To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Author Marissa A. Harrison, a long-time research psychologist, describes her journey to writing Just as Deadly: The Psychology of Female Serial Killers. She recounts her pathway to conducting research on female serial killers (FSKs) and broadly introduces the concepts, content, and approach to writing this book. She describes her work with fellow researchers in various explorations of the psychology of serial murder and introduces her published work in scientific journals such as Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, and Current Psychology. Harrison describes her team’s work on morbid curiosity and protective vigilance, thought to motivate the great interest in serial murder. Included is a case study of Amy Archer-Gilligan to illustrate how FSKs can be just as deadly as male serial killers (MSKs). The author underscores the mandate for proper attribution of others’ work in scientific writing and her endeavors to provide extensive documentation for all factual information in this book to ensure a science-based presentation.
Our food systems have performed well in the past, but they are failing us in the face of climate change and other challenges. There is a broad consensus that transformation of food systems is required to make them sustainable and equitable for all. Transformation occurs via agents of change: individual behaviour, policies and institutions, research and innovation, and partnerships and alliances. Outcome-oriented agricultural research for development can help bring about directed transformation that maximises benefits and minimises trade-offs.
Transforming our food systems will require changing our innovation systems, in which organisations on agricultural research and innovation can play a crucial role. Key success factors for change can be organised into three dimensions: designing and managing transformative innovations, culture and structures of innovation organisations, and their engagement with the wider innovation ecosystem. Failures are crucial elements of innovation processes. Rapidly testing, sharing, building on, and learning from successful, and failed, innovations are key. This connects to the paradigm ‘Open Innovation 2.0’, which is widely applied in the private sector but not yet applied and evaluated for research and innovation organisations in the public sector or tertiary education. Four key principles emerge, namely big-picture action-oriented thinking, entrepreneurial organisational culture, close attention to partnerships and contexts, and diverse investment portfolios, with different levels of risk. These also imply—and require—the upstream transformation of funding and incentive systems.
Transformation is required in complex food systems to bring about global food security for a well-nourished world population while meeting climate-related challenges. The key is to identify the best levers to achieve change. To this end, food-system transformation has four major interlocking elements: (1) rerouting systems and livelihoods into new trajectories; (2) addressing climate impacts, thereby reducing risks; (3) tackling new environmental issues, for example by reimagining diets and value chains, to lessen emissions; and (4) realigning the ’enablers of change’, such as policies, regulation, finance, and innovation. Eleven specific, concrete actions are proposed to attain these four objectives, with explanations of the goal of each action, the mechanisms to accomplish it, targeted geographic areas, and key stakeholders. Achieving food-system transformation will require annual investments of US$850 billion from now until 2050, with private-sector finance helping to fill current gaps.
The agricultural research for development (AR4D) domain is becoming increasingly complex, and theory of change (ToC) approaches can provide critical guidance through the maze of transformation concerning engagement, partnership, and research. Most of the major benefits that accrue through the use of ToCs relate to internal learning within project teams. Finding the balance between applying a ToC that is both useful and time- and resource-smart is challenging and may need iteration to get right. Quantitative impact assessment methods must be blended with qualitative methods in ToC-based AR4D, so that evaluation becomes about both the process and numbers, while new methods require developing for blended evaluation. The evidence base concerning the efficiency, efficacy, and failings of ToC-based AR4D urgently requires further development and synthesis, and the lessons must be applied broadly.
There have been several calls for transformation in food systems to address the challenges of climate change, hunger, continuing population pressure, and to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although complicated, working across scales and actors is critical for food-system transformation, alongside understanding the entry points. As agricultural research for development (AR4D) is ultimately about farming practices and farmer livelihoods, a focus on the local scale is essential, as in most cases, farms and districts are where the most action is required. Through effective cross-scale work, lessons from local levels can shape the thinking of regional and national governments, as well as the private sector. Involving multiple and ideally nested scales, designing sets of solutions, and developing actionable, fundable, and implementable solutions is likely to provide rich food-system outcomes. Partners need to provide the tools, signals, and resources so that local people, communities, and policy planners are empowered to drive transformation.
Multiple social, systemic, and structural factors threaten our current food systems. Climate change is pushing us to transform these systems, not only to mitigate its impact but also to ensure food and nutrition security and pursue other ecological, social, political, and economic benefits. Research and innovation have a unique value proposition in the context of food-system transformation. By creating, reorienting, and phasing out aspects of our current research systems, we can realise their potential. We can phase out research institutions, mental models, and incentives that are siloed and that promote top-down silver-bullet thinking. Agricultural research for development can also be reorientated to food system research wherein performance is measured based on benefits to users and the ability to scale rapidly. We can also create spaces and matching incentives to catalyse action, imagine shared futures among stakeholders, and support intergenerational allyship and learning.
