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This chapter investigates the links between the Akkadian poem Etana, the fragmentary Lykambes epode of the archaic Greek poet Archilochus, and the Aesopic fable of The Eagle and the Fox, carefully assessing both similarities and differences in these sources as well as in further, related Greek material, and also considering the possibility of further versions of Etana in India, Egypt and the folklore of the Baltic region. Taken together, these reflections lead to a distinction, in particular, between a floating motif model and a fixed text model of transmission, both of which may be discernible in the various manifestations of Etana in Greece and beyond.
This chapter engages explicitly with the challenges faced by any kind of comparative analysis: while the question of historical influence remains an attractive topic for discussion, we should explore the interpretative potential of differences, as opposed to the similarities on which comparative studies tend to focus. An appreciation of differences may help us to see how one culture may be ‘receptive’ to some aspects of other tradition, while blocking others, perhaps because they are not in line with its established norms. The discussion thus examines those aspects of Anatolian and Syrian Storm Gd mythology that, unlike the central elements of the Song of Emergence, seem not to have been adopted in early Greek sources, in particular the myth of the Storm God’s conflict with the Sea, and reflects on the likely reasons that explain this apparent ‘blocking’.
Chapter 17 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho gives an account of the papyri of Sappho discovered over the past century as historical artefacts in their own right – what do they tell us about who was reading Sappho, and where and when was this reading taking place? What do we learn from them about the transmission and eventual loss of her poetry?
Chapter 16 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho investigates how the poetry of Sappho came to the world of the Alexandrian Museum, placing her transmission scholarly schematisation of the Greek literary heritage that took place within that period.
For centuries what remained of Sappho’s poems lay as isolated quotations in the works of other authors who had survived antiquity. Chapter 18 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho tells the story of how these quotations, or fragments, were gathered together from the sixteenth century on – and how the coming of the papyri in the twentieth century had a dramatic impact on editorial practice too.
We conducted a prospective study about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) knowledge in different populations attending Lyon's University Hospitals in order to estimate awareness on STIs. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-users (PrEP group), persons living with HIV (PLWH group) and persons undergoing free STI screening (screening group) filled an anonymous questionnaire evaluating STI knowledge. A composite STI knowledge score was calculated and was correlated with patients’ characteristics. A total of 756 patients were enrolled in three groups: screening (n = 509), PrEP (n = 103) and PLWH (n = 144). STI transmission knowledge was better for HIV than for other STIs. The median STI knowledge score was significantly higher in PrEP-users than in the screening and PLWH groups. PrEP use and a previous STI diagnosis were independently associated with a higher score. PrEP-users have better STI knowledge than PLWH and persons undergoing free STI screening. Sexual health promotion interventions routinely reserved to PrEP-users in France seem to be effective in raising the awareness of this group for STIs. Continuous efforts are justified for PLWH and the younger layers of the population.
In rapidly growing and high-burden urban centres, identifying tuberculosis (TB) transmission hotspots and understanding the potential impact of interventions can inform future control and prevention strategies. Using data on local demography, TB reports and patient reporting patterns in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) and Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC), Bangladesh, between 2010 and 2017, we developed maps of TB reporting rates across wards in DSCC and DNCC and identified wards with high rates of reported TB (i.e. ‘hotspots’) in DSCC and DNCC. We developed ward-level transmission models and estimated the potential epidemiological impact of three TB interventions: active case finding (ACF), mass preventive therapy (PT) and a combination of ACF and PT, implemented either citywide or targeted to high-incidence hotspots. There was substantial geographic heterogeneity in the estimated TB incidence in both DSCC and DNCC: incidence in the highest-incidence wards was over ten times higher than in the lowest-incidence wards in each city corporation. ACF, PT and combined ACF plus PT delivered to 10% of the population reduced TB incidence by a projected 7%–9%, 13%–15% and 19%–23% over five years, respectively. Targeting TB hotspots increased the projected reduction in TB incidence achieved by each intervention 1.4- to 1.8-fold. The geographical pattern of TB notifications suggests high levels of ongoing TB transmission in DSCC and DNCC, with substantial heterogeneity at the ward level. Interventions that reduce transmission are likely to be highly effective and incorporating notification data at the local level can further improve intervention efficiency.
