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Crops that can be grown in a particular area depend on climate and soil. Not all crops can be grown in all areas as different areas have different types of climate and soils. Further, water requirements of crops are influenced by climate. This chapter discusses those aspects of climate that are fundamental to agricultural farming and consequent irrigation.
Global warming is likely to lengthen the seasonal duration of larval release by parasites. We exposed freshwater mussel hosts, Anodonta anatina, from 2 high-latitude populations to high, intermediate and low temperatures throughout the annual cercarial shedding period of the sympatric trematodes Rhipidocotyle fennica and R. campanula, sharing the same transmission pathway. At the individual host level, under warmer conditions, the timing of the cercarial release in both parasite species shifted towards seasonally earlier period while its duration did not change. At the host population level, evidence for the lengthening of larvae shedding period with warming was found for R. fennica. R. campanula started the cercarial release seasonally clearly earlier, and at a lower temperature, than R. fennica. Furthermore, the proportion of mussels shedding cercariae increased, while day-degrees required to start the cercariae shedding decreased in high-temperature treatment in R. fennica. In R. campanula these effects were not found, suggesting that warming can benefit more R. fennica. These results do not completely support the view that climate warming would invariably increase the seasonal duration of larval shedding by parasites, but emphasizes species-specific differences in temperature-dependence and in seasonality of cercarial release.
We use PRISM climatic data (1981–2010) and Landsat images (2012–2013) to establish an empirical relationship linking annual temperature and precipitation to the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of glaciers in the Sierra Nevada (36–41°N, California, USA). For this, we determined the present-day ELAs of 57 glaciers and the local 0°C isotherms elevation Iso0, averaged over the 1981–2010 period. The difference, for each glacier, is Y, the normalized snowline altitude (Y = ELA – Iso0). We then empirically calibrated a logarithmic relationship between this normalized snowline altitude and mean annual precipitation using data from partially covered glaciers. Our calibration is statistically distinct from that previously established for the tropical and midlatitude Andes (Fox and Bloom , Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi), 103, 867–885; Condom et al. , Global and Planetary Change, 59, 189–202). This new relationship for North America is an easy-to-use tool to permit paleoclimatic reconstructions from paleo-ELAs. For a specific paleoglacial site, paleotemperature can be computed knowing the paleoprecipitation range, and vice versa. We also performed a test showing that, if precipitation is well known, the uncertainty associated with paleotemperature is about 1°C (1σ).
Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] is a perennial weed in more than 25 countries, including Australia. Knowledge regarding the seed biology of L. leucocephala could help in making weed management decisions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of hot water (scarification), alternating temperatures, heat stress, salt stress, water stress, and burial depth on seed germination of two populations of L. leucocephala collected from Toowoomba and Gatton, Australia. The optimum duration of hot water treatment to break the hard seed coat dormancy was 2 min for both populations. The highest germination (92% to 98%) was recorded at 35/25 C for both populations, and similar germination occurred at 30/20 C. The Toowoomba population recorded greater germination at low temperature (15/5 to 25/15 C) than the Gatton population. Additionally, the Gatton population had higher germination than the Toowoomba population after 5 min of exposure to temperatures of up to 100 C, suggesting that the Gatton population may be more tolerant to heat stress. Germination was completely inhibited at pretreatment (5 min) temperatures of 150 to 250 C. The Toowoomba population recorded 17% greater germination than the Gatton population at a high salt concentration (160 mM NaCl), indicating its greater salt tolerance. At low moisture stress (−0.1 and −0.2 MPa), higher germination was observed in the Toowoomba population than in the Gatton population, whereas germination was similar for both populations at higher water stress levels (−0.4 MPa or lower). Germination was similar for both populations at shallow depths (0 and 1 cm) but higher emergence was recorded for the Toowoomba population at 2 to 8 cm than the Gatton population. Differential germination behaviors of both populations suggest that they adapted differently in their respective local environments. Knowledge gained from this study will help in formulating integrated management practices for L. leucocephala.