Animal well-being issues are addressed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) through a variety of agencies and in various formats. Most farmers are good stewards of their animals and will raise them according to societal demands as supported by market choices. Management standards that are perceived to improve upon current practices are being demanded of farmers by buyers of animal products, including corporate restaurant chains and groceries. Professional organisations, USDA, and university representatives, help to address well-being issues and help to create and evaluate standards. The USDA provides leadership in several cooperative programs involving activists and industry, coordinates certification programs, and provides liaisons to multi-state university research committees. A USDA Animal Well-Being Work Group facilitates communications among agency personnel. The USDA developed the Animal Welfare Issues Compendium, a national animal well-being symposium, and cooperates with industry, activists and universities on projects. The USDA provides grant funds for projects that are encouraged to include a component on animal well-being. Special grant funds from Congress have resulted in educational and research projects that complement existing USDA national research and educational initiatives. Regulatory commitments by USDA include the enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.
As zoos have evolved, conservation and conservation education have become primary tasks. To achieve the maximum educational impact, zoos are enriching animal habitats so that their occupants display a wide range of activities that are attractive to the visitor, and unattractive activities are eliminated and reduced. Because public perceptions of the attractiveness of animal behaviour may not coincide with welfare realities, there can be a tension between the requirements of desirable exhibits and those of maximally promoting animal welfare. Zoo animals differ from domesticated animals in human care in several respects. These differences are discussed and set in the context of the sometimes competing aims of enhancing welfare and promoting educational exhibits. An outline history of zoo enrichment programmes suggests that the subject is in need of systematization. The range of data available for improving zoo exhibit designs, and the lives of zoo animals, is reviewed. It is concluded that fundamental data on the environmental needs of many of the wild animals maintained in zoos are deficient in many important areas. Consequently, there is an urgent need to increase such research. Zoo habitats could be excellent places for such fundamental studies, which would feed back into field studies. At the same time, habitat enrichment in zoos cannot await such research and must proceed pragmatically using the range of insights described in this paper. In particular, functional substitution is advocated as a means of enrichment wherever this can be made acceptable to the broad public; its educational value in combatting naive anthropomorphism is stressed. Naturalism in enrichment is criticized as reinforcing anthropomorhisms, but is desirable for promoting global habitat conservation.
Close collaboration between science and industry is essential for the formulation of evidence-based welfare policies. However, there is a need to recognise and manage potential challenges that may arise during collaborative projects. An applied animal welfare science project evaluating the inclusion of welfare outcome measures into UK pig farm assurance, with a view to industry implementation, is used as a case example to illustrate potential challenges. This project encountered difficulties associated with differences in understanding and expectations, discussion of controversial welfare issues, challenges to personal values and conflict between academic and industry outcomes. With the assistance of an independent review conducted during the project, potential solutions were developed and successfully implemented. It is proposed that similar science-industry partnerships should allow sufficient time for dialogue, distinguish between experimental and applied science, ensure sufficient involvement from interested parties and use facilitation techniques to develop consensus.
In this chapter, the focus turns to practical matters as we outline the various ways in which pragmatics can be researched. To answer a pragmatics-focused research question or to investigate the pragmatics of an issue or practice we need two things. We need a theory of pragmatics, and we need data. We take a closer look at theoretical frameworks and the role they play in shaping a piece of research. We then move on to look at the different sorts of data that might be collected as part of a pragmatics research project. We discuss how intuition plays a role in research and how constructed examples can be used to test predictions and to fine-tune our understanding. We discuss free production tasks and judgement tasks, and we look at some examples of pragmatics research that has used transcripts, texts, or corpora for analysis. Finally, we discuss some of the practicalities of research in pragmatics. We think about how to find a topic to investigate, the ethical considerations that must be part of any project plan, and the issue of diversity and bias in research.
Reading is an essential part of learning a language. During my postgraduate (PGCE) teacher-training placement in the UK, I observed extensive reading being used in Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) and English classrooms but saw no evidence for it in the Latin classroom. However, the practice is gaining popularity in the United States as part of Comprehensible Input-based teaching. I was interested to see if extensive reading could be introduced in my classroom without any accompanying spoken Latin and if students would be interested in it. So, I decided to try an extensive reading program for my PGCE research project. The program was positively received by the majority of students, who felt that their Latin ability had improved even after only a handful of sessions, and who appreciated the relatively stressless activity that warmed up their ‘Latin brains’. Many commented that they wanted to read for longer. This very short trial of an extensive reading program gives me much hope for a longer trial or even a permanent program in the future. I also hope that this will encourage others to try bringing extensive reading and its benefits into their classrooms.
