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In this introductory chapter, we present the motivation behind the book and the approach that we follow. We also outline the contents of the six chapters, give a brief history of platforms, and provide a preliminary discussion of the concepts of network effects and economies of scale.
Apathy, a disabling and poorly understood neuropsychiatric symptom, is characterised by impaired self-initiated behaviour. It has been hypothesised that the opportunity cost of time (OCT) may be a key computational variable linking self-initiated behaviour with motivational status. OCT represents the amount of reward which is foregone per second if no action is taken. Using a novel behavioural task and computational modelling, we investigated the relationship between OCT, self-initiation and apathy. We predicted that higher OCT would engender shorter action latencies, and that individuals with greater sensitivity to OCT would have higher behavioural apathy.
We modulated the OCT in a novel task called the ‘Fisherman Game’, Participants freely chose when to self-initiate actions to either collect rewards, or on occasion, to complete non-rewarding actions. We measured the relationship between action latencies, OCT and apathy for each participant across two independent non-clinical studies, one under laboratory conditions (n = 21) and one online (n = 90). ‘Average-reward’ reinforcement learning was used to model our data. We replicated our findings across both studies.
We show that the latency of self-initiation is driven by changes in the OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate, for the first time, that participants with higher apathy showed greater sensitivity to changes in OCT in younger adults. Our model shows that apathetic individuals experienced greatest change in subjective OCT during our task as a consequence of being more sensitive to rewards.
Our results suggest that OCT is an important variable for determining free-operant action initiation and understanding apathy.
We aimed to identify unmet treatment needs for improving social and occupational functioning in early schizophrenia using a data-driven causal discovery analysis.
Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial measures were obtained for 276 participants from the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) trial at baseline and 6-months, along with measures of social and occupational functioning from the Quality of Life Scale. The Greedy Fast Causal Inference algorithm was used to learn a partial ancestral graph modeling causal relationships across baseline variables and 6-month functioning. Effect sizes were estimated using a structural equation model. Results were validated in an independent dataset (N = 187).
In the data-generated model, greater baseline socio-affective capacity was a cause of greater baseline motivation [Effect size (ES) = 0.77], and motivation was a cause of greater baseline social and occupational functioning (ES = 1.5 and 0.96, respectively), which in turn were causes of their own 6-month outcomes. Six-month motivation was also identified as a cause of occupational functioning (ES = 0.92). Cognitive impairment and duration of untreated psychosis were not direct causes of functioning at either timepoint. The graph for the validation dataset was less determinate, but otherwise supported the findings.
In our data-generated model, baseline socio-affective capacity and motivation are the most direct causes of occupational and social functioning 6 months after entering treatment in early schizophrenia. These findings indicate that socio-affective abilities and motivation are specific high-impact treatment needs that must be addressed in order to promote optimal social and occupational recovery.
This chapter focuses on the language learner and emphasises the importance of a classroom which is inclusive and which, at the same time, caters for learner differences. It discusses aptitude, how learners vary considerably in terms of the strengths that they bring to the language classroom, and how experienced teachers will usually have some understanding of the particular strengths of individual students. It stresses the importance of variety in the language classroom in terms of catering to individual differences in learning, but also considering students’ interests and preferences as well as strengths and needs. It explores some of the recent thinking about language learning motivation, and learner engagement, drawing from both applied linguistics and educational psychology. There is an emphasis on the importance of positive classroom language learning experiences, illustrated through examples from classrooms and the voices of students and teachers. Some of the types of special learning needs or ‘differences’ a teacher may encounter in the language classroom are outlined. General principles for accommodating these learners, illustrated with classroom examples, are presented.
Drawing from research in educational psychology and in applied linguistics, this chapter profiles adolescents’ social maturation and their developmental needs. It explores how this time of transition towards greater independence has implications for teaching and learning. It focuses on the key characteristics of a supportive learning environment, and illustrates these through examples from classrooms and the voices of teachers and students. It discusses the impact of teacher expectations and it describes the complementary roles that teachers and peers play. It highlights the importance of positive classroom relationships. It discusses how teachers need to provide adolescent language learners with activities that match their interests and encourage them to engage in the learning process. The chapter concludes by describing the successful classroom as one that provides a balance of challenge and support.