Of the monkeys in Africa, the colobines comprise 19% of the 16 genera and 30% of the 79 species. They occur all across tropical African from sea level to 3,400 m above sea level, and where temperatures range from -7°C to 41°C and mean annual rainfall ranges from 50 cm to 1,100 cm. Ninety-six percent of the 24 species of Africa’s colobines are threatened with extinction, whereas 68% of the subspecies are threatened with extinction. Six of the species are ‘Critically Endangered’, including one that is probably already extinct. The two primary proximate threats to colobines in Africa are forest loss and hunting by humans, while the ultimate threat is humans and their widespread over-exploitation of natural resources. This chapter reviews the biological traits that make Africa’s colobines especially susceptible to extinction through forest loss and hunting, the threats they face, and the impacts of those threats. Predictions are presented concerning which species of African colobine will be among the first extinctions and where Africa’s colobines are expected to persist for at least the coming 30 years. Finally, this chapter presents an overview of the main conservation actions that Africa’s colobines require and gives priorities for research that will support their conservation.
Environmental conditions surrounding herbicide applications are known to affect weed control and crop response. Variable levels of rice injury caused by florpyrauxifen-benzyl have been observed across cropping systems and environmental conditions, warranting research in which single environmental and management strategies are isolated to understand the effect of each factor on rice injury and subsequent reductions in rice growth. A field study was conducted to determine the effects of planting date, rice cultivar, and florpyrauxifen-benzyl rate on rice injury, maturity, and yield. Two greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the effect of soil moisture and time of flooding after florpyrauxifen-benzyl application on rice injury caused by the herbicide. Growth chamber experiments were conducted to isolate the effects of temperature and light intensity on rice injury caused by florpyrauxifen-benzyl. In the field study, levels of injury varied across planting dates in both years, indicating the influence of environment on the crop response to florpyrauxifen-benzyl applications. Under dry (40% soil moisture) and saturated (100%) soil conditions, rice injury increased to 36% and 35%, respectively, compared with 27% and 25% injury at 60% and 80% soil moisture, respectively. Flooding rice 0 to 6 d after florpyrauxifen-benzyl application reduced visible injury; however, a reduction in rice tiller production occurred when the rice was flooded the same day as application. Visible rice injury increased when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied under low light intensity (700 µmol m−2 s−1) and high temperatures (35/24 C day/night). Based on these findings, applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl are least likely to cause unacceptable rice injury when applied to soils having 60% and 80% saturation in high light, low temperature environments, and the crop is flooded 3 to 6 d following application.
Grasshoppers are one of the most predominant insects in the grasslands of the southern Pampas. In this region, Dichroplus elongatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus pratensis and Borellia bruneri are the most abundant species and have the greatest economic importance. This study aimed to assess the relationship between temporal changes in the density of these species and climate variables associated with temperature and rainfall over an 11-year study period., We monitored 22 sites in different areas of Laprida county from 2005 to 2016. A total of 25 grasshopper species were collected. The most abundant species were D. maculipennis and B. bruneri which reached the highest densities from 2008–2009 to 2010–2011. The rainfall accumulated from September (RAS) to the sampling date and the number of rainy days (RD) largely explained the density variation of B. bruneri. Besides RD and RAS, winter rainfall, rainfall accumulated from October to the sampling date, and thermal amplitude of October (TAO) influenced the density of D. maculipennis. Our results indicated that seasons with less rainfall and fewer RD favored these two species’ abundance. We identified that the RD and TAO contributed significantly to variations in the density of D. elongatus. In contrast to the other two species, we recorded D. elongatus in seasons with high rainfall and high RD. A better understanding of the climate influence on the life cycle of these economically important insects may identify key factors in their population dynamics which in turn may improve management options.
In this study, we analysed the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study period was from 12 April 2020 to 13 October 2020, and daily meteorological data and the daily number of patients with COVID-19 in each state of the United States were collected. Based on the number of COVID-19 patients in each state of the United States, we selected four states (California, Florida, New York, Texas) for analysis. One-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA), scatter plot analysis, correlation analysis and distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) analysis were used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of patients with COVID-19. We found that the significant influencing factors of the number of COVID-19 cases differed among the four states. Specifically, the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases in California and New York was negatively correlated with AWMD (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with AQI, PM2.5 and TAVG (P < 0.01) but not significantly correlated with other factors. Florida was significantly correlated with TAVG (positive) (P < 0.01) but not significantly correlated with other factors. The number of COVID-19 cases in Texas was only significantly negatively associated with AWND (P < 0.01). The influence of temperature and PM2.5 on the spread of COVID-19 is not obvious. This study shows that when the wind speed was 2 m/s, it had a significant positive correlation with COVID-19 cases. The impact of meteorological factors on COVID-19 may be very complicated. It is necessary to further explore the relationship between meteorological factors and COVID-19. By exploring the influence of meteorological factors on COVID-19, we can help people to establish a more accurate early warning system.
