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Tolstoy occupies an important but often overlooked place in the development of educational thought, situated between the German pedagogical revolution of the eighteenth century and the proliferation of alternative education movements in the twentieth. Although initially inspired by the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Tolstoy’s educational experiments heralded a novel turn by rejecting educational theory as a foundation for the curriculum altogether. For applying any philosophy of education from above would unjustly impose and interfere with the lives of the Russian people. Instead, Tolstoy set out to facilitate the creation of the peasants’ own approach to schooling through dialogue with his pupils. This radical method has a close relationship with the development of Tolstoy’s literature and philosophy. His educational thought was well ahead of his time, and many of the ethical concerns he raised about mass education are still of pressing import.
Cardiac arrest prevention in schools has recently gained momentum. The survival benefit in schools who have access to defibrillators is clear, with far better survival outcomes in children or adults who sustain a cardiac arrest on school grounds. The main objectives of this study were to assess sudden cardiac arrest prevention in Maltese schools, specifically the availability of defibrillators and staff competence in delivering resuscitation.
Methodology and results
An online based questionnaire was distributed to all secondary schools across the Maltese archipelago. Data was collected, tabulated, and analysed using SPSS V.23. Most schools (n=40, 74.1%) completed the questionnaire.
Two schools documented a cardiac arrest in the past 10 years. 87.5% agreed that cardiac arrest prevention is an important health topic. Most have a defibrillator on the premises (n=37, 92.5%). Only 1 defibrillator is usually available (n=27, 75.0%). Despite the majority claiming its ease of accessibility (n=35, 97.2%), most where not available on every floor (n=37, 97.2%). Only a third were close to a sporting facility (n=11, 30.6%).
Schools do not organise regular resuscitation courses (n=21, 58.3%), with 8 schools having five or more certified staff members (23.5%). The number of defibrillators did not influence the frequency of resuscitation courses at school (p=0.607) and there was no association with the number of certified individuals (p=0.860).
Defibrillators are not readily available at secondary schools and are often installed in low risk areas. Most schools have only one staff member certified in resuscitation. These factors should be addressed with urgency.
This chapter reviews potential concerns of green building, including the environmental impact of the buildings, equity impacts, and environmental justice implications of ecolabeled buildings. These concerns typically revolve around the ultimate environmental impacts of green buildings and the equity implications of how we transition to a greener built environment. Green buildings may not be as green as we expect or want, and price premiums for green buildings work against affordability. Our green market transformation story is not a naïve, romantic, idealized story of perfectly sustainable practices overtaking our foolish old ways. This transformation story is messy, fraught with imperfections, and leaves ample room for improvement. In fact, that is part of the essence of this story: Iterative, ongoing improvements, building momentum toward a more sustainable system. Openly drawing our attention to these concerns and shortcomings can help us turn them into opportunities for continued gain and building on that momentum. Market transformation does not happen overnight, and it does not stop after a singular change. It is an ongoing evolution. This chapter reviews some of the shortcomings and concerns about this otherwise positive evolutionary path for green buildings.
This chapter explores skills and training in archaeology, especially university-level training opportunities. It includes pre-university and school-level training opportunities and fieldwork opportunities, and it addresses accessibility and equality issues in archaeology.
To investigate the content of lunchboxes of primary school children and to examine children’s support and preferences for alternative healthy school lunch concepts.
A cross-sectional study among Dutch children from seven primary schools. The content of the lunchboxes was assessed by photographs. Support and preferences for alternative lunch concepts were examined via a self-reported questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between children’s support and preferences and sex, educational group and migration background.
Primary school children.
A total of 660 children were included (average 9·9 years old). Most lunchboxes contained sandwiches and a drink. Few lunchboxes contained fruit or vegetables. The alternative school lunch concepts elicited mixed support among children. The lunch concepts ‘Sandwiches prepared by the children themselves’ and a ‘hot lunch buffet’ had the highest mean support, while the concept ‘a healthy lunch brought from home’ was the most preferred concept. Small significant differences were observed depending on sex, educational group and migration background.
Lunchboxes of Dutch children contained sandwiches and a drink but rarely fruit and vegetables. Among different alternatives, children reported the highest support for the preparation of their own sandwiches in class or a hot lunch buffet. Future studies should investigate if these alternative lunch concepts improve the dietary intake of children.
