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In this chapter, I set out Merleau-Ponty’s critique of intellectualism, which understands perception proper in terms of the top–down imposition of scientific and proto-scientific concepts on our sensory deliverances by way of judgements. Intellectualism begins with Descartes and is refined in parts of the B edition of Kants First Critique. The scientistic reading of Kant is propounded most notably by Léon Brunschvicg, one of Merleau-Ponty’s early teachers. I outline Merleau-Ponty’s critique, to the effect that intellectualism neglects pre-conceptual perception, motivated attention and action and our early and exploratory acts of learning. It also neglects the singularity of empirical things and of the somatically and cognitively constituting subject. I go on to show how Merleau-Ponty takes up ideas from Kant that are not tied to intellectualist suppositions, including the synoptic synthesis of apprehension, the schemas for pure and empirical concepts, orientation in space, the feeling of perceiving and the productive imagination.
Humans are a highly social species with multiple physiological systems that have evolved specifically for social relating. There is now considerable evidence that the quality of our social relationships has an impact on both physical and mental health. Especially important is the dimension of feeling supported, valued and cared for, as opposed to feeling unsupported, devalued, excluded and uncared for. This chapter explores how compassion-focused therapy is rooted in working with these evolved, care-focused, motivational and physiological regulating systems. It is a therapy that highlights and helps patients to recognise the value of developing a compassionate orientation to themselves and others. The chapter also explores the degree to which some, but not all, spiritualities pursue the same goals, and how spiritual orientations to compassion can – for those with such views – support their progress through therapy.
To motivate the gospel of divine self-sacrifice, Paul proposes a basis for hope in God. This ground is in divine righteous agapē toward humans in their experience, and it anchors, as supporting evidence, not only human hope in God but also divine promises for humans. In Paul’s view, divine epiphany and divine promise belong together as constituents of grounded human hope in God. His view provides a corrective to Jürgen Moltmann’s unduly sharp contrast, in Theology of Hope and elsewhere, between a God of epiphany and a God of promise. The chapter clarifies Paul’s position on an important kind of experience-grounded hope in God neglected by Moltmann and many others. In doing so, it identifies a key role for divine self-sacrifice in grounding human hope in God. The chapter also explains how a kind of fear toward divine self-sacrifice yields an obstacle to hope in God. It distinguishes two kinds of fear of God in order to clarify a command from Paul to fear God. The chapter illuminates why one kind of fear, even when combined with felt abandonment by God, need not yield despair about God’s reality or goodness.
Chapter 10: Motivation for Reading. This chapter explains the critical role of learner motivation for reading development. Research shows that positive motivation improves comprehension both directly and indirectly through greater amounts of extended reading, more effective uses of reading strategies, and greater engagement with reading comprehension processes. Motivation has an important role to play in reading development, and teachers and classroom contexts can have a major impact on student motivation. The chapter reviews the major theories of reading motivation and then focuses more specifically on the research of Guthrie and colleagues, and Schiefele and colleagues. Over the course of decades these researchers have developed key ways to measure motivation and relate motivation specifically to reading development. One consistent major finding is that intrinsic motivation supports amount of reading done by learners, and amount of reading is a major support for reading development. The chapter closes with implications for instruction.
Chapter 18: Extensive Reading. Extensive reading (ER) is understood here as an extensive amount of reading. It is not specifically tied only to enjoyable reading or easy reading, although both of these sources of reading are important. The fundamental idea is that a large amount of understandable input (i.e., within students’ linguistic competence) via reading will develop students’ language and knowledge resources through incidental implicit learning. The benefits of extensive reading emerge over time and is fundamental for developing advanced reading abilities. A large amount of reading (extensive reading) leads to better vocabulary knowledge, better background knowledge, and better reading comprehension. Research in both L1 and L2 of contexts are reviewed, and the role of extensive reading (L2) or amount of reading (L1) is the key foundation for reading development and advanced reading comprehension. The chapter concludes with implications for instruction.
The concept of motivation pervades our professional and personal lives. Motivation is almost impossible to be observed directly, it is a construct for the interpretation of a behaviour that “calls the attention”.