Research on society and environment has a rich history that is challenging to access. We define socio-environmental research as structured inquiry about the reciprocal relationships between society and environment. It has evolved from early observational expeditions to today’s data-intensive, interdisciplinary work. We assemble readings from the late 1700s to the mid-1990s to showcase this legacy and organize readings into chapters. Each chapter is introduced by a prominent scholar, who discusses the context key insights. Considered over time, readings suggest certain research themes have endured, forming lineages: a focus on populations and their resource bases, sustainable management of common-pool resources, society and land, technology, and systems. As a guide, this anthology can help new researchers gain a basic vocabulary and overview of different research traditions. Current researchers can learn different ways to conceptualize society–environment relationships, supporting interdisciplinary teams. For specialists in socio-environmental research, the readings can stimulate new questions and illuminate the historic nature of contemporary ideas and concerns.
Extensive health inequities exist for persons with criminal-legal involvement in the USA. Researchers, both novice and experienced, are critical in documenting these inequities and implementing programs that address the many health and social problems of this population. However, working with currently or formerly incarcerated persons brings new challenges to researchers that may have not been previously considered as necessary. Because incarcerated persons were systemically exploited by biomedical researchers until reform following the Civil Rights Movement, resulting in their designation as a vulnerable population in the Code of Federal Regulations, enhanced protections are necessary in implementing contemporary research involving incarcerated persons. These enhanced protections can delay or prolong the regulatory approval process, particularly to the novice carceral system researcher, which may discourage some from engaging with this important population. Drawing on the many years of experience working with incarcerated persons accumulated by the Sexual Health Empowerment (S)HE Team at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC), this article offers some concrete steps toward getting started in this work.
The chapter casts light on the emerging body of law applicable to military experiments on animals. It first shows that these experiments are a large-scale phenomenon, not only because of the number of animals affected by them but also due to harm and suffering inflicted on these animals. It proceeds by providing an overview of two main sets of legal rules that are of relevance in this field: national legal acts and international treaties or other rules of international law. Whereas these rules are primarily designed for civil research, they apply – or could apply – to military experiments as well. Based on the analysis of these two sets of rules, the chapter identifies the main parameters of the gradually emerging legal rules on military experiments on animals, focusing on their scope of application, their content and on the legal consequences of violations.
This article offers a window onto the experience of three researchers who influenced the direction of organic agriculture research from the 1980s through today. Kathleen Delate, Catherine Greene and Deborah Stinner have all contributed important work in the field, from organizing and executing research projects to analyzing the collecting hard data that provided insight into the numerous environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture. Their stories share many similar biographical markers, from the importance of food and nature in childhood memories to trailblazing projects in the early 2000s.
Opportunities offered by precision medicine have long been promised in the medical and health literature. However, precision medicine – and the methodologies and approaches it relies on – also has adverse environmental impacts. As research into precision medicine continues to expand, there is a compelling need to consider these environmental impacts and develop means to mitigate them. In this article, we review the adverse environmental impacts associated with precision medicine, with a particular focus on those associated with its underlying need for data-intensive approaches. We illustrate the importance of considering the environmental impacts of precision medicine and describe the adverse health outcomes that are associated with climate change. We follow this with a description of how these environmental impacts are being addressed in both the health and data-driven technology sector. We then describe the (scant) literature on environmental impacts associated with data-driven precision medicine specifically. We finish by highlighting various environmental considerations that precision medicine researchers, and the field more broadly, should take into account.
The chapter begins by describing the content of the micro and meso levels that make up the ecosystem necessary to promote learning. In the past decades, knowledge generated on quality education has led to “discrete and disruptive” interventions with manageable and disaggregated components that fit into the worldview of the mostly distant donor (a “hawk’s eye” approach). An organically integrated approach is constructively worked out, which provides a framework for analyzing micro and meso levels (a “turtle’s feet” approach). The conceptual framework that structures this knowledge generation includes three areas that define micro and meso institutions: composite history, tangled milieus, and embedded mindsets. This research framework allows for the design and implementation of interventions that fit the ecosystem in a country that drives how things work on the ground. The chapter argues that such a shift in knowledge generation will help to design interventions that enable meso institutions to intervene for consistent and effective teaching and learning to take place in schools in developing countries.
Safe and effective health care underpinned by a sound evidence base is considered the gold standard of quality and compassionate care. Evidence-based practice remains a broad term that is frequently used but not always understood. This chapter explores what evidence-based practice is, why it matters, and the barriers that can hinder its implementation in practice. It is vital that operating department practice is informed, supported, and guided by evidence-based practice.
Paramedicine is an evolving and integral component of the health system, though the profession has historically relied on medicine and nursing to drive a research agenda. Now, with a well-established research presence, still lacking is the formalized role of the clinician-academic. In this opinion piece, the authors detail how paramedic clinician-academics can drive the profession forward, contribute to enhanced patient care, systems design, and staff well-being.