Schools can be an effective arena for food education. The Tasty School is a tailored teacher-driven food education model that provides tools for implementing food education in primary schools. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Tasty School model on pupils’ eating patterns and experiences. We also aimed to assess the implementation strength of the Tasty School.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted during one school year 2019–2020 in fifteen intervention and ten control schools. The intervention schools implemented the Tasty School food education model. The pupils completed web-based baseline and follow-up questionnaires in class during a school day. The principals were interviewed after the intervention. The data were analysed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, accounting for the implementation strength and selected standardisation effects.
A total of twenty-five general Finnish primary schools.
1480 pupils from grades 3−6 (age 8–12 years) from five municipalities in Finland.
Percentages of pupils eating a balanced school meal increased in schools where food education was actively implemented (P = 0·027). In addition, pupils’ experience of social participation in school dining strengthened in schools where the Tasty School model was implemented (5-point scale mean from 2·41 to 2·61; P = 0·017).
Healthy eating patterns can be promoted by the active implementation of food education in primary schools. The Tasty School model offers a promising tool for developing healthy eating patterns and increasing social participation among pupils not only in Finland, but also potentially in other countries as well.
Headucate: University of East Anglia, a university student-led society, was founded almost 10 years ago by medical students to promote mental health education and raise awareness and funds for mental health causes.
Headucate aims to spread mental health awareness and reduce stigma by working with schools, universities, other societies and charities internationally.
Headucate delivers workshops for children aged 4-18 in primary and secondary schools, community and youth groups and university students. These sessions were delivered in-person pre-COVID and online as interactive webinars since 2020, to spark discussion around mental health, and provide information about the variety of supports available for young people.
In the past decade, Headucate UEA has grown to become one of UEA’s largest student-led groups boasting over 175 members in 2020-2021 from all courses. Within the online world, Headucate’s events have reached worldwide. The initiative has received national recognition, won national student awards and has expanded to set up three further Headucate branches nationwide. Outreach has accelerated and the school workshops reached over 1,000 students in the past year.
Headucate has grown from strength to strength and has plans to continue to develop, with passionate student drivers behind the project. Expansion of the project could include a national mental health university directory, bringing together like-minded mental health advocate students around the country and creating new Headucate branches across the country. To further develop, Headucate could expand outreach to the elderly community as discussed by previous committee.
During this era educated individuals and professionally trained writers, artists, and composers developed new and distinctive types of cultural products, but they also continued to share many traditions with their less educated neighbors. Universities offered the most advanced education, and increasingly adopted humanist curricula that emphasized original texts. Humanists asserted that educated men should be active in political life, and several wrote important works of political theory. Italian humanists grew interested in Greek philosophy, while northern humanists regarded humanism as a way to bring about needed reforms in the Christian Church. The increase in literacy provided a market for all types of printed books in vernacular languages, and theaters staged the works of playwrights for a variety of audiences. Artists, especially in Italy, developed an innovative style in which they tried to achieve a sense of balance, proportion, and harmony. The word “Renaissance” was first used by authors writing about art in the sixteenth century, who began to see painters, sculptors, and architects as creative geniuses rather than simply artisans. They viewed this as a revival of Europe’s classical past, but art and other aspects of culture were also powerfully shaped by contacts with Asia, Africa, and (after 1492) the Americas.
Paul-Alain Beaulieu examines Mesopotamian Wisdom. While acknowledging that there is no native category of ‘Wisdom Literature’ in Mesopotamia, Beaulieu nonetheless finds it a helpful classification. Within this category are texts of several genres: we find disputations, which begin with a mythological introduction, progress to a verbal contest between non-human combatants, and conclude with the victor pronounced by a god. There are proverbs, found in collections and quoted in letters, as well as fables, often about animals. Instructions and admonitions transmit antediluvian wisdom to postdiluvian generations. Some texts reflect on the problem of theodicy, ruminating on the human-divine relationship and individual divine retribution, while others lament the futility of life and advocate a carpe diem attitude. School debates centralise learning and the scribal arts. These texts are linked by intertextual references and shared features, such as their frequent ascription to individual wise figures, assumption of the absolute and inscrutable power of the gods, and reflection on the human predicament.
