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Manure is a primary source of methane (CH4) emissions into the atmosphere. A large proportion of CH4 from manure is emitted during storage, but this varies with storage methods. In this research, we tested whether covering a manure heap with plastic reduces CH4 emission during a short-term composting process. A static chamber method was used to detect the CH4 emission rate and the change of the physicochemical properties of cattle manure which was stored either uncovered (treatment UNCOVERED) or covered with plastic (treatment COVERED) for 30-day periods during the four seasons? The dry matter content of the COVERED treatment was significantly less than the UNCOVERED treatment (P < 0.01), and the C/N ratio of the COVERED treatment significantly greater than the UNCOVERED treatment (P > 0.05) under high temperature. In the UNCOVERED treatment, average daily methane (CH4) emissions were in the order summer > spring > autumn > winter. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with the temperature (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.01). Compared to the UNCOVERED treatment, the daily average CH4 emission rates from COVERED treatment manure were less in the first 19 days of spring, 13 days of summer, 10 days of autumn and 30 days of winter. In summary, covering the manure pile with plastic reduces the evaporation of water during storage; and in winter, long-term covering with plastic film reduces the CH4 emissions during the storage of manure.
The most important mechanism of climate change can be understood by everyone: Why do greenhouse gasses have such a direct warming effect on our planet? This chapter approaches this question with a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) attitude. First, the humorous tale of Stinky, Dinxie, Bif, and Moo teaches us how the greenhouse effect really works. It's a straightforward matter of balancing energy, not a matter for belief. Also, it turns out that the atmosphere is really thin, and has a lot less actual mass than we might at first think. Then, this understanding is augmented by lots and lots of data. Multiple independent data sources hammer home convergent evidence identifying very rapid levels of observed warming. Looking at air temperatures, ocean temperatures, and global sea levels, we see extremely rapid rates of warming, rates that have increased dramatically in the last decade. 2015–2019 stand out as exceptionally warm. Global temperatures are modeled extremely well by climate models, while the observed warming doesn’t track at all with changes in incoming solar radiation, and these changes are very small energetically. We don’t need to believe in climate change; we can understand and observe it. The chapter introduction and a sidebar use the devastating Thomas Fire to set this warming in context.
Temperature is one of the main factors affecting insect growth, development and reproduction. The effects of temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the development and reproduction of Cinara cedri Mimeur (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) fed on Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don were evaluated in this study. With the increase of temperature from 10 to 30°C, the development duration at different development stages gradually shortened. There was a significant positive correlation between the developmental rates and temperature, following a quadratic regression model. The lower developmental threshold temperature (C) and effective accumulated temperatures (K) for completing a generation were 4.13°C and 263.4 degree-days, respectively. The highest fecundity was observed at 20°C with 25.74 first-instar nymphs/female. Both the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r, 0.11 ± 0.03) and net reproduction rate (R0, 19.06 ± 2.05) were observed at 20°C, whereas the lowest values of r (0.05 ± 0.01) at 10°C and R0 (5.78 ± 0.88) at 30°C were observed. The results suggest that temperature significantly affects the biology of C. cedri and the optimal temperature for its development is 20°C.
Bacterial dysentery (BD) brings a major disease burden to developing countries. Exploring the influence of temperature and its interaction with other meteorological factors on BD is significant for the prevention and early warning of BD in the context of climate change. Daily BD cases and meteorological data from 2008 to 2018 were collected in all nine prefecture-level cities in Jilin Province. A one-stage province-level model and a two-stage city-specific multivariate meta-pooled level distributed lag non-linear model were established to explore the correlation between temperature and BD, then the weather-stratified generalised additive model was used to test the interaction. During the study period, a total of 26 971 cases of BD were developed. The one-stage and two-stage cumulative dose-response ‘J’ curves overlapped, and results showed a positive correlation between temperature and BD with a 1–6 days lag effect. Age group ⩾5 years was found to be more sensitive to the effects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between temperature, humidity and precipitation (P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively) on BD under high temperature (>0 °C), reminding residents and policymakers to pay attention to the prevention of BD in situations with both high temperature and humidity, high temperature and precipitation during the temperate monsoon climate.
