of disorders in middle childhood (Olson, Bates, Sandy, & Schilling, 2002) and adolescence (Moffit, Caspi, Dickson, Silva, & Stanton, 1996). Risk factors for early behavior problems include child dispositional characteristics, such as temperament and biology (Bates, Pettit, Dodge, & Ridge, 1998; Hill, Degnan, Calkins, & Keane, 2006; Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, & Nagin, 2003); family factors, such as stress, psychopathology, and negative coercive behavior (Cummings, Davies, & Campbell, 2000); and contextual factors, such as social class, peers, school experiences, and neighborhoods (Coie, Terry, Lenox, Lochman, & Hyman, 1998; Dodge et al., 2003). Despite recent efforts to understand the trajectory of early disruptive behavior problems, much remains to be known about the mechanisms that maintain, ameliorate, or exacerbate such problems very early in development (Hinshaw, 2002).

Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C. T., Quay, H. C., & Connors, C. K. (1991). National survey of problems and competencies among four- to sixteen-year-olds: Parents' reports for normative and clinical samples. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 56(225, no. 3).
Ahadi, S. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (1994). Temperament, development, and the Big Five. In Halverson, C. F. & Kohnstamm, G. A. (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood (pp. 189–207). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bar-Haim, Y., Marshall, P. J., & Fox, N. A. (2000). Developmental changes in heart period and high-frequency heart period variability from 4 months to 4 years of age. Developmental Psychobiology, 37, 44–56.
Barkley, R. A. (1997). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In Mash, E. J. & Terdal, L. G. (Eds.), Assessment of childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 71–129). New York: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2004). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and self-regulation: Taking an evolutionary perspective on executive functioning. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 301–323). New York: Guilford Press.
Bates, J. E., Pettit, G., Dodge, K., & Ridge, B. (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 34, 982–995.
Beauregard, M., Levesque, J., & Paquette, V. (2004). Neural basis of conscious and voluntary self-regulation of emotion. In Beauregard, M. (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 163–194). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Belsky, J., Friedman, S., & Hsieh, K. (2001). Testing a core emotion-regulation prediction: Does early attentional persistence moderate the effect of infant negative emotionality on later development?Child Development, 72, 123–133.
Bornstein, M. H., & Suess, P. E. (2000). Physiological self-regulation and information processing in infancy: Cardiac vagal tone and habituation. Child Development, 71(2), 273–287.
Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six site, cross-sectional study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222–245.
Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotional regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), Emotion regulation: Behavioral and biological considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(240, nos. 2–3), 53–72.
Calkins, S. D. (1997). Cardiac vagal tone indices of temperamental reactivity and behavioral regulation in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 31, 125–135.
Calkins, S. D. (2002). Does aversive behavior during toddlerhood matter? The effects of difficult temperament on maternal perceptions and behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 381–402.
Calkins, S. D. (2004a). Early attachment process and the development of emotional self-regulation. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), The handbook of self-regulation (pp. 124–139). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Calkins, S. D. (2004b). Temperament and emotional self-regulation: Multiple models of early development. In Beauregard, M. (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 35–39). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Calkins, S. D., & Dedmon, S. E. (2000). Physiological and behavioral regulation in two-year-old children with aggressive/destructive behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 103–118.
Calkins, S. D., Dedmon, S., Gill, K., Lomax, L., & Johnson, L. (2002). Frustration in infancy: Implications for emotion regulation, physiological processes, and temperament. Infancy, 3, 175–198.
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 477–498.
Calkins, S. D., Gill, K. L., Johnson, M. C., & Smith, C. L. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotional regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers during toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 310–334.
Calkins, S. D., Gill, K. A., & Williford, A. (1999). Externalizing problems in two-year-olds: Implications for patterns of social behavior and peers' responses to aggression. Early Education and Development, 10, 266–288.
Calkins, S. D., Graziano, P., & Keane, S. P. (2007). Cardiac vagal regulation to emotional challenge differentiates among child behavior problem subtypes. Biological Psychology, 74, 144–153.
Calkins, S. D., & Howse, R. (2004). Individual differences in self-regulation: Implications for childhood adjustment. In Philipot, P. & Feldman, R. S. (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 307–332). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2004). Cardiac vagal regulation across the preschool period: Stability, continuity, and implications for childhood adjustment. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, 101–112.
Calkins, S. D., Smith, C. L., Gill, K., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Maternal interactive style across contexts: Relations to emotional, behavioral and physiological regulation during toddlerhood. Social Development, 7, 350–369.
