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Though it is the size of West Virginia, the Navajo Nation is relatively unknown to non-Indians except the few who live there. Chapter 2 presents a portrait of the reservation, covering everything from the ubiquitous poverty and unemployment to the structure of Navajo extended families. The chapter also launches the reader into a brief history of the tribe, moving from the Navajo creation story to the Navajo long walk and internment to the establishment of the reservation with the signing of the 1868 Treaty with the United States.
The modern Navajo Nation government was founded in large part so that oil leases on the reservation could be approved. But as Chapter 3 shows, the Navajo Nation government did not act as mere rubber stamp for non-Indian interests. Though it did permit oil leasing, the tribe went on to reject the signature piece of New Deal policy directed at Indians, the Indian Reorganization Act. After presenting this foundational period of the Navajo Nation government, the chapter then presents one of the most tragic events in the collective memory of the Navajo people, federally-imposed livestock reduction, which continues to shape tribal land use patterns as well as federal-tribal relations.
Despite the Navajo Nation’s size and relative lack of development, tribal members often find it nearly impossible to get permission to use land. This chapter focuses on homesite leases and, revisiting a topic first introduced in Chapter 3, grazing regulations. Both areas are ones in which the tribal government and tribal leaders recognize contribute to stunted growth on the reservation. The chapter argues that returning to a use-dependent understanding of property rights offers a way to free up land for those who want to make a life on the reservation.
The aim of this study was to investigate mitochondrial ND5 gene polymorphisms and their relationship with in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of Sanjabi sheep. Blood and ovarian samples of adult ewes were obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For each ovarian sample, cumulus–oocyte complexes larger than 3 mm in diameter were aspirated from follicles, and their IVM and IVC rates were recorded. A 666-bp fragment of the ND5 gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. The samples were genotyped using a modified single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method, and an association study was conducted with IVM and IVC rates. Six different SSCP patterns, designated A, B, C, D, E and F with respective frequencies of 8, 47, 4, 4, 32 and 5%, respectively, were observed. According to the results of association analysis, there was no significant association between the ND1 gene polymorphisms and the IVM and IVC rates (P > 0.05).
This chapter explores Scott’s writing about familiar landscapes comprising cultivated land, rivers and coastlines. Topics include the history of farming and effects of new agricultural policies associated with enlightenment and the culture of ‘improvement’. The expansion of sheep farming is discussed with attention to changes in soil structure, flora and rural population levels. Sections address foods that are associated with Scotland, including salmon, beef and mutton. Whisky is explored for its ecological and national significance. River and offshore environments are considered in terms of the use of marine products and technologies that threatened fish stocks. The chapter has a temporal framework that looks from the nineteenth century back to the end of the last great ice age, exploring Scott’s interest in environmental history through his accounts of fossils, prehistoric tools and animal bones found in peat bogs. Environmental memory, folklore, supernatural creatures and eco-gothic tropes of haunting are key themes.
Dairy goat farming is an important sector of the agricultural industry in Greece, with an annual total milk production exceeding 450 000 l and accounting for over 25% of all goat milk produced in the European Union; this milk is used mainly for cheese production. Despite the importance of goat milk for the agricultural sector in Greece, no systematic countrywide investigations in the bulk-tank milk of goats in Greece have been reported. Objectives were to investigate somatic cell counts (SCC) and total bacterial counts (TBC) in raw bulk-tank milk of goat herds in Greece, study factors influencing SCC and TBC therein and evaluate their possible associations with milk content. Throughout Greece, 119 dairy goat herds were visited for milk sampling for somatic cell counting, microbiological examination and composition measurement. Geometric mean SCC and TBC were 0.838 × 106 cells ml−1 and 581 × 103 cfu ml−1, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed annual frequency of check-ups of milking system and total milk quantity per goat (among 53 variables) to be significant for increased SCC; no factor emerged (among 58 variables) to be significant for increased TBC. Negative correlation of SCC with total protein was found; mean total protein content in the bulk-tank milk in herds with SCC >0.75 × 106 cells ml−1 was 5.1% lower and in herds with SCC >1.5 × 106 cells ml−1, it was 7.8% lower.