Climate change effects on host–parasite interactions have been poorly studied in arid or semi-arid habitats. Here, we conducted an experiment aimed to increase the temperature inside European roller Coracias garrulus nest boxes located in a semi-arid habitat on different nest-site types to look for effects on different ectoparasite abundances and nestling growth. Average nest temperature was slightly higher in heated nests than in control nests, although differences were not statistically significant. However, relative humidity was significantly lower at night in heated nests as compared to control nests. The abundance of sand flies, mites and carnid flies was significantly higher in heated, less humid, nests while biting midge abundance was significantly lower in heated nests. Other ectoparasites were not significantly affected by treatment. Relative humidity was high even in heated nests, reaching more than 60%. Sand fly abundance was higher in nests located in sandstone walls, while mite abundance was higher in isolated farmhouses. In addition, sand fly prevalence was higher in nests located in isolated farmhouses and sandstone walls. Heat treatment, nest-site type or ectoparasite abundances did not affect the nestling body mass, wing length or their growth at different nestling ages.
Tropical montane systems are characterized by a high plant species diversity and complex environmental gradients. Climate warming may force species to track suitable climatic conditions and shift their distribution upward, which may be particularly problematic for species with narrow elevational ranges. To better understand the fate of montane plant species in the face of climate change, we evaluated a) which environmental factors best predict the distribution of 277 plant species along the Himalayan elevational gradient in Nepal, and b) whether species elevational ranges increase with increasing elevation. To this end, we developed ecological niche models using MaxEnt by combining species survey and presence data with 19 environmental predictors. Key environmental factors that best predicted the distribution of Himalayan plant species were mean annual temperature (for 54.5% of the species) followed by soil clay content (10.2%) and slope (9.4%). Although temperature is the best predictor, it is associated with many other covariates that may explain species distribution, such as irradiance and potential evapotranspiration. Species at both ends of the Himalayan elevational gradient had narrower elevational ranges than species in the middle. Our results suggest that with further global warming, most Himalayan plant species have to migrate upward, which is especially critical for upland species with narrow distribution ranges.
Many recent palaeoclimatic studies have focused on Pleistocene interglacials, especially Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5e and 11, as analogs to our modern interglacial (MIS 1). In continental area, archives allowing comparison between interglacials remain scarce. Calcareous tufa deposits, as they are characteristic of these periods and can provide long, almost continuous, palaeoclimatic records through their isotopic content, appear highly suitable for such investigation. In this paper, δ18O and δ13C values from the three well-dated tufas of Saint-Germain-le-Vasson, Caours, and La Celle are combined to compare temperature and moisture conditions prevailing during MIS 1, 5e, and 11, in the Paris Basin. Both Pleistocene interglacials, and especially their optima, appear stronger than the Holocene: MIS 11 was wetter and warmer than both the Holocene and MIS 5e, which itself experienced wetter conditions than the Holocene. These observations are consistent with palaeontological data from the studied sites, especially malacological assemblages, which record, as at other European tufa sites, a relative depletion of molluscan diversity during the Holocene compared with the Pleistocene (MIS 5 and 11) interglacials.