This work reviews the current available data on the phenomenological description of motivation and the abnormalities of motivation.
Non-systematic review of the literature with selection of scientific articles published in the past 10 years; by searching Pubmed and Medscape databases using the combination of MeSH descriptors. The following MeSH terms were used: “motivation”, “psychopathology”, “phenomenology”.
Abnormalities in motivation may involve diminution or exacerbation. Anhedonia is the absence of pleasure in relation to usually pleasurable activities, it occurs in depression and schizophrenia where the pleasurable intrinsic motivation that acts as incentive for behaviour may be lost. In mania it may be increased so that mundane activities become unduly fascinating and rewarding.
Countless theories have been proposed to explain human motivation but each sheds light on specific aspects of motivation, neglecting others. This diversity creates confusion because most theories have areas of conceptual overlap and disagreement. To facilitate the development of studies, an agreement should be achieved on an operational definition of motivation.
After Russia decided to start COVID-19 vaccination of international students who are getting their education on its territory, they received an opportunity to get a single dose of COVID-19 Sputnik Light vaccine. What motives can such international students have for being vaccinated in the situation of uncertainty?
Our goal is to define the structure of motivation for COVID-19 vaccination among international students who are getting education at different departments of the university.
In October 2021, we surveyed 409 international students getting education at Ulianov Chuvash State University in Cheboksary, who agreed to COVID-19 vaccination.
Those who applied for vaccination were mostly 3rd year students (32.03%) and 4th year ones (21.52%). 8 students out of the surveyed (1.96%) had been vaccinated outside Russia, 4 – in Russia (0.98%). 8.56% of the pool had had COVID-19, 57.7% had not, 33.74% could not give a certain answer. Main motives for COVID-19 vaccination were: unwillingness to be ill (57.21%), unwillingness to have any limitations imposed (22.98%), unwillingness, especially of medical students, to have problems in their studies (12.22%), inclination towards following their relatives’ advice (5.13%), desire to follow the surrounding people’s example (1.98%). In personal conversations, the students often expressed their wish for being vaccinated with a 2-component Sputnik V vaccine for a better protection from illness.
The survey of the international students’ motives showed that most of them have positive attitude to COVID-19 vaccination and feel inclined to be vaccinated with a Russian vaccine in order to reduce the risk of getting ill.
This article articulates and defends an underexplored account of faith – the perspectival account of faith – according to which faith is a value-oriented perspective on the world towards which the subject has a pro-attitude. After describing this account of faith and outlining what it is to have faith on the perspectival account, I show that the perspectival account meets methodological criteria for an account of faith. I then show that this account of faith can be used to unify various faith locutions: having faith that p (propositional faith), having faith in something (attitudinal faith), being a person of faith (global faith), articles of faith (creedal faith), and acts of faith (praxical faith). Finally, since the perspectival account of faith is a cognitive account of faith, I defend the perspectival view against objections to cognitive accounts of faith.
Neuroscientific studies of the creative process reveal that artistic ingenuity is not the black box the law supposes it to be. These studies explode several popular myths about art and artists—myths that courts have used to justify their failure to truly interrogate creativity. The courts tend to believe in the creativity of novices, romanticizing the artistic potential of children and the mentally ill. Instead, the science reveals a strong correlation between expertise, learned skills, and creative output. Western societies assume that creativity arrives in a flash of insight, often when the artist is not even thinking about the project at hand; the truth is that creative breakthroughs take sustained effort and motivation. Rather than being incapable of outside understanding, various aspects of creative thought—including the generation of new visual imagery—can now be identified via changes in brain chemistry. The chapter uses copyright cases concerning a variety of works—from fine art to photography to Barbie dolls—to illustrate the flawed ways in which courts try to discern artistic creativity and how they might be reconceptualized in light of neuroscientific discoveries.