In this chapter, I begin to develop an account of why psychopaths are unable to see other people as sources of value, a claim that is necessary for the central argument of the book as developed in Chapter 3. Having described psychopathy as a condition characterised primarily by emotional deficiencies, I look to the emotions for evidence of why psychopaths are as they are. I consider the three main philosophical theories of the emotions – cognitivist, ‘feeling’ and perceptualist theories – before settling on a hybrid account, according to which emotions are complexes of thought and feeling. Based on this, I interrogate the relationship between emotions and value, suggesting that emotions play a role in our ability to ascribe value to things in the world. I then trace the implications of these conclusions for the ability of psychopaths, given their emotional deficiencies, to engage evaluatively with the world.
The word motivation derives from the Latin movere, which means to move. In psychiatry, it is an isolated phenomenon found in the substrate of several pathologies, and may be part of an heterogeneous dimensional spectrum. However, there is no unique definition for it, nor a targeted approach. In addictive disorders motivation gains a fundamental role, both as a precipitant of abuse as in its withdrawal.
To review the literature about the concept of motivation and its implications on the psychopathology, especially on addictive disorders.
Narrative review on PubMed/MEDLINE, using the keywords “motivation” AND “psychopatology” AND “addiction”. Articles in English and Portuguese were included.
Three main perspectives were found addressing the concept of motivation in psychopathological terms: psychological, neurobiological and phenomenological. The first describes motivation as the energizing of behaviour in pursuit of a goal. Neurobiology says motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine. In phenomenological terms, the concept stands for the web of solicitations that make a certain situation feel in a certain way for the subject. In addictive disorders, learning about what leads to reward, exaggeration in representing those values, and dominance in being guided by those representations lead to alterations on motivation mechanisms.
Motivation is described from different perspectives. Although it is recognized as a fundamental piece in addictive disorders, besides motivational interview model, there are no pharmacological approaches aimed to improving motivation. The recognition of motivation as a concrete psychopathological alteration, and its measure through psychopathological instruments, could optimize the patient’s approach.
Reduced motivation in schizophrenia is expressed is as the reduction of activity and social functioning.
Assessment of motivation in patients with schizophrenia and development to their psychosocial treatment.
Clinical, psychometric (URICA, PSP, PANSS), statistical. Included 100 patients diagnosed with schisophrenia F.20-29(ICD-10) with various levels of deficit.
The analysis showed the connection between the intensity of negative disorders of the patients with the level of their motivations: in the group of patients with severe deficiency (pseudoorganic), a decrease in the level of motivation was found: the score of the «Precontemplation» stage of the URICA scale (56.20 ± 9.29) was higher (P <0.001). Patients with moderate deficit (diminished schizoid) changes were distinguished by high motivation, high scores on the «Action» (49.34 ± 8.22, P <0.005) and «Maintenance» scale (52.43 ± 10.51, P <0.005). A negative correlation was established between the indicators of patient motivation and the PANSS scale: will disorders (r = -0.75, P <0.01), social withdrawal (r = -0.64, P <0.01), blunted affect (r = -0.62, P<0.005), etc. High positive correlation found between motivation rating and PSP scores in socially activity (r = 0,74, P <0,005) and social relationships (r = 0,65, P <0,01). We have developed a comprehensive program of psychosocial treatment, including compliance therapy, motivational, cognitive and social skills training, destigmatization actions and an assessment of its effectiveness.
The developed rehabilitation program showed high efficiency: increasing motivation, reducing self-stigmatization, developing communication skills, improving social functioning and cognitive sphere in patients with schizophrenia.