This study evaluated the effects of leptin on primordial follicle survival and activation after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue and if leptin acts through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Ovarian fragments were fixed for histology (fresh control) or cultured for 7 days in control medium (α-MEM+) alone or supplemented with leptin (1, 5, 10, 25 or 50 ng/ml). Follicle morphology, activation and apoptosis were analyzed. Next, the fragments were cultured in the medium that showed the best results in the absence or the presence of the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), and immunohistostaining of p-Akt protein was assessed. After culture, the percentage of normal follicles decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatments compared with the fresh control. Moreover, control medium and 1 ng/ml leptin had similar (P > 0.05) percentages of normal follicles, which were significantly higher than those in other treatments. However, culture with 1 ng/ml leptin maintained apoptosis similarly (P > 0.05) to that of the fresh control and lower (P < 0.05) than that in α-MEM+. Leptin did not influence follicle activation (P > 0.05) compared with the control medium (α-MEM+). Culture in 1 ng/ml leptin with LY294002 decreased the normal follicles and increased apoptosis, inhibited follicle activation (P < 0.05), and reduced p-Akt immunostaining, compared with the medium containing 1 ng/ml leptin without PI3K inhibitor. In conclusion, leptin at 1 ng/ml reduces apoptosis and promotes the activation of primordial follicles compared with the fresh control after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue possibly through the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Responding to recent advances in knowledge about the first arrival of woollen sheep in Europe and linked investigations of textile remains on the Continent, this paper argues that our insight into the role of wool in the English Bronze Age needs rethinking. We argue that the relevant questions are: when did the procurement of and working with wool become a routine aspect of settlement life, and did the change from plant fibres to wool affect communities differently? The paper outlines some of the core research questions we need to consider and points to the necessity of triangulating between the evidence provided by textiles, faunal remains, and textile working tools to reach more comprehensive insights. The paper ends by indicating a further research question – namely whether the apparent differences in the ‘wool economy’ in different parts of Bronze Age Europe may suggest differences in ‘body politics’.
The predator–prey-transmitted cestode Taenia hydatigena infects a wide range of definitive and intermediate hosts all over the world. Domestic and sylvatic cycles of transmission are considered as well. The parasite has considerable economic importance, particularly in sheep. Here, the molecular characters of T. hydatigena cysticerci in sheep from the Nile Delta, Egypt were investigated for the first time. For this purpose, 200 sheep carcasses and their offal were inspected at the municipal abattoir, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Cysticerci of T. hydatigena were collected and molecularly characterized employing the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Cysticerci were found in 42 (21%) sheep, mostly attached to the omenti, mesenteries and livers. After molecular confirmation, nine isolates were sequenced displaying six different haplotypes. Analysis of the T. hydatigena 12S rRNA nucleotide sequences deposited in GenBank revealed 55 haplotypes out of 69 isolates, displaying high haplotype (0.797) and low nucleotide (0.00739) diversities. For the Tajima D neutrality index, a negative value (−2.702) was determined, indicating the population expansion of the parasite. Additionally, global data summarized in this study should be useful to set up effective control strategies against this ubiquitous parasite.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease caused by the species complex of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is endemic in Middle East and the Mediterranean basin, where pastoral activity is widespread. Despite the chronic endemicity of the disease in Lebanon and neighbouring countries, recent data are scant. The objectives of this survey were to evaluate the current epidemiology of CE in Lebanon, investigate the prevalence and determine the infecting genotypes in locally raised sheep and goats. A multidimensional approach combining post-mortem inspection of slaughtered animals and molecular diagnosis of the parasite was conducted to this end. From 2018 to 2020, 62.9% of the sheep and 20.9% of the goats were found positive for CE. The presence of hydatids varied between organs, showing higher prevalence in the liver of sheep vs the lungs of goats, however, a higher fertility rate of hydatid cyst was observed in lungs for both animals. Molecular diagnosis based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene (795 bp) showed that the majority of isolates were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (98.7%) and only one isolate from goat was identified as Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G7; 1.3%). Echinococcus granulosus s.s. population among the sheep and goats was represented by 22 haplotypes having very little genetic differentiation and relatively moderate haplotype diversity. Population demographics explored through neutrality indices suggested expanding population within the intermediate hosts. These results document the high prevalence of CE in the livestock of Lebanon and reveal for the first time the presence of three different genotypes G1, G3 and G7.
The EVOSHEEP project combines archaeozoology, geometric morphometrics and genetics to study archaeological sheep assemblages dating from the sixth to the first millennia BC in eastern Africa, the Levant, the Anatolian South Caucasus, the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia. The project aims to understand changes in the physical appearance and phenotypic characteristics of sheep and how these related to the appearance of new breeds and the demand for secondary products to supply the textile industry.
Pancreatic eurytrematosis (PE) is an under diagnosed and neglected parasitosis in goats and sheep in the Americas. Clinical and pathological features of PE are not well defined in small ruminants worldwide. Natural cases of PE in small ruminants were detected in the Federal District, Brazil. A survey of necropsy records, including epidemiological and clinicopathological data, in goats and sheep was conducted. Most cases of PE occurred during the rainy season in adult females, with an incidence of 12.9% in goats and 0.8% in sheep. Clinical signs varied from asymptomatic infections to anorexia, lethargy, weakness, marked weight loss and death in some goats. Overall, most cases of PE in goats and sheep were incidental necropsy findings with minor pancreatic lesions. Three goats, however, showed severe chronic pancreatitis, dilation of major pancreatic ducts with numerous trematodes present and marked abdominal fat necrosis. Morphological and molecular characterization of flukes detected Eurytrema coelomaticum. Our findings shed light on the prevalence of E. coelomaticum infections in small ruminants in the region and highlight the possibility of severe and lethal cases in goats. PE must be further investigated in small ruminant populations in relevant livestock production regions of the Americas.