Campbell, S. B. (1991). Longitudinal studies of active and aggressive preschoolers: Individual differences in early behavior and outcome. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Vol. 2. Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunction (pp. 57–89). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., Moore, G., & Marakovitz, S. (1996). Boys' externalizing problems at elementary school age: Pathways from early behavior problems, maternal control, and family stress. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 701–719.
Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R., Moffitt, T., & Silva, P. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 55–68.
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1–7.
Cicchetti, D. (1993). Developmental psychopathology: Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review, 13, 471–502.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600.
Cicchetti, D., Ganiban, J., & Barnett, D. (1991). Contributions from the study of high-risk populations to understanding the development of emotion regulation. In Garber, J. & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 69–88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, S., & Bromet, E. J. (1992). Maternal predictors of behavioral disturbance in preschool children: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 33, 941–946.
Coie, J., Terry, R., Lenox, K., Lochman, J., & Hyman, C. (1998). Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of stable patterns of adolescent disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 587–588.
Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implications. New York: Guilford Press.
Cummings, M., Ianotti, R. J., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1989). Aggression between peers in early childhood: Individual continuity and developmental change. Child Development, 60, 887–895.
Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation – a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591–594.
Davis, E. P., Bruce, J., & Gunnar, M. R. (2002). The anterior attention network: Associations with temperament and neuroendocrine activity in 6-year-old children. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 43–65.
DeGangi, G., DiPietro, J., Greenspan, S., & Porges, S. W. (1991). Psychophysiological characteristics of the regulatory disordered infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 14, 37–50.
Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Burks, V. S., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Fontaine, R., et al. (2003). Peer rejection and social information-processing factors in the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Child Development, 74, 374–393.
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349–371.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bernzweig, J., Karbon, M., Poulin, R., & Hanish, L. (1993). The relations of emotionality and regulation to preschoolers' social skills and sociometric status. Child Development, 64, 1418–1438.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children's social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1360–1384.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Richard, A., Nyman, M., Bernzweig, J., & Pinuelas, A. (1994). The relations of emotionality and regulation to children's anger-related reactions. Child Development, 65, 109–128.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Murphy, B. C., Gutherie, I. K., Jones, S., et al. (1997). Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's social functioning from regulation and emotionality. Child Development, 68, 642–664.
Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 259–282). New York: Guilford Press.
Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children's coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63, 116–128.
Fox, N. A. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 25, 364–372.
Fox, N. A. (1994). Dynamic cerebral processes underlying emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.) Emotion regulation: Behavioral and biological considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(240, nos. 2–3), 152–166.
Fox, N. A., & Card, J. A. (1999). Psychophysiological measures in the study of attachment. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 226–245). New York: Guilford Press.
Fox, N. A., Schmidt, L. A., & Henderson, H. A. (2000). Developmental psychophysiology: Conceptual and methodological perspectives. In Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, L. G., & Berntson, G. G. (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (2nd ed., pp. 665–686). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fracasso, M. P., Porges, S. W., Lamb, M. E., & Rosenberg, A. A. (1994). Cardiac activity in infancy: Reliability and stability of individual differences. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 277–284.
Gilliom, M., & Shaw, D. S. (2004). Codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 313–333.
Gilliom, M., Shaw, D. S., Beck, J. E., Schonberg, M. A., & Lukon, J. L. (2002). Anger regulation in disadvantaged preschool boys: Strategies, antecedents, and the development of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 222–235.
Gunnar, M. R. (1990). The psychobiology of infant temperament. In Colombo, J. F. & Fagan, J. (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, prediction (pp. 387–409). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Harman, C., Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (1997). Distress and attention interactions in early infancy. Motivation and Emotion, 21, 27–43.
Heller, T. L., Baker, B. L., Henker, B., & Hinshaw, S. P. (1996). Externalizing behavior and cognitive functioning from preschool to first grade: Stability and predictors. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 376–387.
Hill, A., Degnan, K., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2006). Profiles of externalizing behavior problems for boys and girls across preschool: The roles of emotion regulation and inattention. Developmental Psychology, 42, 913–928.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1994). Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1086–1098.
Hinshaw, S. P., Lahey, B. B., & Hart, E. (1993). Issues of taxonomy and comorbidity in the development of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 31–49.
Hofer, M. A. (1994). Hidden regulators in attachment, separation, and loss. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), Emotion regulation: Behavioral and biological considerations, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(240, nos. 2–3), 192–207.