African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan) is a problematic winter annual weed in Australia. Germination ecology of B. tournefortii may change in response to the maternal environments or habitats in which the plants grow. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of four populations of B. tournefortii that were collected from different fields. Averaged over populations, germination was stimulated by dark and was higher at 25/15 C (92%) compared with 15/5 C (76%) and 35/25 C (45%). Averaged over light/dark regimes, at the lowest temperature regime (15/5 C), population A had higher germination than population D; however, at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C), population D had higher germination than population A. Populations B and C had higher germination in the temperature range of 25/15 C and 30/20 C compared with 15/5 C, 20/10 C, and 35/25 C. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), suggesting that seeds can germinate throughout the year if other optimum conditions are available. Population A was more tolerant to water and salt stress than population D. The sodium chloride concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% germination of population A were 68 mM and −0.60 MPa, respectively. Averaged over populations, seeds placed at 1-cm soil depth had the highest emergence (54%), and burial depth of 8 cm resulted in 28% seedling emergence. Averaged over populations, wheat residue retention at 6,000 kg ha−1 resulted in greater seedling emergence than the residue amount of 1,000 kg ha−1. The results suggest that B. tournefortii will be favored in no-till systems and that the seedbank of B. tournefortii could be managed by tillage regimes that bury its seeds below 8-cm depths and restrict seedling emergence and growth of new plants.
Thermal time models have been widely applied to predict temperature requirements for seed germination. Generally, a log-normal distribution for thermal time [θT(g)] is used in such models at suboptimal temperatures to examine the variation in time to germination arising from variation in θT(g) within a seed population. Recently, additional distribution functions have been used in thermal time models to predict seed germination dynamics. However, the most suitable kind of the distribution function to use in thermal time models, especially at suboptimal temperatures, has not been determined. Five distributions (log-normal, Gumbel, logistic, Weibull and log-logistic) were used in thermal time models over a range of temperatures to fit the germination data for 15 species. The results showed that a more flexible model with the log-logistic distribution, rather than the log-normal distribution, provided the best explanation of θT(g) variation in 13 species at suboptimal temperatures. Thus, at least at suboptimal temperatures, the log-logistic distribution is an appropriate candidate among the five distributions used in this study. Therefore, the distribution of parameters [θT(g)] should be considered when using thermal time models to prevent large deviations; furthermore, an appropriate equation should be selected before using such a model to make predictions.
A southern population (S) from Xiushui County (29°1′N, 114°4′E) and a northern population (N) from Shenyang city (41°48′N, 123°23′E) of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi vary greatly in their life-history traits, and may serve as an excellent model with which to study the inheritance of life-history traits. In the present study, we performed intraspecific hybridization using the two populations, comparing the key life-history traits (fecundity, development time, body weight, growth rate, and sexual size dimorphism (SDD)) between the two populations (S♀ × S♂ and N♀ × N♂) and their two hybrid populations (S♀ × N♂ and N♀ × S♂ populations) at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C. Our results showed that there were significant differences in life-history traits between the two parental populations, with the S population having a significantly higher fecundity, shorter larval development time, larger body weight, higher growth rate, and greater weight loss during metamorphosis than the N population at almost all temperatures. However, these life-history traits in the two hybrid populations were intermediate between those of their parents. The life-history traits in the S × N and N × S populations more closely resembled those of the maternal S population and N population, respectively, showing maternal effects. Weight loss for both sexes was highest in the S population, followed by the S × N, N × S, and N populations at all temperatures, suggesting that larger pupae lost more weight during metamorphosis. The changes in SSD with temperature were similar between the S and the S × N populations and between the N and the N × S populations, also suggesting a maternal effect. Overall, our results showed no drastic effect of hybridization on C. bowringi, being neither negative (hybrid inferiority) nor positive (heterosis). Rather, the phenotypes of hybrids were intermediate between the phenotypes of their parents.