The Afterword (“Works and Days and Then Some”) is a miscellany consisting of anecdotes and observations about sustainable living and systems dynamics based on the author's own experiences of raising a family and building a house and a farm from scratch in the midst of intellectual pursuits. It also contains some concluding thoughts on presentisms old and new, and on the enduring ecological value of studying the Classics in an age dominated by the STEM disciplines.
In Germany, sheep are the main source of human Q fever epidemics, but data on Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) infections and related risk factors in the German sheep population remain scarce. In this cross-sectional study, a standardised interview was conducted across 71 exclusively sheep as well as mixed (sheep and goat) farms to identify animal and herd level risk factors associated with the detection of C. burnetii antibodies or pathogen-specific gene fragments via univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Serum samples and genital swabs from adult males and females of 3367 small ruminants from 71 farms were collected and analysed using ELISA and qPCR, respectively. On animal level, univariable analysis identified young animals (<2 years of age; odds ratio (OR) 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.83) to reduce the risk for seropositivity significantly (p < 0.05). The final multivariable logistic models identified lambing all year-round (OR 3.46/3.65; 95% CI 0.80–15.06/0.41–32.06) and purchases of sheep and goats (OR 13.61/22.99; 95% CI 2.86–64.64/2.21–239.42) as risk factors on herd level for C. burnetii infection detected via ELISA and qPCR, respectively.
Addresses the most intense programmatic section of the poem: the delayed proem of Book 12. Rather than reading it in the light of current Quintan scholarship, as an indication of Alexandrian indebtedness, the chapter puts forward a new anti-Alexandrian interpretation. Shows Quintus reconfiguring symbolic imagery from Callimachus’ Aetia to create a pointedly un-Callimachean programme and emphasises the Homeric core of the ‘anti-epic’ voice.
Medicinal plants have been the focus of several studies due to their nematicide properties which can be used to control nematodes in sheep. No study has examined the morphological effects of Cymbopogon citratus on nematodes. Thus, this study evaluated the chemical composition, nematicidal activity and effects of C. citratus extracts on the morphology of eggs and infective larvae (L3) of sheep. Aqueous and methanolic extracts and fractions of C. citratus were obtained and analysed in vitro. The C. citratus extracts were effective against Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. larvae and eggs. Ten fractions were obtained from C. citratus, six of which had high ovicidal activity at 1000 μg mL−1, and two fractions had high activity at all tested concentrations. The phytochemical analysis identified the presence of compounds such as terpenoids, various ketones, esters, and fatty acids. The ultrastructural analysis showed deformations of the cuticle and wilting along the body of the nematodes at all concentrations. The muscular layer, intestinal cells and the mitochondria profile showed damage compared to the typical pattern. Ultra-thin sections of eggs treated with methanolic fractions of C. citratus presented modifications. This study showed the biological activity and effects of C. citratus on the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.
The objectives of this work were (a) to determine the presence of streptococci in samples from small ruminant dairy farms (bulk-tank milk and, where possible, teatcup swabs), (b) to investigate the potential adverse effects of streptococci on milk quality and (c) to investigate the importance of some husbandry factors for the isolation of streptococci. Bulk-tank milk samples and teatcups swab samples were examined bacteriologically for the presence of streptococci. Somatic cell counting and milk composition measurements were also performed. The husbandry factors present in each farm were assessed for potential associations with the isolation of streptococci. Streptococci were isolated from milk samples from 31.4% of sheep and 17.4% of goat farms and from 4.8% of sheep and 5.9% of goat teatcups. Streptococci were isolated more frequently from the upper part than the lower part of teatcups: 5.0% vs. 1.9%. Most isolates (57.9%) were identified as Streptococcus uberis. Most isolates (68.4%) were slime-producing; slime-production was more frequent among isolates from teatcups (83.3%) than from bulk-tank milk (55.0%). Somatic cell counts and milk composition did not differ between farms in which streptococci were or were not isolated. Machine-milking was associated with the isolation of streptococci from bulk-tank milk samples. The initial stage of the milking period (first two months) was found to be associated with the isolation of streptococci from milking machine teatcups in sheep farms only.