Hofheimer, J. A., Wood, B. R., Porges, S. W., Pearson, E., & Lawson, E. (1995). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and social interaction patterns in preterm newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 233–245.
Howse, R. B., Calkins, S. D., Anastopoulos, A., Keane, S. P., & Shelton, T. (2003). Regulatory contributors to children's kindergarten achievement. Early Education and Development, 14, 101–119.
Huffman, L. C., Bryan, Y., del Carmen, R., Pederson, F., Doussard-Roosevelt, J., & Porges, S. (1998). Infant temperament and cardiac vagal tone: Assessments at twelve weeks of age. Child Development, 69, 624–635.
Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2004). Predicting kindergarten peer social status from toddler and preschool problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 409–423.
Keenan, K. (2000). Emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for child psychopathology. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 418–434.
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Exploring the etiology of antisocial behavior in the first years of life. In Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 153–181). New York: Guilford Press.
Keiley, M. K., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). Differential risks of covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and internalizing behavior across ages 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 267–283.
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. Y. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72(4), 1091–1111.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 264–277.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220–232.
Kopp, C. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.
Kuczynski, L., & Kochanska, G. (1995). Function and content of maternal demands: Developmental significance of early demands for competent action. Child Development, 66, 616–628.
Kuhl, J., & Kraska, K. (1993). Self-regulation: Psychometric properties of a computer-aided instrument. German Journal of Psychology, 17, 11–24.
Lane, R. D., & McRae, K. (2004). Neural substrates of conscious emotional experience. In Beauregard, M. (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 87–122). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Lilienfeld, S. O. (2003). Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders: Reflections and directions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 285–291.
Loeber, R. (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior. Child Development, 53, 1431–1446.
Luu, P., & Tucker, D. M. (2004). Self-regulation by the medial frontal cortex: Limbic representation of motive set-points. In Beauregard, M. (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 123–162). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Malatesta, C. Z., Culver, C., Tesman, J. R., & Shepard, B. (1989). The development of emotion expression during the first two years of life. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 54, 1–104.
Mangelsdorf, S. C., Shapiro, J. R., & Marzolf, D. (1995). Developmental and temperamental differences in emotional regulation in infancy. Child Development, 66, 1817–1828.
Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys: Linkages with social behaviors and peer preference. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 73–86.
Mezzacappa, E., Tremblay, R., Kindlon, D., Saul, J., Arseneault, L., Seguin, J., et al. (1997). Anxiety, antisocial behavior, and heart rate regulation in adolescent males. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 457–469.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P., & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 399–424.
,NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005). Predicting individual differences in attention, memory, and planning in first graders from experiences at home, child care, and school. Developmental Psychology, 41, 99–114.
Nigg, J. T., Hinshaw, S. P., Carte, E. T., & Treuting, J. J. (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Explainable by co-occurring disruptive behavior or reading problems?Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(3), 468–480.
Nigg, J. T., & Huang-Pollock, C. L. (2003). An early-onset model of the role of executive functions and intelligence in conduct disorder/delinquency. In Lahey, B. B., Moffit, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 227–253). New York: Guilford Press.
Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Thinking makes it so: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to emotion regulation. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 229–258). New York: Guilford Press.
Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Schilling, E. M. (2002). Early developmental precursors of impulsive and inattentive behavior: From infancy to middle childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43(4), 435–448.
Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggressive reactive patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852–875.
Paris, S. G., & Newman, R. S. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 87–102.
Parke, R. D., & Slaby, R. G. (1983). The development of aggression. In Mussen, P. H. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4 (pp. 547–641). New York: Wiley.
Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37(1), 51–87.
Pine, D. S., Wasserman, G. A., Coplan, J. D., Staghezza-Jaramillo, B., Davies, M., Fried, J. E., et al. (1996). Cardiac profile and disruptive behavior in boys at risk for delinquency. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 342–353.
Pine, D., Wasserman, G., Miller, L., Coplan, J., Bagiella, E., Kovelenku, P., et al. (1998). Heart period variability and psychopathology in urban boys at risk for delinquency. Psychophysiology, 35, 521–529.
Polan, H. J., & Hofer, M. A. (1999). Psychobiological origins of infants attachment and separation responses. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 162–180). New York: Guilford Press.
Porges, S. W. (1985). Method and apparatus for evaluating rhythmic oscillations in aperiodic physiological response systems. U. S. Patent no. 4520944.