In central Europe, barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], has commonly been found in humid lowland areas. As a result of the introduction of new crops and farming practices, in the northwest Carpathians, E. crus-galli has spread from lowland (<200 m altitude) to highland (>400 m altitude) areas. We collected seed samples from local populations lying at a distance of approximately 5 km from each other and lined up along transects following the flows of two rivers. The rivers first flow through the valleys separated by mountain ridges and eventually flow into a common lowland. After ripening, the seeds of all populations were germinated at 25 C under long-day conditions. Only the seeds of some lowland populations germinated up to 75%. The frequency of germinated seeds decreased as the altitude where the population was collected increased, and above 200 m above sea level, germination was mostly zero. We then studied the phenological and morphological differentiation of plants from the original (lowland) and recently occupied (highland) areas. Seeds of the lowest and the highest localities lying on the transect of each river were sown in a common garden experiment. In plants from the highland localities, heading and seed dispersal were earlier, while tiller height and tiller mass were lower than in plants from the lowland localities. Seed mass produced per tiller in the lowland and highland plants was similar, and as a result, highland plants allocated a larger proportion of body mass to seed production than did lowland plants. Echinochloa crus-galli populations from highland localities thus produce their progeny earlier and at a lower energy cost than populations from lowland localities. The plasticity of phenological characters likely facilitated adaptation during E. crus-galli spread from lowlands to highlands. Similar adaptations in plant phenology may contribute to the spread of E. crus-galli in other geographic areas.
The mechanism of nasal airflow sensation is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the role of nasal mucosal temperature change in the subjective perception of nasal patency and the methods by which it can be quantified.
Medline and PubMed database searches were performed to retrieve literature relevant to the topic.
The primary mechanism producing the sensation of nasal patency is thought to be the activation of transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (‘TRPM8’), a thermoreceptor that is activated by nasal mucosal cooling. Computational fluid dynamics studies have demonstrated that increased airflow and heat flux are correlated with better patient-reported outcome measure scores. Similarly, physical measurements of the nasal cavity using temperature probes have shown a correlation between lower nasal mucosal temperatures and better patient-reported outcome measure scores.
Nasal mucosal temperature change may be correlated with the perception of improved nasal patency. Future research should quantify the impact of mucosal cooling on the perception of nasal airway obstruction.
The prediction of the post-diapause emergence is the first step towards a comprehensive decision support system that can contribute to a considerable reduction of pesticide use by forecasting a precise spraying date. The cumulative field emergence can be described as a function of the cumulative development rate. We investigated the impact of seven constant temperatures and five light regimes on post-diapause development in laboratory experiments. Development rate depended significantly on temperature but not on photoperiod. We therefore fit non-linear thermal performance curves, a better and more modern approach over past linear models, to describe the development rate as a function of temperature. The four parameter Brière function was the most suitable and was subsequently applied to temperature data from 36 previous pea fields, where pea moth emergence was measured with pheromone traps in Northern Hesse (Germany). In order to describe the variation in development times between individuals, we fit five nonlinear distribution models to the cumulative development rate as a function of cumulative field emergence. The three parameter Gompertz model was selected as the best fitted model. We validated the model performance with an independent field data set. The model correctly predicted the first moth in the trap and the peak emergence in 81.82% of cases, with an average deviation of only 2.00 and 2.09 days respectively.