This article argues for an emendation in Aristotle's Metaphysics A 10, 993a13–15. The emendation is based on a hitherto overlooked reading preserved in Alexander of Aphrodisias’ commentary on A 7. First, the article problematizes the reading of the Metaphysics manuscripts in terms of syntax, diction and content. Second, it shows that Alexander's reading is free of all three problems. Third, it argues for the originality of Alexander's reading according to the principle utrum in alterum abiturum erat? and based on the fact that the new reading reveals a subtle didactic link between A 7 and A 10 that sheds new light on the argumentative architecture of Metaphysics Book A.
The electric power system is evolving toward a massively distributed infrastructure with millions of controllable nodes. Its future operational landscape will be markedly different from existing operations, in which power generation is concentrated at a few large fossil-fuel power plants, use of renewable generation and storage is relatively rare, and loads typically operate in open-loop fashion. This chapter provides an overview of the technical developments that aim to leverage advances in optimization and control to develop distributed control frameworks for next-generation power systems that ensure stability, preserve reliability, and meet economic objectives and customer preferences.
This volume centres on one of the most important questions in the study of antiquity – the interaction between Greece and the Ancient Near East, from the Mycenaean to the Hellenistic periods. Focusing on the stories that the peoples of the eastern Mediterranean told about the gods and their relationships with humankind, the individual treatments draw together specialists from both fields, creating for the first time a truly interdisciplinary synthesis. Old cases are re-examined, new examples discussed, and the whole range of scholarly opinions, past and present, are analysed, critiqued, and contextualised. While direct textual comparisons still have something to show us, the methodologies advanced here turn their attention to deeper structures and wider dynamics of interaction and influence that respect the cultural autonomy and integrity of all the ancient participants.
To investigate COVID-19 epidemiology in Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.
Using data through December 1, 2020, we estimated time-varying reproduction number, Rt, using EpiEstim package in R, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) across the 3 provinces.
In Ontario, 76% (92745/121745) of cases were in Toronto, Peel, York, Ottawa, and Durham; in Alberta, 82% (49878/61169) in Calgary and Edmonton; in British Columbia, 90% (31142/34699) in Fraser and Vancouver Coastal. Across 3 provinces, Rt dropped to ≤1 after April. In Ontario, Rt would remain <1 in April if congregate-setting-associated cases were excluded. Over summer, Rt maintained <1 in Ontario; ˜1 in British Columbia; and ˜ 1 in Alberta except early July when Rt was >1. In all 3 provinces, Rt was >1 reflecting surges in case count from September through November. Compared with British Columbia (684.2 cases per 100,000), Alberta (IRR=2.0; 1399.3 cases per 100,000) and Ontario (IRR=1.2; 835.8 cases per 100,000) had a higher cumulative case count per 100,000 population.
Alberta and Ontario had a higher incidence rate than British Columbia, but Rt trajectories were similar across all 3 provinces.
In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between resident level of care in the nursing home and colonization with resistant gram-negative bacteria. Residential-care residents were more likely to be colonized with resistant gram-negative bacteria than were postacute care residents (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–3.80; P < .001).
Despite Covid-19 posing largely the same problem everywhere, nations reacted quite differently. Three main approaches were taken: some clamped down on the infected, imposing targeted quarantines, others shut down across the board, still others did much less, sometimes little at all. The science of how Covid spread was uniform the world over, so that did not explain such divergence. Nor did the political nature of the countries under attack, since both democracies and autocracies could be found implementing the same strategies. Nor did how nations had approached pandemics in the past. The introduction lays out the general themes of the book.
The development of maternal representations of the child during pregnancy guides a mother’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior toward her child. The association between prenatal representations, particularly those that are disrupted, and toddler social-emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study examined associations between disrupted prenatal representations and toddler social-emotional functioning and to test disrupted maternal behavior as a mediator of this association. Data were drawn from 109 women from a larger prospective longitudinal study (N=120) of women and their young children. Prenatal disrupted maternal representations were assessed using the Working Model of the Child Interview disrupted coding scheme, while disrupted maternal behavior was coded 12-months postpartum from mother-infant interactions. Mother-reported toddler social-emotional functioning was assessed at ages 12 and 24 months. Disrupted prenatal representations significantly predicted poorer toddler social-emotional functioning at 24 months, controlling for functioning at 12 months. Further, disrupted maternal behavior mediated the relation between disrupted prenatal representations and toddler social-emotional problems. Screening for disrupted representations during pregnancy is needed to facilitate referrals to early intervention and decrease the likelihood of toddler social-emotional problems.