Apathy is a quantitive reduction of goal-directed activity either in behavioural, cognitive, emotional or social dimension in comparison to the person’s previous level of functioning in these areas. Apathy is prevalent across many neurodegenerative, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. It represents the most common behavioural and psychological symptom in people with Alzheimer’s Disease and is often observed in Parkinson’s disease, vascular dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, major depression, and schizophrenia. However, the definition and terminology employed to refer to apathy can vary in the context of different conditions and specialities and the diagnostic criteria have evolved. Additionally, the term apathy is employed to describe both a symptom and a syndrome. Indeed, little progress has been achieved in assessing the validity of the same construct across different disorders (eg. neurodegenerative disorders, schizophrenia or affective disorders). In 2018, a new version of the diagnostic criteria for apathy (DCA) in neuropsychiatric disorders was published. The validity of this new consensus has yet to be assessed among all relevant populations, including schizophrenia. Six European centres (Naples, Geneve, Nice, Rennes, Barcelona, Cambridge) aimed to test the prevalence of apathy, measured with the 2018 DCA, in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. As a second aim, we focused on the relationship between DCA and other measures of apathy and negative symptoms in schizophrenia (BNSS and PANSS). In this talk, we will compare the preliminary findings of this pan-European study in schizophrenia patients with previous studies on neurodegenerative disorders.
Social Physique Anxiety is defined as an emotional response that reflects individuals’ concerns regarding the way their body may be observed or judged by others.
To explore the relationship between physical activity and social physique anxiety.
A literature review haw been made through pubmed database.
Social Physique Anxiety is negatively related to participation in physical activity and commitment to exercise. Studies examining the relationship between motivation and social physique anxiety have shown that external motivations, such as improving muscle tone and body attractiveness, are directly linked to social physique anxiety. In addition, social physique anxiety is negatively related to self-efficacy. Individuals who believe that they will be judged by others to be ineffective are less likely to be engaged in physical activity programs. Social Physique Anxiety has been linked to negative effects on mental health such as low self-esteem, smoking and eating disorders.
Given all the negative effects of social physique anxiety, as it is responsible for a wide range of health-related behaviors, it is important to identify physical activity-related motivational mechanisms in order to reduce the impact of social physique anxiety.
Psychiatric patients often are self-stigmatized and hardly involve in the treatment.
Associations of self-stigmatizing beliefs in psychiatric inpatients and their treatment motivation.
63 inpatients; ICD-10: F2–65%, F3–13%, F4+F6–14%, F06–8%; mean age 34±13, illness duration 12±11 years. Treatment Motivation Assessment Questionnaire (TMAQ), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI); K-mean cluster analysis; dispersion analyses; p≤0.05.
18 patients of cluster 1 (C1) demonstrated explicit self-stigmatization. In comparison with 25 subjects from cluster 3 (C3) stigmatized patients (C1) had higher levels of overall ISMI scores (2.9±0.3) caused by alienation (3.1±0.5), stereotype endorsement (2.5±0.5), social withdrawal (2.7±0.4), and discrimination experience (2.7±0.4). 20 patients of cluster 2 (C2) had an implicit stigma. They were more self-stigmatized (ISMI score 2.7±0.3) in contrast with subjects from cluster 3 (1.9±0.2) due to a lower level of stigma resistance (C2: 3.8±0.5 and C3 3.1±0.6 – reverse scores). Patients with implicit self-stigma (C2) had the lowest intensity of treatment motivation (Z-scores -1.2±0.6) compering with others (C1 and C3) due to the lowest TMAQ factor 1 (reliance on own knowledge and skills to cope with the disorder: -1.0±0.6) and factor 4 (willingness to cooperate with doctor: -0.9±1.0). Differences between explicitly and implicitly stigmatized patients manifested also in lower TMAQ factor 3 for the second group (awareness of the psychological mechanism of maladaptation: -0.5±0.9).
Despite alienation, stereotype endorsement, social withdrawal, discrimination experience some patients could sustain stigma due to cooperation with doctors and reliance on their own knowledge and skills to cope with illness.
Motivation is an important indicator of predicting an adult’s commitment to exercise so it is important to explore the reasons that may lead a person to participate in physical activity programs.
To investigate the socio-demographic and psychological parameters that motivate adults to participate in exercise programs and athletic activities.
245 adults, being engaged in physical activity programs were given a questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, possible previous problems with body weight, type of exercise, frequency and main reason for their participation in exercise programs, as well as the somatometric characteristics of the participants.