This study describes the embryonic development of Moenkhausia oligolepis in laboratory conditions. After fertilization, the embryos were collected every 10 min up to 2 h, then every 20 min up to 4 h, and afterwards every 30 min until hatching. The fertilized eggs of M. oligolepis measured approximately 0.85 ± 0.5 mm and had an adhesive surface. Embryonic development lasted 14 h at 25ºC through the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, and segmentation phases. Hatching occurred in embryos around the 30-somites stage. The present results contribute only the second description of embryonic development to a species from the Moenkhausia genus, being also the first for this species. Such data are of paramount importance considering the current conflicting state of this genus phylogenetic classification and may help taxonomic studies. Understanding the biology of a species that is easily managed in laboratory conditions and has an ornamental appeal may assist studies in its reproduction to both supply the aquarium market and help the species conservation in nature. Moreover, these data enable the use of M. oligolepis as a model species in biotechnological applications, such as the germ cell transplantation approach.
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused the recent pandemic worldwide. Research studies are focused on various factors affecting the pandemic to find effective vaccine or therapeutics against COVID-19. Environmental factors are the important regulators of COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of weather on the COVID-19 cases, fatalities and frequency of mutations in Bangladesh. The impacts were determined on 1, 7 and 14 days of the case. The study was conducted based on Spearman's correlation coefficients. The highest correlation was found between population density and cases (rs = 0.712). Among metrological parameters, average temperature had the strongest correlation (rs = −0.675) with the cases. About 82% of Bangladeshi isolates had D614G at spike protein. Both temperature and UV index had strong effects on the frequency of mutations. Among host factors, coinfection is highly associated with frequency of different mutations. This study will give a complete picture of the effects of metrological parameters on COVID-19 cases, fatalities and mutation frequency that will help the authorities to take proper decisions.
Previous studies have revealed associations of meteorological factors with tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, few studies have examined their lag effects on TB cases. This study was aimed to analyse nonlinear lag effects of meteorological factors on the number of TB notifications in Hong Kong. Using a 22-year consecutive surveillance data in Hong Kong, we examined the association of monthly average temperature and relative humidity with temporal dynamics of the monthly number of TB notifications using a distributed lag nonlinear models combined with a Poisson regression. The relative risks (RRs) of TB notifications were >1.15 as monthly average temperatures were between 16.3 and 17.3 °C at lagged 13–15 months, reaching the peak risk of 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.35) when it was 16.8 °C at lagged 14 months. The RRs of TB notifications were >1.05 as relative humidities of 60.0–63.6% at lagged 9–11 months expanded to 68.0–71.0% at lagged 12–17 months, reaching the highest risk of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01–1.11) when it was 69.0% at lagged 13 months. The nonlinear and delayed effects of average temperature and relative humidity on TB epidemic were identified, which may provide a practical reference for improving the TB warning system.
Parasitoids can be used as biological agents of pest control. Anagyrus saccharicola Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a parasitoid of the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Although this mealybug is present in all sugarcane-producing countries, there is limited information regarding this pest and its parasitoid. Aiming to elucidate information on bioecological parameters of A. saccharicola, were evaluated the survival of parasitoid females and males at three temperatures, the host preference of the parasitoid, and the fecundity and longevity of the host. In addition, the parasitism rate of A. saccharicola was estimated based on three factors, feeding, mating, and time. Survival was evaluated at 20, 25, and 30°C. Host preference was conducted on 15-, 20-, and 30-day-old mealybugs. And the parasitism rate was evaluated in fed and unfed, mated and unmated parasitoids and with 24 h and newly emerged. The temperature of 20°C was the most favorable for parasitoid survival. Parasitism occurred at all evaluated ages of the mealybug; however, the preference was for those that were 30-days-old. The parasitized mealybugs longevity was approximately 8 additional days after parasitization, and non-parasitized mealybugs lived for an additional 20 days for mealybugs aged 30 and 20 days at the outset of the tests, and a further 13 days for the 15 days. Feeding and mating after 24 h of emergence resulted in a higher parasitism rate. These findings can contribute to more efficient rearing of A. saccharicola and in the planning of the biological control of S. sacchari in the integrated pest management programs.