Mark Sneed introduces readers to the world of scribes. Drawing first on some of the earliest developments of Sumerian scribalism, he gives an overview of how scribes trained and worked in the ancient Near East more broadly. In Egypt and elsewhere, scribal training began at an early age and involved a wide range of curricula, including wisdom literature, which scribes copied and memorized, as it played a significant role in scribal education. Although concrete evidence for Israelite schools is lacking, Sneed finds reason to believe that similar scribal practices existed there, where wisdom literature too served technical and ethical purposes. Scribes, then, existed in ancient Israel, and for Sneed could be identified in various ways: priests, prophets, and sages. Behind each of these lies the “scribe” as one who composed the texts themselves. Thus Sneed finds far more that is common than different among the biblical materials, wisdom texts included, and conceives of the scribe as holding a wide-ranging professional role in Israel that was not tied down to a single genre of literature.
This chapter concludes the volume’s fourth thematic strand (Cultural Perspectives) with a study of schools and education in the age of William the Conqueror. Utilising the perspective of the long eleventh century, it scrutinises different cultures of schooling in Normandy and England and the relationships that existed between them. This is followed by a discussion on the memory of pre-Conquest English learning in post-Conquest England and a concluding case study of King Harold’s Waltham.
In most societies, many groups and individuals rely on places beyond the scope of the household to live and enjoy their rights, including their rights to water and sanitation. These groups include persons in penal institutions and detention centres, health care professionals and patients who spend long periods in hospitals and health centres, students in boarding schools and workers who are required to spend considerable lengths of time in open workplaces. They also include people who reside in those spheres because of homelessness, people living in poverty who may lack access to water and sanitation in or near their homes and people who work formally or informally in the public spaces of urban areas. More broadly, they include the general public who commute daily.
The ‘PRemIum for aDolEscents’ (PRIDE) project has developed a school-based, transdiagnostic stepped care programme for common adolescent mental health problems in India. The programme comprises a brief problem-solving intervention (‘Step 1’) followed by a personalised cognitive-behavioural intervention (‘Step 2’) for participants who do not respond to the first step.
A mixed-method design was used to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of the stepped care programme in five schools in New Delhi. Participants were N = 80 adolescents (mean age = 15.3 years, females = 55%) with elevated mental symptoms and associated distress/impairment.
61 (76%) of the enrolled sample were assessed following Step 1, from which 33 (54%) met non-remission criteria. Among these 33 non-remitted cases, 12 (36%) opted for Step 2 and five (42%) completed the full programme. The remaining non-remitted cases (n = 21, 64%) opted out of further treatment. Perceived resolution of the primary problem (n = 9, 43%) was the most common reason for opting out. The median time to complete each step was 22 and 70 days respectively, with a gap of 31 days between steps. Qualitative feedback from adolescents and counsellors indicated requirements for a shorter delivery schedule, greater continuity across steps and more collaborative decision-making.
This study provides preliminary evidence for a stepped care programme aimed at common adolescent mental health problems. Modifications are recommended to enhance the acceptability and feasibility of the programme in low-resource settings.
This chapter looks at the abuse and regulation of schools. It begins with a brief history of religion and education law before examining the Trojan Horse Affair which began in 2014 and reverberates today. An extraordinary volume of disinformation encrusts this series of events, which is here related via an outline of the salient facts as drawn from official reports and court cases, with minimal reference to newspaper articles and academic commentary. The related issues of illegal schools and unregulated madrassas are touched on. The theoretical discussion illustrates that liberal individualism views education as a means to emancipate the individual into secularism, while multiculturalism treats it as a means to preserve and perpetuate minority cultures. It concludes that these perspectives fail to take schools seriously as institutions whose primary purpose is to provide as many British children as possible with a good education. The pluralist response points to what the Trojan Horse Affair and education law are really about: ensuring that every school, regardless of classification, is properly regulated, well-governed and capable of rebuffing any threat to its good functioning.
Globally, adolescent self-harm rates remain high, while help-seeking behaviour remains low. School staff are in a position to facilitate access to appropriate care for young people who self-harm (YPS-H), but little is known about gatekeepers’ attributions of self-harm or whether these attributions influence the support they provide. This study investigates the perceived functions of self-harm reported by potential gatekeepers and examines how these compare to the self-reported functions of self-harm in young people; 386 students from postgraduate teaching (n = 111), school counselling (n = 37), and undergraduate psychology (n = 238) programs completed a survey regarding their beliefs about YPS-H, which included the Inventory of Statements about Self-Harm. Responses were compared to those of 281 young people attending treatment at a suicide prevention program who completed the same measure. Preservice teachers, school counsellors and psychology students endorsed all functions of self-harm at a higher rate than treatment-seeking young people themselves. In particular, they endorsed interpersonal functions to a greater extent than the clinical reference group. The potential effect of greater endorsement of interpersonal influence as a function of self-harm gatekeeper’s responding to YPS-H is discussed.