This chapter details what a better understanding of the creative process should mean for copyright law. Instead of continuing to avoid any rigorous analysis of creativity, courts should investigate authorial motivation and solicit expertise to help diagnose the presence of the required “creative spark.” These changes would bolster copyright’s role in incentivizing the production of creative works while avoiding awards of copyright to unoriginal artworks. The chapter also explains how to recalibrate design patent law in light of what we understand about audience perception of design. The trier of fact should examine whether a design choice makes the design easier or harder for audiences to process. Design choices to be simpler, more prototypical, or more congruous are already likely sufficiently rewarded by consumer choices in the marketplace and should be presumed to lack the originality needed for design patent protection. Through a series of visual examples from actual design patent cases, the chapter explains how, by analyzing the effect of a design choice on visual processing fluency, courts can stop treating all design differences the same.
This chapter offers a pluralistic analysis of human motivation as an alternative to utility maximization. Its unifying theme is that choices are underpinned by means-end chains where the underlying “end” can be usefully viewed as the desire to be able to predict and control what is going on in one’s life (as argued in personal construct psychology where people are viewed as if they are like scientists). This includes meeting a hierarchy of needs, as Maslow argued: life is out of control if people can’t meet basic survival needs, are finding everything chaotic, can’t find a view of themselves (their identity) on which to build their lives in society (in relation to fashion and status) and cannot explore what they can achieve or engage in activities that fascinate them. This means that consumption can be for creative and/or defensive reasons. Given how sensory systems work, people also need to have novel things to explore. After examining these views of motivation, the chapter describes research tools from personal construct psychology that can be used for uncovering how people see their options and why they are interested in, or wish to avoid, particular aspects of them.
Conservation professionals face cognitively and emotionally demanding tasks and a wide range of working conditions, including high levels of uncertainty (e.g. the socio-political contexts in which they must function, possible long hours and isolation from friends and family). Resilience (i.e. positive adaptation to professional challenges) can help individuals thrive in their roles. We interviewed 22 conservationists with professional experience working in low-income countries with high biodiversity and explored what helped and what hindered them in their work. We used thematic analysis to identify factors related to positive and negative psychological states and strategies to promote resilience at work. The results revealed factors that were associated with positive psychological states, including achievements and recognition for work. Organizational policies and administration, especially perceived unfairness regarding salaries, recruitment policies and promotion, were associated with negative psychological states, as were other factors related to the job context. Respondents shared their professional resilience strategies such as aligning work with one's values, and personal reflection and goal setting. We recommend that organizations support their employees in the process of building resilience by addressing basic needs and motivational factors.
As a new immigrant to Canada, Marie-Paule Lory lived the popular “Canadian experience,” including learning and working with English-speaking researchers. Her vision of multilingualism in Ontario is to address the "threat" to the sustainability of the French language while taking the risk of changing teacher practices in multilingual classrooms.
The main message of this chapter is that vocabulary teaching has only a limited role to play in the learning of vocabulary (no more than one-quarter of one of the four strands of a course), and teachers need to be careful not to overplay this role at the expense of the time available for the deliberate learning and incidental learning of vocabulary. In this chapter, the role of teaching is very narrowly defined, and it is used to refer to the teacher deliberately teaching vocabulary. The conditions needed for vocabulary learning are carefully examined and two approaches to evaluating vocabulary teaching activities, involvement load and technique feature analysis, are described and applied. The chapter includes a range of practical activities for teaching words, including concordancing and computer-assisted vocabulary learning. These different activities are related to the various aspects of knowing a word.
Responding to calls for more knowledge about the motivations (and changing motivations) of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs), this qualitative research examines 58 Australian SIEs working in culturally (dis)similar host contexts, to address the question: Why are Australian SIEs motivated to expatriate to South Korea or the United Kingdom? The findings demonstrate that, although personal/lifestyle considerations are important to SIEs, career-related considerations are either primary or become more prevalent following expatriation. The findings reveal that, while SIEs expatriate with particular motivations, over time their motivations may change as other factors determine desire to stay/leave a host country. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), the research highlights variations in extrinsic and intrinsic motivations of SIEs including those who intended to utilise their expatriation as part of a boundaryless career and those who unintentionally found themselves focused on career. Knowledge of (changing) motivations is salient to organisations' selection decisions and support for international employees.