Whereas only a minority of acute ischaemic stroke patients are eligible to reperfusion therapies, all can benefit from optimized supportive care to minimize acute stroke complications. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring is recommended, and supplemental oxygen given as needed to maintain saturation>94%. During the first 24 hours after onset, when collateral dependence is greatest, blood pressure lowering may best be avoided, unless SBP >220 mm Hg, thrombolytics have been administered, or cardiac or other comorbidities are present; thereafter, gradual blood pressure lowering may safely be started. Initial fluid management should aim for normovolemia, using isotonic fluids; if substantial brain oedema develops, hypertonic fluids can be helpful. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected and the underlying cause identified and treated. Extremely low and high blood glucose deviations should be avoided; if hyperglycaemia is present, treatment using a subcutaneous insulin sliding scale of moderate intensity is appropriate. Simple formal swallow screening should be performed early in all ischaemic stroke patients. When swallowing is impaired, initiating feeding via NG tube is reasonable within the first 2–3 days after onset. Temperature should be monitored and, if fever develops, antiyretic therapy started immediately and the cause identified and treated. For bladder dysfunction, an indwelling catheter should be avoided if possible to reduce infection rates. Hydration and passive/active movement of paretic extremities are important to prevent venous thromboembolism. In patients with reduced mobility, intermittent pneumatic compression devices should be employed. It is reasonable to use pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of DVT (e.g. immobile, history of prior venous thromboembolism) and low risk of intracranial hemorrhage (e.g. small infarct less than 3 cm in diameter), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparins are somewhat more effective than unfractionated heparin. Initial management of delirium should include non-pharmacological behavioral measures, including periodic verbal reassurances and reorientation, providing rooms with windows and clocks, facilitating sensory input with eyeglasses and hearing aids, and promoting a usual sleep-wake cycle.
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are the primary cause of climate change and an estimated increase of 3.7 to 4.8 °C is predicted by the year 2100 if emissions continue at current levels. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) provide an interesting comparison study of the impact of climate change on bear species. While polar bears and giant pandas are arguably the most distant of the bear species with regard to life histories and behavior, both are likely to be significantly impacted by the broad-scale changes to their environment that are predicted to result from climate change. Herein, we review the conservation status of both species and their habitats, and present current and predicted evidence of the impacts of a changing climate on polar bear and giant panda survival.
Drunken horse grass [Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng] is a perennial poisonous weed in western China. A comprehensive understanding of the ecological response of A. inebrians germination to environmental factors would facilitate the formulation of better management strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, water, pH, and burial depth, on the germination and seedling emergence of A. inebrians. The seeds germinated at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C and in alternating-temperature regimes of 15/5, 20/10, 25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 C, and the germination percentages under constant and alternating temperatures ranged from 51% to 94% and 15% to 93%, respectively. Maximum germination occurred at a constant temperature of 25 C, and germination was prevented at 45/35 C. Light did not appear to affect germination. The germination percentage of seeds was more than 75% in the pH range of 5 to 10, with the highest germination percentage at pH 6. The seeds germinated at osmotic potentials of 0 MPa to −1.0 MPa, but decreasing osmotic potential inhibited germination, with no germination at −1.2MPa. After 21 d of low osmotic stress, the seeds that did not germinate after rehydration had not lost their vitality. The seedling emergence percentage was highest (90%) when seeds were buried at 1 cm, but declined with increasing burial depth, with no emergence at 9 cm. Deep tillage may be effective in limiting the germination and emergence of this species. The results of this study provide useful information on the conditions necessary for A. inebrians germination and provide a theoretical basis for science-based prediction, prevention, and control of this species.
