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Chapter 27 - Diarrhea in HIV-Infected Patients

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2018

Rachel L. Chin
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
Bradley W. Frazee
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
Zlatan Coralic
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

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References

References

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Call, S. A., Heudebert, G., Saag, M., and Wilcox, C. M. The changing etiology of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(11): 3142–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Cohen, J., West, A. B., and Bini, E. J. Infectious diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2001; 30(3): 637–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, S. H., Gerding, D. N., Johnson, S., et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2010; 31(5): 431–55, doi: 10.1086/651706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Kearney, D. J., Steuerwald, M., Koch, J., and Cello, J. P. A prospective study of endoscopy in HIV-associated diarrhea. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(3): 596602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacArthur, R. D. and DuPont, H. L. Etiology and pharmacologic management of noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2012; 55(6): 860–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Morpeth, S. C. and Thielman, N. M. Diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Curr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol. 2006; 9(1): 2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molina, J. M., Chastang, C., Goguel, J., et al. Albendazole for treatment and prophylaxis of microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon intestinalis in patients with AIDS: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 177(5): 1373–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, T. H., Brooks, J. T., Sullivan, P. S., et al. Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992–2002. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005; 41(11): 1621–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharpstone, D. and Gazzard, B. Gastrointestinal manifestations of HIV infection. Lancet 1996; 348(9024): 379–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, D. S. and Fish, D. N. Management of protease inhibitor-associated diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2000; 30(6): 908–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Weber, R., Bryan, R. T., Bishop, H. S., et al. Threshold of detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human stool specimens: evidence for low sensitivity of current diagnostic methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1991; 29(7): 1323–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J., West, A. B., and Bini, E. J. Infectious diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2001; 30(3): 637–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feasey, N. A., Healey, P., and Gordon, M. A. Review article: the aetiology, investigation and management of diarrhoea in the HIV-positive patient. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011; 34(6): 587603, PubMed PMID: 21777262.r.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, J. E., Benson, C., Holmes, K. K., et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2009; 58(RR-4): 1207; quiz CE201-204.Google Scholar
Kearney, D. J., Steuerwald, M., Koch, J., and Cello, J. P. A prospective study of endoscopy in HIV-associated diarrhea. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(3): 596602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morpeth, S. C. and Thielman, N. M. Diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Curr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol. 2006; 9(1): 2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossignol, J. F., Ayoub, A., and Ayers, M. S. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Nitazoxanide. J. Infect. Dis. 2001; 184(1): 103–6, doi: 10.1086/321008.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, T. H., Brooks, J. T., Sullivan, P. S., et al. Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992–2002. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005; 41(11): 1621–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, R., Ledergerber, B., Zbinden, R., et al. Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: prospective community-based cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999; 159(13): 1473–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J., West, A. B., and Bini, E. J. Infectious diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2001; 30(3): 637–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feasey, N. A., Healey, P., and Gordon, M. A. Review article: the aetiology, investigation and management of diarrhoea in the HIV-positive patient. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011; 34(6): 587603, PubMed PMID: 21777262.r.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, J. E., Benson, C., Holmes, K. K., et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2009; 58(RR-4): 1207; quiz CE201-204.Google Scholar
Kearney, D. J., Steuerwald, M., Koch, J., and Cello, J. P. A prospective study of endoscopy in HIV-associated diarrhea. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(3): 596602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morpeth, S. C. and Thielman, N. M. Diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Curr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol. 2006; 9(1): 2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossignol, J. F., Ayoub, A., and Ayers, M. S. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Nitazoxanide. J. Infect. Dis. 2001; 184(1): 103–6, doi: 10.1086/321008.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, T. H., Brooks, J. T., Sullivan, P. S., et al. Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992–2002. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005; 41(11): 1621–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, R., Ledergerber, B., Zbinden, R., et al. Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: prospective community-based cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999; 159(13): 1473–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Additional Readings

Cohen, J., West, A. B., and Bini, E. J. Infectious diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2001; 30(3): 637–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feasey, N. A., Healey, P., and Gordon, M. A. Review article: the aetiology, investigation and management of diarrhoea in the HIV-positive patient. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011; 34(6): 587603, PubMed PMID: 21777262.r.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, J. E., Benson, C., Holmes, K. K., et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2009; 58(RR-4): 1207; quiz CE201-204.Google Scholar
Kearney, D. J., Steuerwald, M., Koch, J., and Cello, J. P. A prospective study of endoscopy in HIV-associated diarrhea. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(3): 596602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morpeth, S. C. and Thielman, N. M. Diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Curr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol. 2006; 9(1): 2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossignol, J. F., Ayoub, A., and Ayers, M. S. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Nitazoxanide. J. Infect. Dis. 2001; 184(1): 103–6, doi: 10.1086/321008.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, T. H., Brooks, J. T., Sullivan, P. S., et al. Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992–2002. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005; 41(11): 1621–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, R., Ledergerber, B., Zbinden, R., et al. Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: prospective community-based cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999; 159(13): 1473–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

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