It is noteworthy that participants’ motive for exercise was pleasure (for 46.1% of the participants), championship (for 20.8% of the participants), health reasons (for 18.4% of the participants), weight loss (for 7.8% of the participants) and improvement of physical appearance (for 6.9% of the participants). A greater percentage of male compared to female participants were engaged to exercise due to championship reasons, while more women than men exercised to a statistically significant extent in order to improve their appearance and for health reasons.
Understanding the main factors that make individuals being engaged to physical activity may help health professionals to implement educational and counseling intervention programs regarding the positive effects of exercise on individuals’ mental and emotional health. Physical activity contributes to the improvement of their quality of life, which may be the most important issue for mental and public health.
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is characterized by repeatedly losing control over eating behavior and consuming large amounts of food within a short period of time. In later years, a growing body of evidence for effectiveness of internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (iCBT) as treatment for BED has emerged. Regarding the ability to complete a self-help program on the internet, internal self-regulation can be viewed as important.
To qualitatively explore patient motivations for seeking therapy for BED according to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as patient reasons for seeking online therapy.
The research design of this study was qualitatively. The participants were 52 adults suffering from mild to moderate BED. Data consisted of written texts entered by the participants into the online therapy program. The texts addressed the participants’ goals for their treatment course and their motives for seeking online therapy. The texts were analyzed by the means of systematic text condensation.
Pertaining patient motivations for seeking therapy for BED, five main motivations that reached a saturated level in the sample were discovered: wish for control; avoidance of guilt/shame; desire for tools/insights; weight loss; and psychological stress. Participants ranged from one motivational factor to four, no participant had all the motivational factors. Regarding patient reasons for seeking online therapy, the following themes including sub themes were found: online treatment, treatment at home, and flexible treatment.
The results indicate that online therapy for BED may be able to breach some of the barriers there are towards treatment seeking.
Acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration in humans (Lawn etal., 2016) and rats (Silveira, Adams, Morena, Hill, & Winstanley, 2016) has been associated with decreased effort allocation that may explain amotivation during acute cannabis intoxication. To date, however, whether residual effects of cannabis use on effort-based decision-making are present and observable in humans have not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to test whether prolonged cannabis use has residual effects on effort-based decision-making in 24-hr abstinent cannabis using adults.
We evaluated performance on the Effort Expenditure for Reward Task (EEfRT) in 41 adult cannabis users (mean age = 24.63 years, 21 males) and 45 nonusers (mean age = 23.90 years, 19 males). A mixed 2x3x3 ANOVA with age as a covariate was performed to examine the effect of group, probability of winning, and reward amount on EEfRT performance. EEfRT performance was operationalized as % of trials for which the hard (vs. easy) condition was chosen. Pearson’s correlations were conducted to test the relationship between EEfRT performance and measures of cannabis use, anhedonia and motivation.
We found that cannabis users selected hard trials significantly more than nonusers regardless of win probability or reward level. Frequency of cannabis use was positively correlated with amount of % hard trials chosen. There were no significant correlations between % hard trials chosen, self-reported anhedonia, or motivation.
These results suggest that unlike acute effects, residual effects of cannabis following 24 hrs of abstinence are associated with greater effort allocation during effort-based decision-making.
Reduced motivation is often noted as a consequence of cannabis use. However, previous work has yielded mixed results and focused largely on adults. To address these limitations, this study examined longitudinal associations between cannabis use and self-reported motivation in a large adolescent sample.
Participants were 401 adolescents aged 14–17 at baseline who completed five bi-annual assessments. We assessed motivation at three timepoints using two self-report questionnaires: the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the Motivation and Engagement Scale (disengagement, persistence, planning, self-efficacy, and valuing school subscales). Controlling for relevant covariates, we used latent growth curve modeling to characterize patterns of cannabis use and motivation over time, examining bidirectional influences between these processes.