Mesanophrys sp. is a newly identified parasitic ciliate infecting farmed swimming crab. To demonstrate the correlation between parasite development and environmental conditions, this study aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, salinity, pH and frequency of passage of parasite on survival, growth and body size of Mesanophrys sp. in vitro. The results revealed that survival, population density and growth rate of the parasite were highest at 12°C and decreased with increasing temperature from 16 to 26°C. In addition, the survival, population density and growth rate of Mesanophrys sp. were high at 20‰. When salinity was adjusted to levels lower (0–10‰) and higher (40–60‰) than 20‰, the parasite's survival and growth rate gradually declined. The optimal pH for parasite survival was 8.0, whereas its survival was inhibited at <4.5 or >9.5. Our result also showed that parasite body proportions (length:width) were significantly smaller at the highest temperature compared to the lower temperature, whereas different salinities had no significant effect. Furthermore, we introduced dynamic parasite culture systems in vitro where Mesanophrys sp. was cultured in medium-containing culture plates through continually reducing and halving the old medium into fresh. Application of this optimized dilution timing technique with fresh medium and sub-cultured enabled a continuous culture of parasites. Under this optimized condition, the highest population density and exponential growth rate of the parasite were achieved than that of a control group. This study will help to understand the ciliated parasite infection dynamics and provides new possibilities for in vitro parasite-associated studies.
This study aims to determine the relationship between physico-chemical variables on a seasonal basis and wild fish assemblages beneath sea-cage fish farms. Assemblages of wild fish were counted monthly on two separate days at each of six fish farms between August 2015 and July 2017, by six rapid visual counts (RVC) in 5 minutes with scuba by two divers. Seawater samples were simultaneously taken by a Nansen bottle during the RVC from the fish farm barge. SST (°C), salinity (ppm), dissolved oxygen (mg l−1) and pH were measured by YSI multiparameter, while Secchi disk was also used for light transmittance. Wild fish species richness went up with increasing temperature and salinity in the Izmir region, however, this stopped at about 26°C and about 39 ppm. Wild fish richness increased when the DO was at a level of 7 mg l−1 and the pH at about 7.9 in Izmir. Between 10 and 20 m, light transmittance showed greater wild fish species richness in Izmir region. In contrast, the wild fish species richness of the Muğla region fluctuated more. In terms of wild fish species richness, these fluctuations increased with salinity and DO, while they decreased with SST, pH and light transmittance. However, the range of variation of the recorded physico-chemical variables is rather narrow. The results of the correlation matrix indicate that the relationship between wild fish species richness and pH and SST was statistically significant in Izmir region (P < 0.05).
Weed control of paraquat can be erratic and may be attributable to differing species sensitivity and/or environmental factors for which minor guidance is available on commercial labels. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to quantify selectivity of paraquat across select weed species and the influence of environmental factors. Experiments were performed under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and growth chamber. Compared with purple deadnettle (dose necessary to reduce shoot biomass by 50% = 39 g ai ha−1), waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, and horseweed were 4.9, 3.3, 1.9, and 1.3 times more sensitive to paraquat, respectively. The injury progression rate over 3 d after treatment (DAT) was a more accurate predictor of final efficacy at 14 DAT than the lag phase until symptoms first appeared. For example, at the 17.5 g ha−1 dose, the injury rate of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth was, on average, 3.6 times greater than that of horseweed and purple deadnettle. The influence of various environmental factors on paraquat efficacy was weed specific. Applications made at sunrise improved control of purple deadnettle over applications at solar noon or sunset. Lower light intensities (200 or 600 μmol m−2 s−1) surrounding the time of application improved control of waterhemp and horseweed more than 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Day/night temperatures of 27/16 C improved horseweed and purple deadnettle control compared with day/night temperatures of 18/13 C. Though control was positively associated with injury rates in the application time of day and temperature experiments, a negative relationship was observed for waterhemp in the light-intensity experiment. Thus, although there are conditions that enhance paraquat efficacy, the specific target species must also be considered. These results advocate paraquat dose recommendations, currently based on weed height, be expanded to address sensitivity differences among weeds. Moreover, these findings contrast with paraquat labels stating temperatures of 13 C or lower do not reduce paraquat efficacy.