In this chapter I extend insights about the channels of professional continuity discerned in Chapter 4 to focus on the institutions that socialized the next generation of Soviet citizens. I first present Russia-wide data on resilience in education as related to the estates and follow this data analysis with a qualitative account of imperial schooling. Statistical analysis is strongly suggestive of the interconnected human-capital and estate drivers of spatial variations in educational attainment and institutions during the communist period and in the present. To unpack the causal mechanisms behind the statistical patterns, I adapted concepts of institutional drift and conversion to Russia’s post-revolutionary context. Insights from comparative historical analysis into institutional path-dependencies help dissect how the eclectic tapestry of schools catering to Samara’s educated society found its phoenix-like reincarnation in Soviet pedagogy, even when punctuated with closures and reforms. An exercise in historical forensics concerning the Samara Jewish School allows me to dissect some ways in which lower-status pedagogic old-timers capitalized on their new status as Soviet school headmasters. Finally, similar to patterns observed in Samara City, I dissect heterogeneity in demand for and supply of schooling within rural areas.
The increasing inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classes still leads to debate and many advocate for full inclusion of all students. Arguments for full inclusion are generally rights-based, but proponents also claim research supports the effectiveness of full inclusion over specialist provision for all students with disabilities. In this article, we analyse and critique the use of the research literature in an Australian advocacy paper as an example of the broad claims made concerning full inclusion. We examine the extent to which the sources used provide conclusive evidence about the merits of full inclusion. We find the advocacy paper relies heavily on opinion and non-peer-reviewed literature, with little use of quantitative research that compares outcomes for students in different settings. We suggest that policymakers should treat the conclusions drawn in this paper cautiously and give due consideration to the literature that is not supportive of full inclusion.
This study aims at providing estimates on the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in schools and day-care centres. We calculated secondary attack rates (SARs) using individual-level data from state-wide mandatory notification of index cases in educational institutions, followed by contact tracing and PCR-testing of high-risk contacts. From August to December 2020, every sixth of overall 784 independent index cases was associated with secondary cases in educational institutions. Monitoring of 14 594 institutional high-risk contacts (89% PCR-tested) of 441 index cases during quarantine revealed 196 secondary cases (SAR 1.34%, 0.99–1.78). SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk contacts was more likely around teacher-indexes compared to student-/child-indexes (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.17, 1.79–5.59), and in day-care centres compared to secondary schools (IRR 3.23, 1.76–5.91), mainly due to clusters around teacher-indexes in day-care containing a higher mean number of secondary cases per index case (142/113 = 1.26) than clusters around student-indexes in schools (82/474 = 0.17). In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk in educational settings was low overall, but varied strongly between setting and role of the index case, indicating the chance for targeted intervention. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in educational institutions can powerfully inform public health policy and improve educational justice during the pandemic.
Parent-child relationships influence learning throughout a child’s formal schooling and beyond. The quality of parenting children receive has a major influence on their learning and developmental capabilities. Parental influence is important in the early years of life and extends throughout a child’s schooling. Parenting has a pervasive influence on children’s language and communication, executive functions and self-regulation, social and peer relationships, academic attainment, general behaviour and enjoyment of school. Schools can further enhance educational outcomes for students by developing the resources and expertise needed to engage parents as partners in learning. This can be achieved by delivering and facilitating access to a comprehensive system of high-quality, culturally informed, evidence-based parenting support programs. In this article, recent developments in the Triple P system of parenting support are used to illustrate how schools can develop a low-cost, comprehensive, high-quality parenting support strategy that blends universal components with targeted components for more vulnerable children. We identify potential organisational and logistical barriers to implementing parenting support programs and ways to address these.
In this integrative chapter, we summarize insights emerging from the volume as a whole with respect to the main propositions outlined in the introduction, namely, that (a) revenge is part and parcel of children’s and adolescents’ lives, manifesting various normative forms and functions, and (b) throughout childhood and adolescence, revenge can be both a consequence and a predictor of adverse psychological and social processes. In addressing the ways in which these two overarching concerns are woven throughout the chapters in this book, we summarize the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional-level influences on the development of revenge. We conclude with proposed future directions and implications for intervention.