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a polyphagous and highly destructive invasive insect pest of many crops. It was recently introduced into India and widely reported in almost all parts of India. Development of a temperature-based phenology model for predicting its rate of development and distribution will help in understanding the establishment and further spread of introduced invasive insect pests. Development, survival and reproduction parameters of S. frugiperda at six constant temperature conditions (15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C) were investigated and further validated with data generated under fluctuating temperature conditions. The estimated lower developmental threshold temperatures were 12.1°C for eggs, 11°C for larvae, 12.2°C for pupae, 15.13°C for males and 12.66°C for females. Degree-day (DD) requirements for the development of the different stages of S. frugiperda were 50, 250 and 200 DD for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. The best-fitted functions were compiled for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which was stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. The developed phenology model predicted temperature ranges between 27 and 30°C as favourable for S. frugiperda development, survival and reproduction. The results revealed that maximum net reproductive rate (215.66 females/female/generation) and total fecundity (981.08 individuals/female/generation) were attained at 30°C constant temperature. The mean length of generations decreased from 74.29 days at 15°C to 38.74 days at 30°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase (0.138 females/female/day) and shortest doubling time (4.9 days) were also observed at 30°C. Results of simulated life table parameters showed high temperature-dependent development of S. frugiperda and complete development within all the tested constant temperature ranges (15–35°C). Simulated life table parameters for predicting risk indices of S. frugiperda in India indicated a significant increase in activity indices and establishment risk indices with a higher number of generations during future (2050 and 2070) climatic change scenarios compared to present conditions. Our results indicate that India will be highly suitable for the establishment and survival of S. frugiperda in future time periods.
Knowledge on cheetah population densities across their current range is limited. Therefore, new and efficient assessment tools are needed to gain more knowledge on species distribution, ecology and behaviour. Scat detection dogs have emerged as an efficient and non-invasive method to monitor elusive and vulnerable animal species, like cheetahs, due to the dog’s superior olfactory system. However, the success of locating scat using detection dogs can be significantly improved under suitable weather conditions. We examined the impact of temperature, humidity and wind speed on detection rates of scat from cheetahs during a scat detection dog survey in Northern Kenya. We found that average wind speed positively influences the scat detection rate of detection dogs working on leash. Humidity showed no significant influence. Temperature showed a strong negative correlation with humidity and thus was excluded from our model analyses. While it is likely that wind speed is especially invalid for dogs working off leash, this study did not demonstrate this. Wind speed could thus influence the success of monitoring cheetahs or other target species. Our findings help to improve the survey and thus maximise the coverage of study area and the collection of target samples of elusive and rare species.
Climate and weather have a great influence on the prevalence of depressive disorders. Selected physical parameters for instance light, temperature and pressure can be used to treat mood disorders.
The present mini-review aims at approximating the mechanisms by which selected, strictly controlled physical parameters in particular light, temperature, and oxygen pressure can help in the treatment of depression and determine their potential effectiveness.
Relevant literature was identified by searching the PubMed/Medline database, by combining the search strategy of free text terms and exploding a range of MESH headings relating to the topics.
Mechanisms that can modify the course of depression were briefly presented. Review of the literature showed the well-established position of bright light therapy (BLT) effective in treating seasonal (SAD) and non-seasonal affective disorders (non-SAD); safety and rapid-action of whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) were also demonstrated; the least data was available on hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), which had antidepressant properties only in people with concomitant neurological damages.
In addition to the well-established position of BLT in the treatment of depression, further research is needed on other methods, such as WBH, WBC, HBOT.
Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker] is an emerging weed in the Australian cropping region. Populations resistant to glyphosate have evolved in Australia, creating the demand for information regarding the seed germination ecology of glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) populations of C. sumatrensis. A study was conducted to examine the effects of temperature, light intensity, salt stress, osmotic stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of two populations (R and S) of C. sumatrensis. Both populations were able to germinate over a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C). In light/dark conditions, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 20/10 and 35/25 C. In the dark, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 25/15 C. In the dark, germination was inhibited at 30/20 C and above. Averaged over populations, seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 97% at zero light intensity (completely dark conditions) compared with full light intensity. Seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 17% and 85% at osmotic potentials of −0.4, and −0.8 MPa, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The R population had lower germination (57%) than the S population (72%) at a sodium chloride concentration of 80 mM. Seed germination was highest on the soil surface and emergence was reduced by 87% and 90% at burial depths of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively. Knowledge gained from this study suggests that a shallow-tillage operation to bury weed seeds in conventional tillage systems and retention of high residue cover on the soil surface in zero-till systems may inhibit the germination of C. sumatrensis. This study also warrants that the R population may have a greater risk of invasion over a greater part of a year due to germination over a broader temperature range.