Sheep are grazers and goats are intermediate feeders. By employing O2 consumption and heart rate measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and field metabolic rate (FMR) were determined in four male fat-tailed Awassi sheep (44.0 ± 3.94) and four male Baladi goats (35.5 ± 5.42 kg) that were co-grazing natural pasture in the Negev Desert. There were 67.7 ± 3.75 g DM/m2 of herbaceous vegetation biomass, which was rapidly becoming senescent and more fibrous. We hypothesized that FMR of these desert-adapted ruminants would be relatively low when compared to other sheep and goat breeds, as animals in arid areas tend to have low metabolic rates. Both sheep (n = 6) and goats (n = 6) foraged 71% of the allotted 11 h free-pasture period; however, sheep grazed more than goats (P < 0.001); whereas goats browsed more than sheep (P < 0.001). RMR was higher (P = 0.007) in sheep than in goats (529 ± 23.5 v. 474 ± 25.4 kJ/kg0.75 BW/d), but FMR did not differ between species (618 ± 55.7 v. 613 ± 115.2 kJ/kg0.75 BW/d). In addition, the cost of activities, as a proportion of FMR, did not differ between sheep and goats; FMR increased by 89 kJ/kg0.75 BW/d or 17% in sheep and by 138 kJ/kg0.75 BW/d or 29% in goats. In comparing FMRs of sheep and goats in this study with these species in other studies, differences were inconsistent and, therefore, our hypothesis was not supported.
Correct diagnosis of cause of death is necessary to suggest the most effective management interventions to reduce perinatal lamb mortality. Haemorrhage on the surface of the brain has been used as a field diagnostic tool to allocate lambs to a cause of death category, but the usefulness of this method was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate whether gross pathology was related to neuronal death and whether haemorrhage of the central nervous system (CNS) was distinct between differing causes of death, enabling indicators to be used in field diagnoses. Lambs dying from natural causes (n = 64) and from euthanasia (n = 7) underwent postmortem examination, then the brain and spinal cord were extracted and examined histologically. Histological changes consistent with neuronal death were not detected in any lamb. Haemorrhage of the meninges and/or parenchyma of the CNS occurred in all lambs. The age of the haemorrhage indicated that it occurred near the time of death in most lambs. Dilation of blood vessels varied in severity but appeared to be unrelated to causal diagnosis, severity of subcutaneous oedema, breathing or milk status. Moderate or severe dilation of blood vessels and haemorrhage of the CNS did not occur in all lambs with alternative clear indicators of dystocia and occurred in all death classifications, so it could not be used as diagnostic indicators for classification of cause of death. Dilation and haemorrhage were unrelated to neuronal damage and may have been artefactual. In conclusion, haemorrhage of the CNS was not indicative of neuronal damage and could not be used to distinguish between lambs with clear indicators of differing causes of death, so it is not recommended as a field diagnostic tool.
The continuous presence of active male small ruminants prevents seasonal anestrus in females, but evidence of the same mechanism operating from the females to the males is scarce. This study assessed the effects of the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring on ram sexual activity, testicular size and echogenicity, and LH and testosterone concentrations. On 1 March, 20 rams were assigned to two groups (n = 10 each): isolated (ISO) from other sheep, or stimulated (STI) by 12 ewes, which were separated from the rams by an openwork metal barrier, allowing contact between sexes. Each week, four ewes were induced into estrus by intravaginal sponges. Live weight, scrotal circumference, testicular width (TW) and length (TL) were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and testicular volume (TV) was calculated; at the same time, testicular ultrasonography and color Doppler scanning were performed. Blood samples (March to May) were collected once per week for testosterone determinations, and at the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for 6 h at 20-min intervals for LH analysis. Rams were exposed to four estrous ewes in a serving-capacity test. Scrotal circumference, TW and TL were higher in the STI than in the ISO rams (P < 0.05) in May, and TV was higher (P < 0.05) in the STI (391 ± 17 cm3) than in the ISO rams (354 ± 24 cm3). In ISO rams, the number of white pixels was higher (P < 0.01) in May (348 ± 74) than in March (94 ± 21) and differed significantly (P < 0.01) from that of the STI rams in May (160 ± 33). In ISO rams, the number of grey pixels was higher (P < 0.05) in May (107 ± 3) than it was in March (99 ± 1). Stimulated and ISO rams did not differ significantly in mean LH plasma concentrations (0.8 ± 0.5 v. 0.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml), LH pulses (2.1 ± 0.5 v. 2.2 ± 0.2) and amplitude (2.0 ± 0.4 v. 3.2 ± 0.7 ng/ml, respectively). Stimulated rams had significantly higher testosterone concentrations than ISO rams from April to the end of the experiment. Stimulated rams performed more (P < 0.05) mountings with intromission (3.0 ± 0.4) than did ISO rams (1.5 ± 0.5). In conclusion, after 3 months in the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring, rams had higher TV and some testicular echogenic parameters were modified than isolated rams. Although exposed rams also had higher levels of testosterone after 2 months in the presence of estrous ewes, their LH pulsatility at the end of the study was not modified.