This paper describes the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Northern Ireland (NI) between 26 February 2020 and 26 April 2020, and analyses enhanced surveillance and contact tracing data collected between 26 February 2020 and 13 March 2020 to estimate secondary attack rates (SAR) and relative risk of infection among different categories of contacts of individuals with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our results show that during the study period COVID-19 cumulative incidence and mortality was lower in NI than the rest of the UK. Incidence and mortality were also lower than in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), although these observed differences are difficult to interpret given considerable differences in testing and surveillance between the two nations. SAR among household contacts was 15.9% (95% CI 6.6%–30.1%), over 6 times higher than the SAR among ‘high-risk’ contacts at 2.5% (95% CI 0.9%–5.4%). The results from logistic regression analysis of testing data on contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases show that household contacts had 11.0 times higher odds (aOR: 11.0, 95% CI 1.7–70.03, P-value: 0.011) of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared to other categories of contacts. These results demonstrate the importance of the household as a locus of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and the urgency of identifying effective interventions to reduce household transmission.
The integration of theories and practices from transformative learning into language learning and language teacher education contributes to a “shaking of the foundations.” Discussing transformative learning, the author, Rebecca Oxford, explains the meaning, purpose, and processes of Jack Mezirow's cognitive-analytic approach and John Dirkx's emotional-integrative approach. Oxford indicates how she used these two approaches in her language teacher education courses. She also shows that these approaches, although seemingly opposite, are in fact linked through neurobiological research, psychological research, and dynamic systems theory.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in rats, with R. exulans (77.4%) greater than R. rattus (47.6%). We found infections to vary with environmental and host-related factors. Body mass was a strong predictor of infection in all three species, with different patterns seen between sexes and species of rats. Infection prevalence and intensity for R. exulans were high in May 2018 and again in February 2019, but generally lower and more variable during the intervening months. Information on sources of variability of infection in wild host populations will be a crucial component in predicting the effectiveness of future disease surveillance or targeted management strategies.
In this chapter we deal with the preservation and transmission of Greek and Latin letters in Late Antiquity. We begin with the problematic of letter-collections, in which a large number of letters has come down to us, before addressing the transmission of letters in translations, many of which were made in order to save their authors from damnatio memoriae. Missing letters then occupy us, whether their absence is documented or can be read between the lines or whether they were never written at all. In this section we discuss the problematic correspondence between Augustine and Jerome, a cause célèbre in late-antique epistolographical studies and an example of what could go wrong in correspondences of the time, before addressing the question of forgeries, tampering of documents transmitted from author to recipient, and pieces that have some down to us with erroneous attributions.
Chapter 7 considers whether there can be a transmission of understanding, arguing that understanding can indeed be transmitted by the kind of extended testimony that one finds in standard educational settings. To make the case, the chapter defends a neo-Aristotelian account of understanding as systematic knowledge of causes, where “causes” are understood broadly, in terms of various kinds of dependence relations. So understood, it is argued, the transmission of understanding can be conceived as a special case of the transmission of knowledge. The information economy framework enters the argument in two ways. First, the framework helps to explain both the mechanisms by which understanding is transmitted by testimony in educational settings, and the intuition that it cannot be. Second, the framework helps to address an objection to the claim that understanding is a kind of knowledge.
Chapter 1 begins by invoking an intuitive distinction between the generation of knowledge and the transmission of knowledge. Very roughly, generation concerns coming to know “for oneself,” as when one reasons to a conclusion on the basis of good evidence. Transmission concerns coming to know “from someone else,” as when one is told by someone else who knows. Section 1.1 argues that some but not all testimony is at the service of knowledge transmission, with the result that some but not all testimonial knowledge is transmitted knowledge. Section 1.2 redraws some familiar categories in the epistemology of testimony so as to better characterize our target and related phenomena, better frame our questions, and better see the possible answers. Finally, a central thesis of the book is introduced and discussed: that knowledge transmission is irreducible to knowledge generation, and for that reason requires its own theoretical treatment. More specifically, it is argued that an adequate account of transmission must go beyond the usual theoretical resources of traditional epistemology – that is, beyond those resources that the tradition uses to theorize knowledge generation.