Sweet acacia [Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Willd.] is a problematic thorny weed species in several parts of Australia. Knowledge of its seed biology could help to formulate weed management decisions for this and similar species. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hot water (scarification), alternating temperatures, light, salt stress, and water stress on seed germination of two populations of V. farnesiana and to evaluate the response of its young seedlings (the most sensitive developmental stage) to commonly available postemergence herbicides in Australia. Both populations responded similarly to all the environmental factors and herbicides; therefore, data were pooled over the populations. Seeds immersed in hot water at 90 C for 10 min provided the highest germination (88%), demonstrating physical dormancy in this species. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures from 20/10 C (35%) to 35/25 C (90%), but no seeds germinated at 15/5 C. Germination was not affected by light, suggesting that seeds are nonphotoblastic and can germinate under a plant canopy or when buried in soil. Germination was not affected by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations up to 20 mM, and about 50% of seeds could germinate at 160 mM NaCl, suggesting high salt tolerance ability. Germination was only 13% at −0.2 MPa osmotic potential, and no seeds germinated at −0.4 MPa, suggesting that V. farnesiana seeds may remain ungerminated until moisture conditions have become conducive for germination. A number of postemergence herbicides, including 2,4-D + picloram, glufosinate, paraquat, and saflufenacil, provided >85% control of biomass of young seedlings compared with the non-treated control treatment. Knowledge gained from this study will help to predict the potential spread of V. farnesiana in other areas and help to integrate herbicide use with other management strategies.
The germinability of buried seeds changes with time, and the direction and periodicity of these changes differ among plant species. In 116 abundant dicotyledonous herb species, we investigated the changes in seed germinability that occurred during the 2-yr period following burial in the soil. We aimed to establish differences between seeds collected in “anthropogenic” (ruderal, arable land) and “wild” (grassland, forest) habitats. The seeds were buried in a field 1 mo after collection, exhumed at regular intervals, and germinated at 25 C. During the 2-yr study period, four categories of species-specific patterns of germinability changes were found: seeds demonstrating seasonal dormancy/nondormancy cycles (31 species); seeds germinating only in the first season after burial (16 species); seeds germinating steadily (38 species); and seeds whose germinability changed gradually, with increasing (7 species) or decreasing (18 species) germinability. The seeds of 6 species did not germinate at all. We found no significant difference in the frequency of these categories between species typical for anthropogenic and wild habitats. The cause for this result may be dramatic human influences (changes of agricultural practices), the pressure of which impedes the development of floras specific for certain habitats, as distinguished by the frequency of species with particular patterns of seed germinability. These frequencies varied among taxa with the growth form, seed mass, and flowering phenology of species.
This study explores the relationship between temperature and the number of aggressive incidents and coercive interventions in the years 2007–2019 in six psychiatric hospitals in the south of the Germany with a total of 1007 beds. The number of aggressive incidents among 164 435 admissions was significantly higher on ‘heat days’ (≥30°C). Furthermore, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of aggressive incidents and increasing temperature. In contrast, the number of coercive interventions was not related to temperature. Considering the background of global warming, rising temperature could result in more frequent aggressive behaviour during in-patient treatment of psychiatric patients.
The most important mechanism of climate change can be understood by everyone: Why do greenhouse gasses have such a direct warming effect on our planet? This chapter approaches this question with a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) attitude. First, the humorous tale of Stinky, Dinxie, Bif, and Moo teaches us how the greenhouse effect really works. It's a straightforward matter of balancing energy, not a matter for belief. Also, it turns out that the atmosphere is really thin, and has a lot less actual mass than we might at first think. Then, this understanding is augmented by lots and lots of data. Multiple independent data sources hammer home convergent evidence identifying very rapid levels of observed warming. Looking at air temperatures, ocean temperatures, and global sea levels, we see extremely rapid rates of warming, rates that have increased dramatically in the last decade. 2015–2019 stand out as exceptionally warm. Global temperatures are modeled extremely well by climate models, while the observed warming doesn’t track at all with changes in incoming solar radiation, and these changes are very small energetically. We don’t need to believe in climate change; we can understand and observe it. The chapter introduction and a sidebar use the devastating Thomas Fire to set this warming in context.