Porges, S. W. (1991). Vagal tone: An autonomic mediator of affect. In Garber, J. & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.), The development of emotional regulation and dysregulation (pp. 111–128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Porges, S. W. (1996). Physiological regulation in high-risk infants: A model for assessment and potential intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 43–58.
Porges, S. W. (2003). The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic contributions to social behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 79, 503–513.
Porges, S. W., & Byrne, E. A. (1992). Research methods for measurement of heart rate and respiration. Biological Psychology, 34, 93–130.
Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J., & Maita, A. K. (1994). Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (240, nos. 2–3), 167–186.
Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J., Portales, L., & Greenspan, S. I. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behavior problems: A psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 697–712.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1994). Attentional regulation: From mechanism to culture. In Bertelson, P. & Eelen, P. (Eds.), International perspectives on psychological science: Vol. 1. Leading themes (pp. 41–55). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1998). Summary and commentary: Developing attentional skills. In Richards, J. (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention: A developmental perspective (pp. 317–323). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427–441.
Prior, M., Smart, M. A., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 291–304.
Richards, J. E. (1985). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia predicts heart rate and visual responses during visual attention in 14- and 20-week-old infants. Psychophysiology, 22, 101–109.
Richards, J. E. (1987). Infant visual sustained attention and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Child Development, 58, 488–496.
Richards, J. E., & Cameron, D. (1989). Infant heart rate variability and behavioral developmental status. Infant Behavior and Development, 12, 45–58.
Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569–578.
Rothbart, M. K. (1986). Longitudinal observation of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 22, 356–365.
Rothbart, M. K. (1989). Temperament and development. In Kohnstamm, G., Bates, J., & Rothbart, M. K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 187–248). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Rothbart, M. K., Posner, M. I., & Boylan, A. (1990). Regulatory mechanisms in infant development. In Enns, J. (Ed.), The development of attention: Research and theory (pp. 139–160). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Dwyer, K. M., & Hastings, P. D. (2003). Predicting preschoolers' externalizing behaviors from toddler temperament, conflict, and maternal negativity. Developmental Psychology, 39, 164–176.
Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2004). Attentional control and self-regulation. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 283–300). New York: Guilford Press.
Ruff, H. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (1996). Attention in early development: Themes and variations. London: Oxford University Press.
Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective factors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.
Rutter, M. (2003). Causal processes leading to antisocial behavior. Developmental Psychology, 39, 372–378.
Sethi, A., Mischel, W., Aber, J. L., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (2000). The role of strategic attention deployment in development of self-regulation: Predicting preschoolers' delay of gratification from mother-toddler interactions. Developmental Psychology, 36, 767–777.
Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M., & Nagin, D. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 189–200.
Shaw, D. S., Owens, E., Giovannelli, J., & Winslow, E. B. (2001). Infant and toddler pathways leading to early externalizing disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(1), 36–43.
Shipman, K., Schneider, R., & Brown, A. (2004). Emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. In Beauregard, M. (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 61–85). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Smith, C., Calkins, S., Keane, S. P., Anastopoulos, A., & Shelton, T. (2004). Predicting stability and change in toddler behavior problems: Contributions of maternal behavior and child gender. Developmental Psychology, 40, 29–42.
Sroufe, L., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17–29.
Stansbury, K., & Gunnar, M. R. (1994). Adrenocortical activity and emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(240, nos. 2–3), 108–134.
Stifter, C. A., & Braungart, J. M. (1995). The regulation of negative reactivity in infancy: Function and development. Developmental Psychology, 31, 448–455.
Stifter, C. A., & Fox, N. A. (1990). Infant reactivity: Physiological correlates of newborn and 5-month temperament. Developmental Psychology, 26, 582–588.
Stifter, C. A., Spinrad, T. L., & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (1999). Toward a developmental model of child compliance: The role of emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 70, 21–32.
Suess, P. E., Porges, S. W., & Plude, D. J. (1994). Cardiac vagal tone and sustained attention in school-age children. Psychophysiology, 31, 17–22.
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of a definition. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), Emotion regulation: Behavioral and biological considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(240, nos. 2–3), 25–52.
Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2004). Understanding self-regulation: An introduction. In Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 1–13). New York: Guilford Press.
Wilkinson, M. L., & Howse, R. B. (2003, April). The continuity and stability of vagal regulation across infancy. Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL.
Wilson, B., & Gottman, J. (1996). Attention – the shuttle between emotion and cognition: Risk, resiliency, and physiological bases. In Hetherington, E. & Blechman, E. (Eds.), Stress, coping and resiliency in children and families. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.