The chapter distinguishes serial lust killing from other forms of serial killing, such as those motivated by attention-seeking, revenge or material gain. However, it notes that other motivations such as those reflected in mission-killing and ego-boosting can combine with killing motivated by sexual desire. It also distinguishes serial lust killing from mass killing and spree killing. The notion of motivation is key to understanding lust killing as the behaviour is guided by a clear purpose and intention, such as to obtain sexual pleasure by the exertion of dominance over a victim. Most serial lust killers are not judged to be insane and are thereby held accountable by law. The chapter rejects the dichotomies of nature versus nurture and social versus biological, suggesting that such killing can only be understood in terms of a dynamic biology-social interaction. The importance of the acquisition of control is described.
The motivation underlying lust killing normally arises from a merging of desires for sex and dominance. Although anger is a negative emotion, aggression has properties of an appetitive activity. Heterosexual lust killers generally have a grievance against women. Homosexual lust killers appear to be unhappy about their sexual orientation, often because of taunting. A distinction is drawn between affective and predatory aggression. An act of killing is commonly preceded by taking alcohol or illegal drugs, viewing violent pornography or acute stress, such as a fight with a partner. Brains are a hybrid of regions old in evolution and development and regions that are new. A Go-System, also known as a behavioural activation system, employs dopamine and underlies engagement with incentives. This system is strongly activated by the prospect of reward in individuals high on a psychopathy score. Sex differences in sexual violence are discussed in terms of brain processes.
Infant and under-five mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be reduced by encouraging behaviours such as sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets, exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months, regular handwashing, etc. Community-based volunteer or peer-to-peer mechanisms are cost-effective ways of promoting these lifesaving practices. However, the sustainability and reach of community-based behaviour change promotion remains a challenge. Our inquiry focuses on the utilisation, by non-governmental organisations (NGO), of Care Groups, a peer-to-peer behaviour change intervention. We asked: What are the mechanisms and contexts by which Care Groups achieve social and behavioural change in nutrition, health and other sectors?
Realist synthesis reviewing forty-two texts that contained empirical evidence about Care Group interventions.
We held consultations with a research reference group, which included Care Group and nutrition experts, and Care Group – implementing NGO staff in Malawi.
Different types of motivation drive the establishment and the sustainability of peer group interventions. A certain amount of motivation was derived from the resources provided by the NGO establishing the Care Groups. Subsequently, both volunteers and neighbourhood group members were motivated by the group dynamics and mutual support, as well as support from the wider community. Finally, volunteers and group members alike became self-motivated by their experience of being involved in group activities.
When designing and implementing community-based behaviour change interventions, awareness of the multi-directional nature of the motivating drivers that are experienced by peer- or community group members is important, to optimise these groups’ reach and sustainability.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest or pleasure in activities – is a core self-reported symptom of depression which is poorly understood and often resistant to conventional antidepressants. This symptom may occur due to dysfunction in one or more sub-components of reward processing: motivation, consummatory experience and/or learning. However, the precise impairments remain elusive. Dissociating these components (ideally, using cross-species measures) and relating them to the subjective experience of anhedonia is critical as it may benefit fundamental biology research and novel drug development.
Using a battery of behavioural tasks based on rodent assays, we examined reward motivation (Joystick-Operated Runway Task, JORT; and Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task, EEfRT) and reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test) in a non-clinical population who scored high (N = 32) or low (N = 34) on an anhedonia questionnaire (Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale).
Compared to the low anhedonia group, the high anhedonia group displayed marginal impairments in effort-based decision-making (EEfRT) and reduced reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test). However, we found no evidence of a difference between groups in physical effort exerted for reward (JORT). Interestingly, whilst the EEfRT and Sweet Taste Test correlated with anhedonia measures, they did not correlate with each other. This poses the question of whether there are subgroups within anhedonia; however, further work is required to directly test this hypothesis.
Our findings suggest that anhedonia is a heterogeneous symptom associated with impairments in reward sensitivity and effort-based decision-making.