On average, adolescent cannabis use frequency increased significantly over time. The disengagement and planning facets of motivation also increased significantly over time, whereas other aspects of motivation remained stable. At baseline, greater cannabis use was associated with greater disengagement, lower planning, and lower valuing of school. Greater baseline cannabis use also predicted lesser increases in disengagement over time. After controlling for the effect of sex, age, depression, and use of alcohol and nicotine, only the baseline association between cannabis use and valuing school remained significant.
Our results do not support a prospective link between cannabis use and reduced motivation among adolescents. Although most observed associations were accounted for by covariates, greater cannabis use was cross-sectionally associated with lower perceived value of school, which may contribute to poorer educational and later life outcomes.
Socrates was a motivational intellectualist, which means that he believed that all actions follow the agent’s belief about what is best at the time of acting. This intellectualism entails that all human ethical error involves cognitive error. How do people come to have false ethical beliefs, and how can the processes of evaluative belief-formation be made more reliable? Explores the Socratic account of different etiologies of evaluative belief-formation in such a way as to explain human error but also to indicate ways to improve one’s ability to make appropriate ethical judgments. Discusses the role of punishment in improving one’s ethical condition, not just by causing suffering, but by changing the ways in which a wrongdoer generates and sustains evaluative beliefs.
This long chapter covers three very well-known ways of selection. The first is the interview, which is used almost universally as well as expected by candidates. The chapter looks at different types of interviews, especially the difference between structured and unstructured interviews. It also considers problems of impression management as well as the role of the personality of interviewers. Developments in automated/digital interviews is reviewed. The second section considers the very big topic of personality tests and focuses on bright- and dark-side tests as well as attempts to measure ‘high-flyers’. It also looks at the measurement of integrity, motivation and strengths. Whilst there have been many developments in how tests are delivered (i.e. through mobile phones), there has been much less progress in theory development. One aim is to help the reader make better decisions on the choice of the thousands of tests available. Thirdly, the literature on projective techniques is reviewed, including the famous Thematic Apperception test, and sentence completion. Whilst the appeal of these tests is great, the evidence for their validity is weak.
The focus of this chapter is on the importance of identifying the various incentives that promote self-control. Indeed, whether intrinsic or extrinsic, those reasons can provide numerous insights into how we can incite action to facilitate goal pursuit. Importantly, the issue of motivation is expansive, but the simple exercise of identifying the fundamental reasons driving our goals offers invaluable insight into the incentives that motivate us to satisfy those reasons and manifest our goals across a range of circumstances.
Chapter 5, Emotion, Cognition, and Engagement in GLL, builds upon the psychological, cognitive, and neurobiological evidence spotlighted in previous chapters to show how thought, emotion, and action come together in pursuit of, and in response to, L2 acquisition and experience.
Because commitment and fortitude are needed in long-term language acquisition, this chapter focuses on emotional processes primarily related to goal-directedness, which activates what we think of as cognitive constructs – self-concept, motivation, mindset, imagination – that set the course. Closely connected to emotional processing, it is these aspects of the individual that guide intentional actions, thereby shaping and sustaining that long-term process. Interview data from gifted L2 learners illustrate how this works in terms of emotion regulation, upholding attention to accuracy, while also sustaining their deep investment in the target language. Chapter 5 makes clear that gifted language learners navigate their individual challenge through a balance of social, emotional, and cognitive support systems, none of which stand apart from nature or nurture.
Multiphase flows refer to the flows with distinctively different dynamic responses of each phase in the transport and phase interactions that impact the transport phenomena. Aimed to serve as an educational, learning-oriented text that introduces multiphase flows to engineering students, advanced researchers, and other readers, this unified textbook methodically encompasses a broad range of the important elements of knowledge in the multiphase flow field, along with sufficient theoretical and applied details in a manner suitable to both introductory and advanced level learning in an instructional setting. The book has twelve chapters, with six on a systematic introduction of multidisciplinary fundamentals critical to understanding multiphase flows, two on the numerical methods and experimental techniques of multiphase flows, and four on selected subjects of multiphase flow systems. Aided with ample examples and problems in each chapter (with available solution manual), this book can be used for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in many engineering disciplines including mechanical, power, chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and process system engineering.